Hysteresis adsorption


Thus D(r) is given by the slope of the V versus P plot. The same distribution function can be calculated from an analysis of vapor adsorption data showing hysteresis due to capillary condensation (see Section XVII-16). Joyner and co-woikers [38] found that the two methods gave very similar results in the case of charcoal, as illustrated in Fig. XVI-2. See Refs. 36 and 39 for more recent such comparisons. There can be some question as to what the local contact angle is [31,40] an error here would shift the distribution curve.  [c.578]

As also noted in the preceding chapter, it is customary to divide adsorption into two broad classes, namely, physical adsorption and chemisorption. Physical adsorption equilibrium is very rapid in attainment (except when limited by mass transport rates in the gas phase or within a porous adsorbent) and is reversible, the adsorbate being removable without change by lowering the pressure (there may be hysteresis in the case of a porous solid). It is supposed that this type of adsorption occurs as a result of the same type of relatively nonspecific intermolecular forces that are responsible for the condensation of a vapor to a liquid, and in physical adsorption the heat of adsorption should be in the range of heats of condensation. Physical adsorption is usually important only for gases below their critical temperature, that is, for vapors.  [c.599]

Fig. XVll-19. Adsorption of CH4 on MgO(lOO) at 77.35 K. The vertical line locates each vertical step corresponds to the condensation of a monolayer. There was no hysteresis. Desorption points are shown as . (From Ref. 110.) Fig. XVll-19. Adsorption of CH4 on MgO(lOO) at 77.35 K. The vertical line locates each vertical step corresponds to the condensation of a monolayer. There was no hysteresis. Desorption points are shown as . (From Ref. 110.)
Adsorption on Porous Solids—Hysteresis  [c.662]

Below the critical temperature of the adsorbate, adsorption is generally multilayer in type, and the presence of pores may have the effect not only of limiting the possible number of layers of adsorbate (see Eq. XVII-65) but also of introducing capillary condensation phenomena. A wide range of porous adsorbents is now involved and usually having a broad distribution of pore sizes and shapes, unlike the zeolites. The most general characteristic of such adsorption systems is that of hysteresis as illustrated in Fig. XVII-27 and, more gener-  [c.664]

Fig. XVII-28. Hysteresis loops in adsorption. Fig. XVII-28. Hysteresis loops in adsorption.
Explanations of hysteresis in capillary condensation probably begin in 1911 with Zsigmondy [198], who attributed the effect to contact angle hysteresis due to impurities this might account for behavior of the type shown in Fig. XVII-28a, but not in general for the many systems having retraceable closed hysteresis loops. Most of the early analyses and many current ones are in terms of a model representing the adsorbent as a bundle of various-sized capillaries. Cohan [199] suggested that the adsorption branch—curve abc in Fig. XVII-28Z)—represented increasingly thick film formation whose radius of curvature would be that of the capillary r, so that at each stage the radius of capillaries just filling would be given by the corresponding form of the Kelvin equation (Eq. III-19)  [c.665]

Abstract. A model of the conformational transitions of the nucleic acid molecule during the water adsorption-desorption cycle is proposed. The nucleic acid-water system is considered as an open system. The model describes the transitions between three main conformations of wet nucleic acid samples A-, B- and unordered forms. The analysis of kinetic equations shows the non-trivial bifurcation behaviour of the system which leads to the multistability. This fact allows one to explain the hysteresis phenomena observed experimentally in the nucleic acid-water system. The problem of self-organization in the nucleic acid-water system is of great importance for revealing physical mechanisms of the functioning of nucleic acids and for many specific practical fields.  [c.116]

The hydration shell is formed with the increasing of the water content of the sample and the NA transforms from the unordered to A- and then to B form, in the case of DNA and DNA-like polynucleotides and salt concentrations similar to in vivo conditions. The reverse process, dehydration of NA, results in the reverse conformational transitions but they take place at the values of relative humidity (r.h.) less than the forward direction [12]. Thus, there is a conformational hysteresis over the hydration-dehydration loop. The adsorption isotherms of the NAs, i.e. the plots of the number of the adsorbed water molecules versus the r.h. of the sample at constant temperature, also demonstrate the hysteresis phenomena [13]. The hysteresis is i( producible and its value does not decrease for at least a week.  [c.117]

