Oil spills


On the environmental side, it turns out that the surfaces of oceans and lakes are usually coated with natural films, mainly glycoproteins [8]. As they are biological in origin, the extent of such films seems to be seasonal. Pollutant slicks, especially from oil spills, are of increasing importance, and their cleanup can present interesting surface chemical problems.  [c.104]

Oil Shale Trust Fund Oil slick Oil slicks Oil spills  [c.699]

Sea. Cmde oil spills at sea are perhaps the most widely covered environmental incidents in the national and international media. Despite their notoriety, catastrophic tanker spills and well blow-outs are fortunately rather rare, and their total input into the world s oceans is approximately equivalent to that from natural seeps significantly more oil reaches the world s oceans from municipal sewers (11). Physical collection of the spilled oil is the preferred remediation option, but if skimming is unable to collect the oil, biodegradation and perhaps combustion or photooxidation are the only routes for elimination of the spik. One approach to stimulating biodegradation is to disperse the oil with chemical dispersants. Early dispersants had undesirable toxicity, but modem dispersants and appHcation protocols can stimulate biodegradation by increa sing the surface area of the oil available for microbial attachment, and perhaps providing nutrients to stimulate microbial growth (12). Patents have been issued for dispersant formulations that specifically iaclude nitrogen and phosphoms nutrients (13), but the products are not currently commercially available.  [c.29]

Betweea 1985 and 1991, 1726 natural gas pipeline mptures and leakages were reported ia the United States. These incidents resulted in 634 injuries and 131 fataUties. Third-party damage was the most common cause of these incidents, followed by corrosion. The GAO beheves that the corrosion-related incidents can be reduced with the use of smart pigs (46). U.S. DOT 1992 accident statistics showed that 52.5% of U.S. oil spills involving loss of at least 1590 m came from pipeline accidents, comparable to the worldwide statistic of 51.5%. The U.S. DOT regulated 344,575 km of Hquids pipelines during the 10-yr study period and received reports on 1901 accidents duriag that time thus the number of failures per year per 1000 miles was 0.888, of which 27% was due to corrosion and 31% to outside forces (48).  [c.51]

The Federal Water ToUution ControlA.ct A.mendments of 1972 (62) estabhshed limits for cement plant effluents including water mn-off from manufacturiag faciUties, quarrying, raw material storage piles, and wastewater. Compliance with these standards has required constmction of diversion ditches for surface water, ponds for settling and clarification, dikes and containment stmctures for possible oil spills, and chemical water treatment ia some cases. Siace the cement iadustry obtaias most of its raw material by quarryiag, the standards for the mineral iadustry also apply.  [c.293]

Birds. In avian populations, organochlorine-associated suppression of T-cell mediated immune response has been found in herring gull and Caspian tern colonies adjacent to the Great Lakes in Northern America.In the most severe cases, immune response was suppressed by up to 50%. Similarly, seabirds exposed to petrochemicals from oil spills have been found to have suppressed immune function. "  [c.74]

Finally, recognition of the deleterious effects of marine pollution has led to a variety of control strategies. These strategies can be legal or technological in nature, but have usually been reactive responses to a pollution event. Thus, there is a notable ongoing effort to develop technologies to remediate polluted marine environments, particularly following oil spills. In the same vein, legislation has been introduced, both nationally and internationally, to limit known sources of contamination. The efforts by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are notable in this regard with respect to limiting pollution from ships. However, the approach has been changing to become proactive in character. Essentially, the hard-learned lessons from DDT and TBT have instilled caution, for instance in the introduction of new antifouling agents in marine paints. This cautionary approach places greater reliance on risk assessment procedures and cost-benefit analyses. Present and future challenges rest with the need to identify the  [c.82]

Chemical transformations of oil are evoked through photochemical oxidation and microbial biodegradation. Not only is the latter more important in nature, blit strategies can be adopted to stimulate biological degradation, consequently termed bioremediation. All marine environments contain microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil. Furthermore, most of the molecules in crude oils are susceptible to microbial consumption. Oil contains little nitrogen or phosphorus, and as a result, microbial degradation of oil tends to be nutrient limited. Bioremediation often depends upon on the controlled and gradual delivery of these nutrients, while taking care to limit the concurrent stimulation of phytoplankton activity. Approaches that have been adopted are the utilization of slow-release fertilizers, oleophilic nutrients, and a urea-foam polymer fertilizer incorporating oil-degrading bacteria. Bioremediation techniques were applied successfully in the cleanup of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez accident. Alternative bioremediation procedures relying on the addition of exogenous bacteria have still to be proved. Similarly, successful bioremediation of floating oil spills has yet to be demonstrated.  [c.84]

