Safety high temperature

If Ail increases faster than k, operate at high temperature (but beware of safety and materials-of-construction constraints).  [c.42]

With this type of apparatus (Fig. 33) high temperatures can be reached with safety and the dangers of hot oil or concentrated sulphuric acid  [c.61]

With this type of apparatus (Fig. 33) high temperatures can be reached with safety and the dangers of hot oil or concentrated sulphuric acid  [c.61]

Ambient Preparations. Supercritical drying with alcohols incurs high capital and operating costs because the process is mn at high temperatures and pressures and needs to remove a large amount of pore Hquid. Carbon dioxide aHows drying to be done under mil der conditions but its use is limited to miscible solvents. Thus, economic and safety considerations have provided a strong motivation for the development of techniques that can produce aerogel-like materials at ambient conditions, ie, without supercritical drying. The strategy is to minimize the deleterious effect of capHlary pressure which is given by  [c.4]

Diethylene glycol dinitrate (DEGDN) is the most widely used explosive plasticizer, other than nitroglycerin, in the formulation of military propellants for gun use. It is a better plasticizer for nitrocellulose than nitroglycerin. Because of its lower calorific value, it has been used to replace nitroglycerin to obtain cooler propellants, thereby decreasing erosion in gun tubes and increasing tube life. It also decreases muzzle dash and minimizes the need for dash reducers in propellant charges. It is employed in some double-base cast rocket propellants because of its superior physical properties in case-bonded motors. Although DEGDN is used in European propellants, it has not been generally used in U.S. gun propellants because its greater volatility poses problems during prolonged high temperature storage. DEGDN is made similarly to nitroglycerin, having a yield of about 85%. It is superior to nitroglycerin in terms of stabiUty and handling safety, freezes at a lower temperature than nitroglycerin (—11.3 vs 13.2°C), and has a high (6760 m/s) and low (1800—2300 m/s) stable detonation rate. It does not appear to have harmhil physiological effects (105,106,117).  [c.13]

Fire and Explosion Hazard. Ammonium nitrate is a strong oxidiziag agent, and mixing it with certaia materials, including fertilizer potassium chloride, can iaduce self-heating and combustion. In addition, ammonium nitrate has the potential for explosive decomposition under certain conditions of high temperature and pressure. Mixture of ammonium nitrate with small amounts (even <1%) of carbonaceous material or certain other materials sensitizes ammonium nitrate to detonation. Serious fires and explosions have occurred as a result of mishandling ammonium nitrate. The worst of the explosions was that at Texas City, Texas ia 1947 where two shiploads of ammonium nitrate fertilizer conditioned with petrolatum and paraffin wax exploded, killing 500 people and injuring 3000. Extensive studies of ammonium nitrate self-heating and detonation have since been carried out (18—20), and conditioning with organic materials no longer is allowed. As a result of extensive studies it has been concluded that ammonium nitrate can be safely produced, stored, and handled if simple and reasonable precautions are taken. The thermal stabiUty of fertilizers containing ammonium nitrate has been evaluated and discussed at length (21), and a review of ammonium nitrate plant safety measures has been pubHshed (22).  [c.219]

Several generalizations can be made concerning thermal stabihty and degradation of organic heat-transfer media. (/) Aromatic materials exhibit thermal stabiUties that generally are superior to aUphatic compounds. (2) The recommended maximum operating temperature for commercially available products is a rough measure of relative thermal stabihty. (J) Polymer formation is detrimental. Polymers increase fluid viscosity and promote carbonization which leads to fouling. However, none of the heat-transfer fluids noted herein exhibit exothermic polymerization unless contaminated with oxygen, organic material, or a polymerization catalyst. (4) Fluid degradation should produce a minimum of volatile materials. Volatile components increase operating losses and may present a safety hazard. The formation of volatile materials can be handled by proper design of the expansion-tank venting system, (i) Degradation should not produce reactive or corrosive materials. (6) Oxidation stabihty may be an important factor if air is present at high temperatures. Low insoluble sludge formation is an advantage.  [c.502]