In the Figs. 2, 3 the calculations and experimental (circles in Figs. 2a, 3a) results obtained for the limited r.h. ranges 0-60%, 0-90% respectively are presented. At each value of r.h. we have found the stationary stable solution of (4) which is closest to the one obtained at the previous calculation step. Such a procedure allows us to simulate the real experiment when the hydration and dehydration of the NA sample is performed sequentially. In the range 0-60% r.h. no conformational transition of the NA molecule occurs (Figs. 2b, c) and, therefore, neither conformational nor adsorption-desorption hysteresis phenomena are observed (Figs. 2a, b, c). In the range 0-90% r.h. only U A conformational transition occurs (Fig. 3b), therefore the hysteresis loop shortens (Figs. 3a, b).  [c.122]

The adsorption-desorption hysteresis does not disappear or decrease during at least a week of exposure of the NA sample to a r.h. of 56%, this value being chosen because the adsorption hysteresis is the greatest at this r.h. The hysteresis lifetime is great enough to consider the hysteresis as a permanent phenomenon for the processes of the cellular regulation.  [c.122]

The basis of the classification is that each of the size ranges corresponds to characteristic adsorption effects as manifested in the isotherm. In micropores, the interaction potential is significantly higher than in wider pores owing to the proximity of the walls, and the amount adsorbed (at a given relative pressure) is correspondingly enhanced. In mesopores, capillary condensation, with its characteristic hysteresis loop, takes place. In the macropore range the pores are so wide that it is virtually impossible to map out the isotherm in detail because the relative pressures are so close to unity.  [c.25]

It frequently happens that the micropore effect, the enhancement of interaction potential and the resultant adsorption, ceases to appear when the value of w (and the corresponding relative pressure) is still below the beginning of the hysteresis loop. Within recent years, the micropore range  [c.25]

A characteristic feature of a Type IV isotherm is its hysteresis loop. The exact shape of the loop varies from one adsorption system to another, but, as indicated in Fig. 3.1, the amount adsorbed is always greater at any given relative pressure along the desorption branch FJD than along the adsorption branch DEF. The loop is reproducible provided that the desorption run is started from a point beyond F which marks the upper limit of the loop.  [c.111]

The model proposed by Zsigmondy—which in broad terms is still accepted to-day—assumed that along the initial part of the isotherm (ABC of Fig. 3.1), adsorption is restricted to a thin layer on the walls, until at D (the inception of the hysteresis loop) capillary condensation commences in the finest pores. As the pressure is progressively increased, wider and wider pores are filled until at the saturation pressure the entire system is full of condensate.  [c.113]

Closer examination reveals that the swing upwards in the Type IV isotherm not infrequently commences before the loop inception, showing that enhanced adsorption, not accompanied by hysteresis, can occur. The implications of this important fact are explored in Section 3.7.  [c.115]

Before proceeding to detail, however, it is necessary to consider the question as to which branch of the hysteresis loop—the adsorption or the desorption branch—should be used. Though the mode of calculation is  [c.135]

Fig. 3.19 Contrast between the pore size distribution curves based on the adsorption and the desorption branch of the hysteresis loop respectively. Fig. 3.19 Contrast between the pore size distribution curves based on the adsorption and the desorption branch of the hysteresis loop respectively.
In 1965 Harris drew attention to the fact that the lower closure point of the hysteresis loop of nitrogen at 77 K is frequently situated at a relative pressure close to 0-42 but never below of more than one hundred nitrogen isotherms in the literature examined by Harris, one-half showed a sharp fall in adsorption, with loop closure, in the relative pressure range 0-42 to 0-50. Interpreted naively by a Kelvin type analysis, these observations would imply that a large proportion of adsorbents possess an extensive pore system in the very narrow range 17A < r " < 20 A, with a sudden cut-off around 17 A, which corresponds to pjp° = 0-42 (cf. p. 135). The improbability of this state of affairs led Harris to suggest that a change in the mechanism of adsorption occurred at this point, though he did not speculate as to its nature.  [c.154]