Legislation and economic factors may aim to prevent marine pollution. Nevertheless, contamination is inevitable and technological solutions to mitigating the impacts have been developed. This is especially the case for oil pollution, which inevitably receives considerable press attention. Accidental oil spills at sea do occur and frequently impact shoreline environments. Petroleum pollutants can be removed by microbial degradation. Although bacteria and fungi capable of degrading many oil components exist in the marine environment, natural rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are usually limited by abiotic environmental  [c.90]

Marine pollution takes many forms. A few case examples have been described here with the objective to portray the diversity of contamination. Many types, locations, and impacts can be contemplated, but some characteristics are universal. On a positive note, there are many mechanisms for preventing pollution and mitigating long-term adverse effects. Thus, national legislation and international conventions provide considerable protection from both land- and sea-based sources of pollution. Economic forces can be used to control pollution, either via governmental intervention in the form of taxation or through corporate environmentalism. In the inevitable consequence of marine pollution events, bioremediation strategies have successfully aided shoreline recovery from oil spills. This held is still evolving, with the major challenge of cleaning spills at sea still remaining.  [c.92]

The equipment has also proven to be failsafe in all modes of normal operation, as well as all abnormal modes that have been diseovered. This was a eoneern beeause there were no personnel near the site to deteet blowing gas, lube oil spills, or any number of other undesirable eonditions. The system has been thoroughly tested and has always operated safely.  [c.477]

Other sources for oil spills are listed. For example, if a valve is opened and the operator inadvertently forgets to close it, oil may spill out of the system. If there is not a big enough dike around the system, oil pollution will result. It is also possible for oil to spill out the vent/flare system. All pressure vessels are connected to a relief valve, and the relief valve dis-  [c.389]

Some of the environmental issues associated with energy production and utilization that are being given the most attention by maker of public policy and by environmental groups include clean air, global climate change, nuclear power, electric and magnetic fields, oil spills, and energy efficiency.  [c.478]

The major energy-related sources of water pollution are from thermal pollution, surface water pollution from oil spills, polychlorinated biphenyls, and groundwater contamination.  [c.479]

Two of the main environmental concerns are the atmospheric pollutants generated by ship s engines, and the possibility ol damaging oil spills from accidents and ship operations.  [c.1045]

Tn the last 30 years of the twentieth century, there were very damaging oil spills from the grounding of tankers filled with crude oil. In addition, there have been many smaller accidents, as well as routine operations, that have resulted in significant amounts of oil being released to the environment.  [c.1046]

Others would include the addition of materials aimed at increa sing the bioavailabiUty of the contaminant to the degrading organisms. The most studied compounds are surfactants, but cations have been reported to increase the bioavailabiUty of some organic compounds, and sorbents and clays are also considered. The dispersion of spilled oil on water by the appHcation of dispersants is perhaps the major commercial use of this idea.  [c.24]

Bioremediation by the addition of oil-degrading microbes is often promoted as a treatment option for floating spills, but this approach has not yet met with any documented success (13).  [c.29]

In all these cases it is important to bear in mind that although the majority of hydrocarbons are readily biodegraded, some, such as the steranes and hopanes, are very resistant to microbial attack. Estimates of oil biodegradation range from 60—95% for different cmde oils, so fresh spills of cmde oils are readily treated by bioremediation (21). Refined products, such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, and heating oils are usually more biodegradable than typical whole oils, but the various heavy fractions of cmde oils, such as the asphalts, are far less biodegradable, and are not such attractive targets for bioremediation. Some cmde oils have already been extensively biodegraded in their reservoirs, and these are also poor targets for bioremediation. An example is Orimulsion, a heavy oil in water emulsion (70% bitumen) stabilized by low levels of surfactants, used as a fuel for electricity generation. Similarly, old spills may have already undergone significant biodegradation and the residue may be relatively biologically inert. It is thus important to mn laboratory studies to ensure that the contaminant is sufficiendy biodegradable that clean-up targets can be met.  [c.31]

Desalination Plant Security. Ingestion into the plant of saline water feed which has been contaminated by undesirable components may not only impair product water quality, but also impair or incapacitate the plant for future operation. Membrane-based desalination plants ate exceptionally sensitive to such damage. One of the obvious contaminants, especially in the oil-producing countries, is spilled oil. Heavy metals, detergents and other undesirable components which increasingly pollute the seas and oceans must be kept out of the plant intakes. Screens, filters, and oil booms are commonly used for protecting the plant intake. The latter have been especially appreciated during the Gulf Wat, in which the Iraqi forces intentionally dumped oil into the Gulf in order to incapacitate the desalination plants of the Gulf countries. Contamination also arose from their firing of the Kuwaiti oil wells and destmction of the water treatment facilities which released large amounts of sewage into the Gulf. As described in (43,44) they have also engaged in massive destmction of the Kuwaiti desalination and power plants.  [c.242]