There are numerous variations in the design of commercially available carbide-to-water acetylene generators. Basically, however, they are practically identical in that they consist of a water vessel or reaction chamber, a carbide feed mechanism, and a carbide storage container that empties into the feed mechanism. The water vessel is equipped with a means of filling with water and draining the lime slurry. Agitation, either hand or power driven, is provided for keeping the lime hydrate and reacting carbide in suspension. Pressure gauges and rehef devices are also incorporated in the generating chamber. The water shell or generating chamber in the more common generator supports the feed mechanism and the carbide hopper, which is also fitted with pressure gauges and safety rehef valves. The valved gas outlet from the generator leads directly to a flash arrester which protects the equipment against flashbacks originating from acetylene-consurning equipment downstream. The gas in the high capacity generator, owing to the higher operating temperatures, is first cooled in a water scmbber, which is an integral part of the generator, before passing through the flash arrester. The continuous supply of cooling water in the scmbber is also a source of water for the reaction with carbide. Most commercial acetylene generators are fitted with either mechanical, pneumatic, or electrical interference mechanisms which for safety reasons enforce a prescribed sequence of procedures for the operator using the equipment. Some of these safety mechanisms are high and low water level shutdown, high temperature cut out, high acetylene pressure shutdown, and shutdown on loss of either electric or pneumatic power to the generator controls. AH safety conditions must be satisfied before start-up or during operation.  [c.379]

Oxo plants employ mixtures of highly toxic, flammable gases under pressure at high temperatures and require strict adherence to estabHshed operating safety codes and emergency reporting procedures to local, state, and federal authorities. In the United States, carbon monoxide is classified as both an acute, fire, and sudden release hazard under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) 311/312, requiring strictiy maintained documentation of hazards and emergency procedures, eg, maintenance of appropriate Material Safety Data Sheets and reporting procedures ia case of accidental release.  [c.473]

Safety-Related Hazards. High temperature excursions and mnaway are two of the many safety-related hazards that can affect reactor selection. Hazard assessments go beyond analyses of process variations and must consider system integration (eg, start-up and shutdown practices), system faults (eg, power failure, loss of cooling, leaks between streams), operational errors (eg, incorrect feed rates, under- or over-charging catalysts and solvents), and abnormal situations (eg, escaping contamination or fires and explosions emanating from neighboring process equipment). Continuously operated reactors, with their dedication to singular process objectives, generally lower inventories and more technically sophisticated control maybe selected for being inherently safer than intermittent batch operations. However, continuously operated reactors are often coupled with other process functions and thus are subject to further incidents during the start-up and shutdown phases of operation (12).  [c.508]

The principal goal of safety provision in any brazing and soldering shop is the cleanliness of the atmosphere. Sufficient ventilation must be provided and proper working practices are regulated by OSHA as well as various state and federal agencies (9). Additional concerns include the high temperatures and gases under high pressure.  [c.246]

Accidents. In an industry that has massive equipment, high temperature operations, and many moving objects, the potential for accidents is always present. Safety is taken seriously and is the direct responsibiUty of the plant superintendent. Accidents do occur, although in the United States the rate in the steel industry compares favorably with heavy industry as a whole.  [c.402]

Health and safety factors in in situ operations are associated with high temperature, high pressure steam, or high pressure air. Environmental considerations relate to air and water quaUty and surface reclamation. In some environmentally sensitive areas such as the oil sands deposits in Utah, environmental considerations may make development unfeasible.  [c.362]

This requirement for environmental safety adds an almost impossible requirement to those already demanded of an iasect-resist agent. Ideally, an iasect-resist ageat for permanent protectioa of wool goods should be highly toxic to both moth and beede species, aHowiag low levels of appHcation it must be stable to the appHcation conditions (high temperature ia neutral to acid aqueous solutions), resistant to washing and light, safe to consumers, resistant to leaching from the fiber by perspiration and saHva, and effective for prolonged periods on the textile, ie, at least 15 years for wool carpets. It must be amenable to efficient appHcation to wool under a wide variety of dyebath conditions, ia the preseace of dyes, dyeiag assistants, and surfactants, some of which may decrease the efficiency of appHcation by increasing the water solubiHty of the iasect-resist ageat.  [c.350]