Thus the hysteresis loop should close at a relative pressure determined by the tensile strength of the liquid adsorptive, no matter whether the pore system extends to finer pores than those characterized by or not.  [c.157]

Fig. 3.24 Test of the tensile strength hysteresis of hysteresis (Everett and Burgess ). TjT, is plotted against — Tq/Po where is the critical temperature and p.. the critical pressure, of the bulk adsorptive Tq is the tensile strength calculated from the lower closure point of the hysteresis loop. C), benzene O. xenon , 2-2 dimethyl benzene . nitrogen , 2,2,4-trimethylpentane , carbon dioxide 4 n-hexane. The lowest line was calculated from the van der Waals equation, the middle line from the van der Waals equation as modified by Guggenheim, and the upper line from the Berthelot equation. (Courtesy Everett.) Fig. 3.24 Test of the tensile strength hysteresis of hysteresis (Everett and Burgess ). TjT, is plotted against — Tq/Po where is the critical temperature and p.. the critical pressure, of the bulk adsorptive Tq is the tensile strength calculated from the lower closure point of the hysteresis loop. C), benzene O. xenon , 2-2 dimethyl benzene . nitrogen , 2,2,4-trimethylpentane , carbon dioxide 4 n-hexane. The lowest line was calculated from the van der Waals equation, the middle line from the van der Waals equation as modified by Guggenheim, and the upper line from the Berthelot equation. (Courtesy Everett.)
Figure 3.26(a) and (h) gives results for nitrogen on a compact of silica. Curve (a) is a comparison plot in which the adsorption on the compact (ordinates) is plotted against that on the uncompacted powder (abscissae) there is a clear break followed by an increased slope, denoting enhanced adsorption on the compact, at p/p° = 0-15, far below the lower closure point ( 0-42) of the hysteresis loop in the isotherm (curve (b)). A second compact, prepared at 64 ton in" rather than 130 ton in", showed a break, not quite so sharp, at p/p° = 0-35.  [c.160]

In formulating an explanation of this enhanced adsorption, there are several features to be accounted for the increase in adsorption occurs without hysteresis the amount of adsorbate involved is relatively small the Kelvin r -values are also small (e.g. for nitrogen, less than 17 A) and the effect is found in a region of relative pressures where, according to the simple tensile strength hypothesis, capillary condensate should be incapable of existence.  [c.163]