Because of the increasing popularity of cats as pets, a significant quantity of clay is being used in pet Utter. Generally this material is attapulgite or montmorillonite based because these minerals have a high absorptive capacity for Uquids and are readily granulated. HaUoysite has also been used (19). Other appUcations for absorptive clays include cleaning up chemical spills and oil and grease removal from garage floors.  [c.210]

The eompressor seal oil system is designed and furnished with instrumentation similar to the lube oil system shown in Figure 15-4. The only essential differenee is how the end-supply eontrol is handled. Sinee mueh higher pressures (1500-2500 psi) (103.4214-172.3689 Bars) are often involved, the pumps are usually a positive displaeement-type. This requires a pressure eontrol valve spilling oil baek to the reservoir. This oil supply is available to an elevated head tank that is provided for eaeh shaft seal. The head tank is pressured by its own proeess-seal pressure eonneetion, so the seal oil supply system pressure must be maintained at a level to supply the highest pressure seal. The oil rate to eaeh seal is maintained by tank level eontrol from the supply system. The tanks are provided with a high/low level alarm to the eontrol room. The low alarm warns of exeessive oil eonsumption by the seal and also ealls for baekup pump start along with the various pressure switehes and primary pump turbine failure in a similar manner to the lube oil system.  [c.547]

Database containing compliance/ noncompliance records of oil facility discharges. Spill data include amount of materia] spilled, rate, response, and control measures.  [c.305]

Now days the devices operating in the radiowave range are designed and they used for oil film thickness measurements and for the oil spills volume evaluation. The device operating on the frequencies from 37,5 to 10,7 begHz provides the measurements of the film thickness in the range from 100 to 6 — 7 pm. It means that all accident happening on the seas surface may be estimated.  [c.913]

Bioremediation has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminants, including cmde oils and refined petroleum products, halogenated solvents, pesticides, herbicides, military chemicals, and mine waters. Much of this success has come by small adjustments of the local environment to encourage the growth of remediating organisms. Fertilizer addition has been a successful treatment for terrestrial and marine oil spills, and the addition of co-substrates, particularly methane, has been a successful treatment for remediating halogenated solvents, such as trichloroethylene. Composting is proving to be a successful treatment for a range of contaminants, and constmcted wetlands are successfully treating a range of wastewaters, including those emanating from mines.  [c.38]

Many plant appHcations rely on the fact that fluids in pipes and vessels are rarely at ambient temperature, even if not part of an elevated or reduced temperature process, so their presence (or absence) can be detected thermally. Reduced fluid flow in a pipe alters the surface temperature of the pipe it is closer to ambient. A localized deposit within a pipe produces an area at a temperature closer to ambient because of the insulating effect of the deposit. The level to which tanks are fiHed can be determined because of the distinct temperature change in the tank wall at the Hquid level. Even leaks from shallow underground pipes produce observable changes in the thermal pattern of the ground. A gas leak into the open can be detected using a radiometer or thermal imager if the gas absorbs infrared radiation within the spectral response of the instmment and the gas temperature differs from that of the background. Oil spills in water can be detected in the infrared region because oil and water have different emissivities and reflectivities. Normal process operations can also be monitored radiometrically. A thermal imager can be used to image a process web, or a radiometer combined with a line scanner can monitor the full width of a process web. Motion of the web then allows an image to be built up line byline. In the paper (qv) industry, web temperature correlates with moisture level in the paper during the drying process, so the degree and eveimess of drying can be monitored. Temperature distributions in molds and dies can be assessed (81).  [c.204]