PVC/PVC alloys have advantages in seaming (heat seaming and radio frequency welding), flexibiUty, repairabiUty, permeabiUty, and winter installation disadvantages include cost, reputation for prior failures, cold-cracking related to plasticizer migration, and incompatibiUty with asphalt/coal-tar. CSPE/CPE have advantages in chemical resistance, compatibiUty with asphalt/coal-tar, abiUty to withstand high temperatures, and durabiUty disadvantages iaclude cost, curing after exposure, repairabiUty, susceptibiUty to algae, and chalking/thinning. Being an elastomer, EPDM has advantages ia cost and elongation disadvantages iaclude seaming and emissions from solvent-based adhesives. Modified bitumen has advantages ia seaming with torching, compatibiUty with asphalt/coal-tar, repairabiUty, and similarity to built-up roofing (labor advantage) disadvantages iaclude durabiUty, safety component relating to the torching operatioa, seaming with mopped-oa asphalt, and narrow widths. Built-up roofs have the simple advantage of low cost and the disadvantage of poor durabiUty.  [c.333]

High temperature lubrication, as in some metal-forming processes, requites dry graphite. Although the coefficient of friction of graphite is higher than that of petroleum lubricants, it is often added as a safety measure should the carrier lubricant fail (17) (see Lubrication and lubricants).  [c.577]

Some process characteristics designed and observed during pilot operation must be observed more closely during scale-up to take into account the order of magnitude changes in vessel size and quantity of materials that may have been engineered into the new process design. Scale-up may involve significant production increases that introduce new process safety concerns such as bulk storage and new material handling technology. When scaling up exothermic or high temperature processes, heat removal capability must be considered. The pilot or bench process design may be compromised by a lower surface to volume ratio. This may be a key factor during equipment selection for the scale-up.  [c.107]

Exothermic catalytic reactions are executed in heat exchanger-type multitube reactors. Catalyst is in the inside of the tubes, although the opposite can be used, especially if the coolant liquid must be kept at high temperature, and the vapor pressure is high. Some exothermic reactions are also executed in adiabatic reactors of tray-type construction, where the heat removal is effected in the heat exchanger between the stages or trays of the reactor. These are mostly used for reactions where high temperature leads to an equilibrium. Utilization of reaction heat is an important cost-reducing operation for exothermic reactions. To get the maximum value of byproduct heat, the reaction must be executed at the highest temperature permitted by reaction conditions, safety and pollution control.  [c.174]

It is obvious that, all other things being equal, a process operated at high temperature and high pressure, containing exothermically reactive materials, and containing a large inventory is inherently less safe than one at ambient temperature and pressure, containing thermally stable materials, and containing a small inventory. A measure of the magnitude of this difference in safety is the difference in the potential energy in the process. By comparing the potential energies of alternative process strategies, the lowest energy alternative can be identified. Methods and guidance to estimate the total potential energy in different types of situations encountered in processes are needed.  [c.131]

It is important to note safety differences between the SRS reactors and LWRs. Since the SRS reactors are not for power production they operate at a maximum temperature of 90° C and about 200 psi pressure. Thus, there are no concerns with steam blowdown, turbine trip, or other scenarios related to the high temperature and pressure aspects of an LWR. On the of nd, uranium-aluminum alloy fuel clad with aluminum for the SRS reactors melts at a m ver  [c.417]

Temperature High Temperature Sensor Temperature Safety High 0  [c.413]

Steam injection is run on a commercial basis in a number of countries (such as the USA, Germany, Indonesia and Venezuela), though typically on land, in shallow reservoirs where well density is high (well spacings in the order of 100ft - 500ft). There is usually a trade-off between permeability and oil viscosity, i.e. higher permeability reservoirs allow higher viscosity oils to be considered. Special considerations associated with the process include the insulation of tubing to prevent heat loss during injection, and high production temperatures if steam residence times are too low. Safety precautions are also required to operate the equipment for generating and injecting high temperature steam.  [c.357]

Thermal power plant components operated at high temperatures (>500°C) and pressures, such as superheater headers, steamline sections and Y-junctions, deserve great attention for both operation safety and plant availability concerns. In particular, during plant operation transients -startups, shutdowns or load transients - the above components may undergo high rates of temperature / pressure variations and, consequently, non-negligible time-dependent stresses which, in turn, may locally destabilize existing cracks and cause the release of acoustic emission.  [c.67]

Bismanol" is a permanent magnet of high coercive force, made of MnBi, by the U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. This property makes bismuth alloys particularly suited to the making of sharp castings of objects subject to damage by high temperatures. With other metals such as tin, cadmium, etc., bismuth forms low-melting alloys which are extensively used for safety devices in fire detection and extinguishing systems. Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers. When bismuth is heated in air it burns with a blue flame, forming yellow fumes of the oxide. The metal is also used as a thermocouple material, and has found application as a carrier  [c.146]