Fig. 3.28 The Kiselev method for calculation of specific surface from the Type IV isotherm of a compact of alumina powder prepared at 64 ton in". (a) Plot of log, (p7p) against n (showing the upper (n,) and lower (n,) limits of the hysteresis loop) for (i) the desorption branch, and (ii) the adsorption branch of the loop. Values of. 4(des) and /4(ads) are obtained from the area under curves (i) or (ii) respectively, between the limits II, and n,. (6) The relevant part of the isotherm. Fig. 3.28 The Kiselev method for calculation of specific surface from the Type IV isotherm of a compact of alumina powder prepared at 64 ton in". (a) Plot of log, (p7p) against n (showing the upper (n,) and lower (n,) limits of the hysteresis loop) for (i) the desorption branch, and (ii) the adsorption branch of the loop. Values of. 4(des) and /4(ads) are obtained from the area under curves (i) or (ii) respectively, between the limits II, and n,. (6) The relevant part of the isotherm.
Fig. 4.25 Adsorption isotherms showing low-pressure hysteresis, (a) Carbon tetrachloride at 20°C on unactivated polyacrylonitrile carbon Curves A and B are the desorption branches of the isotherms of the sample after heat treatment at 900°C and 2700°C respectively Curve C is the common adsorption branch (b) water at 22°C on stannic oxide gel heated to SOO C (c) krypton at 77-4 K on exfoliated graphite (d) ethyl chloride at 6°C on porous glass. (Redrawn from the diagrams in the original papers, with omission of experimental points.) Fig. 4.25 Adsorption isotherms showing low-pressure hysteresis, (a) Carbon tetrachloride at 20°C on unactivated polyacrylonitrile carbon Curves A and B are the desorption branches of the isotherms of the sample after heat treatment at 900°C and 2700°C respectively Curve C is the common adsorption branch (b) water at 22°C on stannic oxide gel heated to SOO C (c) krypton at 77-4 K on exfoliated graphite (d) ethyl chloride at 6°C on porous glass. (Redrawn from the diagrams in the original papers, with omission of experimental points.)
Low-pressure hysteresis is not confined to Type I isotherms, however, and is frequently superimposed on the conventional hysteresis loop of the Type IV isotherm. In the region below the shoulder of the hysteresis loop the desorption branch runs parallel to the adsorption curve, as in Fig. 4.26, and in Fig. 4.2S(fi) and (d). It is usually found that the low-pressure hysteresis does not appear unless the desorption run commences from a relative pressure which is above some threshold value. In the study of butane adsorbed on powdered graphite referred to in Fig. 3.23, for example, the isotherm was reversible so long as the relative pressure was confined to the branch below the shoulder F.  [c.234]

Fig. 4.27 Swelling and low-pressure hysteresis in the adsorption of n-butane on compacts of coal at 273 K. The following are plotted against the relative pressure (a) the amount adsorbed (b) the percentage increase on length (c) the decrease —Ajc in electrical conductivity. The curves for ethyl chloride were very similar to the above curves. Fig. 4.27 Swelling and low-pressure hysteresis in the adsorption of n-butane on compacts of coal at 273 K. The following are plotted against the relative pressure (a) the amount adsorbed (b) the percentage increase on length (c) the decrease —Ajc in electrical conductivity. The curves for ethyl chloride were very similar to the above curves.
The degree to which a solid expands during adsorption depends on the overall rigidity of the sample and, with an agglomerated sample (p. 21) where the rigidity is high, the swelling will be of relatively minor importance and the major cause of low-pressure hysteresis will be the activated passage of molecules through pre-existing constrictions into wider cavities, in the manner outlined in Section 4.5. The hysteresis curves of Fig. 4.23, for the adsorption of butane on active carbon, provide examples.  [c.237]

The limits of pore size corresponding to each process will, of course, depend both on the pore geometry and the size of the adsorbate molecule. For slit-shaped pores the primary process will be expected to be limited to widths below la, and the secondary to widths between 2a and 5ff. For more complicated shapes such as interstices between small spheres, the equivalent diameter will be somewhat higher, because of the more effective overlap of adsorption fields from neighbouring parts of the pore walls. The tertiary process—the reversible capillary condensation—will not be able to occur at all in slits if the walls are exactly parallel in other pores, this condensation will take place in the region between 5[c.244]

Everett [209] has pointed out that the bundle of capillaries model can be outrageously wrong for real systems so that the results of the preceding type of analysis, while internally consistent, may not give more than the roughest kind of information about the real pore structure. One problem is that of ink bottle pores (Fig. XVI-3), which empty at the capillary vapor pressure of the access charmel but then discharge the contents of a larger cavity. Barrer et al. [210] have also discussed a variety of geometric situations in which filling and emptying paths are different. In a rather different perspective, Seri-Levy and Avnir [210a] have shown that hysteresis can occur with adsorption on a fractal surface due to pores that are highly irregular ink bottle in shape.  [c.667]