Figure 1 Plot of weathering ratio (C3-dibenzo thiophenes C3-ehrysenes) versus souree ratio (C3-dibenzothio-phenes C3-phenanthrenes) for fresh and degraded oil samples from three different erude oil spills (Reprinted with permission from Environ. Sci. Technol, 30, 2332. 1996 Ameriean Chemieal Soeiety) Figure 1 Plot of weathering ratio (C3-dibenzo thiophenes C3-ehrysenes) versus souree ratio (C3-dibenzothio-phenes C3-phenanthrenes) for fresh and degraded oil samples from three different erude oil spills (Reprinted with permission from Environ. Sci. Technol, 30, 2332. 1996 Ameriean Chemieal Soeiety)
Figure 14-2 is a hazard tree for a generalized production facility. The hazards are identified as oil pollution, fire/explosion, and injury. Beginning with injury, we can see that the hazards of fire/explosion and oil pollution become conditions for injury since they can lead to injury as well as being hazards in their own right. The tree was constructed by beginning with the lowest level hazard, oil pollution. Oil pollution occius as a result of an oil spill but only if there is inadequate containment. That is, if there is adequate containment, there cannot be oil pollution. Onshore, dikes are constructed around tank farms for this reason. Ofl-shore, however, and in large onshore facilities it is not always possible to build containment large enough for every contingency. The requirement for drip pans and sumps stems from the need to reduce the probability of oil pollution that could result from small oil spills.  [c.389]

Fuel cannot be completely eliminated, though the inventory of combustible fuels can be kept to a minimum. Oil and gas will be present in any production facility, and either an oil spill or escaping gas can provide the fuel needed. Escaping gas can result from rupture, opening a closed system, or gas that is normally vented. The amount of fuel present can be minimized by preventing oil spills and gas leaks.  [c.392]

Accidental releases, oil spills See above. Greater concerns for w elfare aitd ecological effects.  [c.412]

Many environmental problems arise from externalities of energy exploration, production, refining, distribution, and consumption. This is especially so for fossil fuels. Air pollution, global warming and climate change, and acid rain are due mainly to emissions of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen oxides associated with the burning of fossil fuels. Coastal and marine degradation, wildlife habitat destruction, and the availability and quality of fresh water can be blamed to some extent on oil spills, drilling for oil and gas, coal mining, and the underground storage of oil and gasoline. The nuclear power industry deals constantly with toxic-chemical and hazardous-waste issues. Some of these important environmental problems and others (e.g., deforestation and desertification) can also be attributed to the changing patterns of, and increases in, population, land use, transportation, and industry. Energy plays a significant role, and energy-environment externalities often have strong socioeconomic and environmental welfare effects.  [c.361]

Economic gi owth and increasing energy consumption are not always considered an unalloyed benefit. There are significant environmental consequences to energy consumption, including increased concentration of carbon gases in the atmosphere, emissions of sulfur dioxide (that cause acid rain) and nitrogen oxides (precursors to smog), water pollution caused by oil spills, and land issues related to coal mining and other energy production. Debates about how to ameliorate these effects inevitably include discussions of the economic impacts of such amelioration, and the effect on economic well-being of higher energy taxes or outright bans on consumption or production of certain kinds of energy. Non-polluting energy sources such as hydroelectricity, solar and wind energy, or, more controversially, nuclear-based electricity-for which there are considerable concerns about safety and waste disposal—have been discussed as long-term alternatives to the more traditional fossil-based fuels. While coal, oil, and natural gas have clearly been indispensable to the growth of today s modern industrial econoinics, it is also a certainty that the supplies of these energy forms are ultimately limited, and that future economic growth will depend on a long-term transition to other energy sources.  [c.367]

Oil Spills. Oil spills occur from oil pipeline leaks, oil tanker accidents, or submarine oil drilling operations. The two major ocean drilling accidents—oil wells blowing out—were the 1969 Santa Barbara Channel spill and the 1979 Yucatan Peninsula spill, in Mexico. The Yucatan spill spewed out more than three million barrels before being capped in 1980. Both caused damage to beaches and marine life, but the smaller Santa Barbara spill was far more devastating because of unfavorable winds following the accident.  [c.479]

Hazelwood was legally drunk at the time of the accident. In September 1994, a federal court jui-y ordered Exxon Corp. to pay, 5 billion in punitive damages to Alaskan fishermen, local residents, and property owners. The fine was reported to be the highest punitive award ever levied against a corporation and also the largest ever in an environmental pollution case. Since the Exxon V2ldez spill, a number of safeguards have been instituted to help prevent future oil spills, such as the mandating of donble-walled tankers and better pipelines.  [c.480]

Since the 1970s, the petroleum industry has been increasingly affected hy the regulatory push at the international as well as federal and state levels. Oil spills, such as the one involving the Exxon Valdez in Alaska in the 1980s, put the regulatory spotlight on the environmental dangers inherent in moving oil hy marine tanker. Since the 1970s, The International Maritime Organization (IMO), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DoT) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has stepped up its efforts to implement measures to increase protection of the environment on U.S. and international waters.  [c.949]