Supercritical Drying. The development of aerogel technology from the original work of Kisder to about late 1980s has been reviewed (23). Over this period, supercritical drying was the dominant method in preparing aerogels and, for this reason, aerogels are synonymous with superctiticaHy dried materials. As noted earUer, supercritical drying could be an insufficient definition of an aerogel because it might not lead to the defining characteristics. Kisder used inorganic salts and a large amount of water in his work (1,24), making the subsequent salt removal and solvent-exchange steps time-consuming (water has to be removed because it would dissolve the gel stmcture at high temperatures). A significant time savings came when alkoxides were used as precursors in organic solvents, thereby requiring a minimum amount of water and eliminating the tedious solvent-exchange step (25,26). The introduction of carbon dioxide, which has a lower critical temperature and pressure than alcohols, as a supercritical drying agent allowed the drying step to be done under milder conditions and improved its safety (27). The development of a semicontinuous drying process further faciUtated the preparation of aerogels (28). Together these advances, summarized in Table 1, have made possible the relatively safe supercritical drying of aerogels in a matter of hours. In recent years, the challenge has been to produce aerogel-like materials without using supercritical drying at all in an attempt to deUver economically competitive products. This topic will be discussed in mote detail later.  [c.3]

The development of smart catalysts is a relatively new field of iavestigation. One class of smart catalysts is based on homogeneous rhodium-based poly(aIkene oxide)s, ia particular those with a poly(ethylene oxide) backbone. Traditionally chemical-cataly2ed reactions proceed ia a manner ia which the catalysts becomes more soluble and active as the temperature is raised. This can lead to exothermal mnaways, thus, posing both safety and yield problems. These smart catalysts behave differendy. As the temperature iacreases, they become less soluble, thus, precipitating out of solution and iaactive. As the reaction mixture cools down, a smart catalysts redissolves and becomes active again (19). Other smart catalysts are being developed that dissociates at high temperatures (less active) and recombines at low temperatures (more active) (36).  [c.252]

There are currentiy two principal processes used for the manufacture of monomeric acryhc esters the semicatalytic Reppe process and the propylene oxidation process. The newer propylene oxidation process is preferred because of economy and safety. In this process acroleia [107-02-8] is first formed by the catalytic oxidation of propylene vapor at high temperature ia the preseace of steam. The acroleia is thea oxidi2ed to acryhc acid [79-10-7].  [c.164]

Plasticizers. Over 70% of plasticizer range alcohols are ultimately consumed as plasticizers for PVC and other resins. Of this amount, 80% is used as the diester of phthaUc acid, for instance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP) or diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) [26761-40-0]. Other plasticizers made from these alcohols are the diesters of adipic acid, azeleic acid, and sebacic acid, plus the triesters of phosphoric acid and trimeUitic acid. A small amount of alcohol is used as the terminating agent in specialty polyester plasticizers. The adipates, azelates, and sebacates are employed as specialty materials in some food contact appHcations and in areas where low temperature flexibiUty is important, such as automobile interiors eg, the diadipate ester of hexanol is the plasticizer in poly(vinyl butyral) used for automobile safety glass. The phosphates find appHcation as good low temperature plasticizers and as flame retardant additives, whereas the trimeUitates are used for high temperature appHcations such as the insulation of electrical wiring. The phthalates, however, are the general purpose plasticizers. Phthalate esters of alcohols from 4—13 carbons are available although most are in the Cg through C q range. AH plasticizers are chosen on the basis of performance, cost, and ease of processing DOP and DIDP are the workhorses of the industry. When compared to DOP, phthalates of mixed linear alcohols (for instance, mixed heptyl, nonyl, and undecyl alcohols) give improved low temperature properties and resistance to volatile loss whereas those made of higher molecular weight alcohols (for instance, isodecyl or tridecyl alcohols) give improved resistance to extraction and volatile loss but exhibit some loss of plasticizing abHity. In general, esters of mixtures of alcohols are favored as plasticizers because they give a broader range of properties than esters of a single alcohol.  [c.450]

Health, Fnvironmental, and Safety Considerationsfor High Temperature OrganicHeat Transfer Systems, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich.  [c.510]