Spills from production faciUties and pipelines often iavolve both oil and brine, siace most oil reservoirs float on top of concentrated btines, and both are produced ia later stages of production. The brine is typically separated from the oil and re-iajected iato the reservoir, but some is retained ia many production pipelines. The environmental impact of spilled brine can be quite deleterious. Not only is salt toxic to most plants, and can inhibit many soil bacteria, but it also can have a major effect on the soil stmcture by altering the physical properties of clays. Successful bioremediation strategies must therefore include remediating the brine. In wet regions the salt is eventually diluted by rainfall, but in arid regions, and to speed the process in wetter regions, gypsum is often added to restore soil porosity.  [c.30]

Buoyancy is the main driving force through the carrier beds and oils continue to move upward (toward shallower areas) until stopped at a slope reversal in a stmctural trap, or where permeabiUty decreases as in a stratigraphic trap (39,40). Migration distances can be in excess of 100 km (35,39). Oil may be remobili ed after its initial accumulation in the reservoir. Although in the simplest case this may involve only a simple relocation, it can lead to significant compositional changes if both gas and oil are involved. When an anticlinal reservoir is full to the spill point and has a gas cap over oil, any spilling off the bottom is oil, and the next shallower trap thus accumulates oil with no gas cap. This process of differential entrapment (41) leads eventually to oil in the up dip (shallower) reservoirs and gas in the deeper ones. Geological examples are given (42,43).  [c.162]

One other law of interest is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and LiabiUty Act (CERCLA) of 1980, known as the Superfund legislation (7). This act provides a means for the federal government to collect money from industry for use in cleaning existing and abandoned ha2ardous waste disposal sites and spills. 65% of industry s share of the fees comes from taxes on primary petrochemicals, 20% from taxes on organic raw materials, and 15% from taxes on cmde oil. Eor operating faciUties, there are regulations requiring reporting of spills and releases, based on reportable quantities (RQs), to the National Response Center (NRC). In addition, requirements for cleanup of faciUties contaminated by past releases, as well as abandoned contaminated faciUties, are included.  [c.79]

On February 11, 1999 a 375-m atmospheric tank was filled with luboil product from a barge. The viscous product (3000 cS at 20°C) had a flash point of 194°C and was trace heated to 90°C to facilitate handling. Following transfer, the line was blown down using compressed air at which point ignition occurred and the tank roof was blown off, landing on the ground beside the tank. There were no injuries or spills and the fire rapidly extinguished itself. It was found that the oil contained an unexpected 0.3 wt% hexane impurity which boiled off and formed a flammable mixture in the tank head space. It is predictable that static was generated during high velocity two-phase flow in the pipe. However, as air bubbles subsequently rose through liquid in the large tank, they might have convected significant charge to the surface via shear of the electrical double layer formed at the air-liquid interface. The charge separation effect of rising air bubbles should be analogous to that of settling water droplets, which produce a settling potential (5-4.1.2). Both phenomena may lead to charge separation in large tanks containing nonconductive liquids. Ignition presumably followed the generation of large potentials at the liquid surface, causing either a surface streamer to the wall (2-6.6) or a positive brush discharge to a grounded projection (2-6.2). Although hexane vapor ignition caused this incident, an aerated froth might in principle ignite irrespective of flash point (5-1.3.1). The incident demonstrates the general hazard of blowing down lines with air, plus the increased potential for static accumulation in viscous nonconductive liquids.  [c.104]

Health Hazards Information - Recommended Personal Protective Equipment None required Symptoms Following Exposure Low toxicity no reports of injury in industrial handling General Treatment for Exposure SKIN AND EYES wipe off and wash skin with soap and water. Treat like lubricating oil. Flush eyes with water. Remove to fresh air Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold Limit Value) Not pertinent Short-Term Exposure Limits Not pertinent Toxicity by Ingestion Grade 1 LDjo 5 to 15 g/kg Late Toxicity None Vapor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics Vapors are nonirritating to the eyes and throat Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics Minimum hazard. If spilled on clothing and allowed to remain, may cause smarting and reddening of the skin Odor Threshold Not pertinent. Fire Hazards - Flash Point (deg. F) 390 OC Flammable Limits in Air (%) Data not available Fire Extinguishing Agents Data not available Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to be Used Data not available Special Hazards of Combustion Products None Behavior in Fire Not pertinent Ignition Temperature Data not available Electrical Hazard Data not available Burning Rate Data not available.  [c.143]


See pages that mention the term Oil spills : [c.129]    [c.261]    [c.2388]    [c.83]    [c.520]    [c.38]    [c.102]    [c.949]   
Physical chemistry of surfaces (0) -- [ c.104 ]

13 Chemistry in the Marine Environment (2000) -- [ c.82 ]