Because of the exothermic reaction and the evolution of gas, the most important safety considerations in the design of acetylene generators are the avoidance of excessively high temperatures and high pressures. The heat of reaction must be dissipated rapidly and efficiently in order to avoid local overheating of the calcium carbide which, in the absence of sufficient water, may become incandescent and cause progressive decomposition of the acetylene and the development of explosive pressures. Maintaining temperatures less than 150°C also minimi2es polymeri2ation of acetylene and other side reactions which may form undesirable contaminants. For protection against high pressures, industrial acetylene generators are equipped with pressure rehef devices which do not allow the pressure to exceed 204.7 kPa (15 psig). This pressure is commonly accepted as a safe upper limit for operating the generator.  [c.379]

Alloys. Indium alloys with a wide range of metals, and many binary and ternary systems have been studied extensively (7). Indium generally increases the strength, corrosion resistance, and hardness of a system to which it is added. Low melting point alloys of indium with lead, tin, bismuth, and cadmium having melting points as low as 47°C are used in surgical casts, patternmaking, lens blocking, turbine blade machining, fire door safety links, and sprinkler heads (see High TEMPERATURE ALLOYS). The alloy of In 15%—Ag 85%—Cd 5% is used in control rods for nuclear reactors (qv). Tin—indium, lead—tin—indium, and lead—silver—indium solder alloys have melting points in the range of 100—300°C. These offer good corrosion resistance to alkahes, as well as improved resistance to thermal fatigue compared to conventional lead—tin solders. Several high indium alloys wet glass, quartz, and many ceramics. Indium also finds use in specialty brazing alloys with copper, silver, and gold. It is also a constituent of many dental alloys where it serves as an oxygen scavenger and hardener.  [c.80]

The Hanford N Reactor. The Hanford N reactor was built in 1964 for purposes of plutonium production during the Cold War. It used graphite as moderator, pierced by over 1000 Zircaloy 2 tubes. These pressure tubes contained slightly enriched uranium fuel cooled by high temperature light water. The reactor also provided 800 MWe to the Washington PubHc Power Supply System. This reactor was shut down in 1992 because of age and concern for safety. The similarity to the Chemobyl-type reactors played a role in the decision.  [c.214]

Algicides. Algal giowth in pools is unsightly, a potential safety ha2aid to swimmers, and usually a lesult of pool pool maintenance. It can cause slipperiness, development of odois, cloudy and discoloied watei, chloramine formation, increased chlorine demand, bacterial growth, and stubborn stains. Low FAC, high temperatures, sunlight, and certain mineral nutrients promote algae growth. Such growth can be prevented by maintaining the proper pH range, free available chlorine content, and cyanuric acid concentration supplemented by periodic shock treatment.  [c.302]

Steps to minimi2e potential safety ha2ards in the handling of asphalt are set forth by the American Petroleum Institute (152). These include (/) sudden pressure increases from hot asphalt in contact with moisture in enclosed tanks or transports ( 2) exposure to air at 150°C or above (J) local overheating above heating coils flashing of asphalt volatiles in the presence of an ignition source or possible autoignition and (4) hydrogen sulfide from high temperature operations.  [c.374]

Safety. The use of self-regulating heaters and ground leakage circiiit breakers has answered the safety concerns of most engineers considering electric tracing. Self-regulating heaters eliminate the problems from high-temperature failures, and ground leakage circuit breakers minimize the danger of an electrical fault to ground, causing injuiy or death.  [c.1014]

A nucleated cryst hne ceramic-metal composite form of glass has superior mechanical properties compared with conventional glassed steel. Controlled high-temperature firings chemically and physically bond the ceramic to steel, nickel-based alloys, and refractory metals. These materials resist corrosive hydrogen chloride gas, chlorine, or sulfur dioxide at 650°C (1,200°F). They resist all acids except HF up to 180°C (350°F). Their impact streuffth is 18 times that of safety glass abrasion resistance is superior to that of porcelain enamel. They have 3 to 4 times the thermal-shock resistance of glassed steel.  [c.2452]

In case of high temperature, pressure, oxygen concentration, or at low RPM or power failure, all solenoids close and the system is purged with nitrogen. When the SV for the O2 line is open, it lets the oxygen flow through, and when it closes the O2 feed line, it also opens the third branch in-between, while a check valve closes the feed manifold. This is for safety, to prevent any mixing between O2 and any other gases that may leak through this valve. Ethane is added to control the dechlorination of the catalyst. Methane, which is inert in this system, is the carrier gas for ethyl chloride and is saturated at ice-water temperature. From the known vapor pressure of ethylchoride, the total pressure of the saturator and the flow rate of the ethylchloride saturated methane the concentration of ethylchloride in the feed can be calculated (Berty et al, 1989).  [c.92]

Carbon and graphite materials have enjoyed considerable sueeess as plasma-facing materials in eurrent tokamaks beeause of their low atomie number, high thermal shoek resistanee, and favorable properties. However, their use is not without problems and their applieation in next generation fusion energy deviees is by no means eertain. Signifieant amongst the issues for earbon and graphite PFMs are neutron irradiation damage, which degrades the thermal eonductivity and eauses inereased PFC surfaee temperatures physieal sputtering, ehemieal erosion, and radiation enhaneed sublimation, which results in surfaee material loss to the plasma, and redeposition of earbon and tritium inventory, whieh poses both a safety problem and an eeonomie impediment to the use of graphite. The high-heat loads and surfaee temperature that oeeur after plasma disruptions are also problematic for carbons. However, the same high temperatures make the use of Be, whieh has a signifieantly lower melting temperature, very unlikely.  [c.424]

Haag, G., Kugeler, K. and Philippen, P.-W., The high temperature reactor (HTR) and the new German safety concept for future nuclear power plants. In Proceedings of the  [c.483]

Contamination of the working envuonment ean be prevented by eomplete eontainment, i.e. eomplete enelosure as in glove boxes in a laboratory or operation in sealed equipment. For materials transfer, balaneing is prefeired to venting. However, additional preeautions are neeessary for eleaning, emergeney venting, sampling - foreseeable events whieh eould result in unplanned leakage or spillage. Minimize pumping or blowing, sample points, pipe joints and equipment requiring maintenanee, and avoid hoses unless reinforeed and properly seeured, e.g. armoured hose. Consider tank draining/reeovery arrangements. Provide adequate instrumentation on storage tanks, e.g. temperature indieator, high temperature alarm, pressure indieator, high pressure alarm and level gauge, together with relief if neeessary (safety valve baeked up by rupture disk to prevent seepage). Provide bunds to eontain spillages and proteet drainage systems and sewers.  [c.107]

Fire Heat Dector (Thermal) Temperature Safety High  [c.414]

Number of safety devices found to be nonfunctional. Many processing facilities have high temperature and high pressure relief devices and other forms of protection such as overspeed systems. Frequently these cannot be tested in service and must be removed, often during shutdowns, for servicing. It is good practice to test these devices before cleaning or maintenance to fmd out whether they are functioning and where possible identify the cause of any problem. As for alarms and trips, monitoring trends can help identify problems, such as gum formation or corrosion, that may have resulted from a change in the operation or old age.  [c.127]

Pressure can liave a significant impact on safety. Extreme pressures can cause severe metal stress, which can lead to a vessel rupture or explosion. High temperatures, plugged lines, and many other condiUons can cause increased pressure.  [c.113]

Indium, like Ga, is normally recovered by electrolysis after prior concentration in processes leading primarily to other elements (Pb/Zn). It is a soft, silvery metal with a brilliant lustre and (like Sn) it gives out a high-pitched cry when bent. Formerly it was much used to protect bearings against wear and corrosion but the pattern of use has been changing in recent years and now its most important applications are in low-melting alloys and in electronic devices. Thus meltable safety devices, heat regulators, and sprinklers use alloys of In with Bi, Cd, Pb and Sn (mp 50-100°C) and In-rich solders are valuable in sealing metal-nonmetal joints in high vacuum apparatus. Indium is of particular importance in the manufacture of p-n-p transistor junctions in Ge (p. 369) and to solder semiconductor leads at low temperature the softness of the metal also minimizes stress in the Ge during subsequent cooling. So-called III-V semiconductors like InAs and InSb are used in low-temperature transistors, thermistors and optical devices (photoconductors), and InP is used for high-temperature transistors. A further minor use, which exploits the high neutron capture cross-section of In, is as a component in control rods for certain nuclear reactors.  [c.221]

See pages that mention the term Safety high temperature : [c.41]    [c.41]    [c.225]    [c.523]    [c.160]    [c.797]   
Chemical process design (2000) -- [ c.267 ]