A concluding comment might be made on the temperature dependence of adsorption in such systems. One can show by setting up a piston and cylinder experiment that mechanical work must be lost (i.e., converted to heat) on carrying a hysteresis system through a cycle. An irreversible process is thus involved, and the entropy change in a small step will not in general be equal to q/T. As was pointed out by LaMer [220], this means that second-law equations such as Eq. XVII-107 no longer have a simple meaning. In hysteresis systems, of course, two sets of st values can be obtained, from the adsorption and from the desorption branches. These usually are not equal and neither  [c.668]

Adsorbents such as some silica gels and types of carbons and zeolites have pores of the order of molecular dimensions, that is, from several up to 10-15 A in diameter. Adsorption in such pores is not readily treated as a capillary condensation phenomenon—in fact, there is typically no hysteresis loop. What happens physically is that as multilayer adsorption develops, the pore becomes filled by a meeting of the adsorbed films from opposing walls. Pores showing this type of adsorption behavior have come to be called micropores—a conventional definition is that micropore diameters are of width not exceeding 20 A (larger pores are called mesopores), see Ref. 221a.  [c.669]

In the literature of the subject there are recorded tens of thousands of adsorption isotherms, measured on a wide variety of solids. Nevertheless, the majority of those isotherms which result from physical adsorption may conveniently be grouped into five classes—the five types I to V of the classification originally proposed by Brunauer, Deming, Eteming and Teller (hereafter BDDT), sometimes referred to as the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), or simply the Brunauer classification. The essential features of these types are indicated in Fig. 1.1. As will be noted, the isotherms of Type IV and Type V possess a hysteresis loop, the lower branch of which represents measurements obtained by progressive addition of gas to the system, and the upper branch by progressive withdrawal hysteresis effects are liable to appear in isotherms of the other types also. The stepped isotherm, appropriately designated Type VI, though relatively rare, is of particular theoretical interest and has therefore been included.  [c.3]

Thus, as pointed out by Cohan who first suggested this model, condensation and evaporation occur at difi erent relative pressures and there is hysteresis. The value of r calculated by the standard Kelvin equation (3.20) for a given uptake, will be equal to the core radius r,. if the desorption branch of the hysteresis loop is used, but equal to twice the core radius if the adsorption branch is used. The two values of should, of course, be the same in practice this is rarely found to be so.  [c.127]

The results of Hickman for the adsorption of butane at 273 K on samples of ball-milled artificial graphite, are of particular interest in the present context. The graphite was milled for 1040 hours and the isotherms of butane were measured on samples withdrawn at intervals. The monolayer capacity increased almost sixty-fold during this period, from 2-S to 14Smgg, yet all six of the isotherms showed a steep fall at the same relative pressure of 0-5. (The low pressure hysteresis, cf. Fig. 3.23, was almost certainly an extraneous effect, caused by swelling.) The pore structure must have varied widely throughout the series, so that the constancy of this closure point is all the more striking it is difficult to find any reason why all the pore systems should show a peak in size distribution at r = 19-2 A, the Kelvin value corresponding to p/p° = 0-5.  [c.156]

The explanation of low-pressure hysteresis proposed by Amell and McDermott some thirty years ago was formulated in terms of the swelling of the particles which accompanies adsorption. The swelling distorts the structure, for example by prising apart weak junctions between primary  [c.234]

Fig. 4.26 Low-pressure hysteresis in the adsorption isotherm of water at 298 K on a partially dehydroxy la ted silica gel. O, first adsorption run (outgassing at 200°C) . first desorption A, second adsorption run (outgassing at 200°C) A. second desorption (after reaching p/p = 0-31) X, third adsorption run (outgassing at 25 C). Fig. 4.26 Low-pressure hysteresis in the adsorption isotherm of water at 298 K on a partially dehydroxy la ted silica gel. O, first adsorption run (outgassing at 200°C) . first desorption A, second adsorption run (outgassing at 200°C) A. second desorption (after reaching p/p = 0-31) X, third adsorption run (outgassing at 25 C).
Adsorption of benzene by carbon 8P. Height (A) of hysteresis loop at p/p — 0-25, and uptake at saturation (w,). Runs were carried out in the order givent  [c.235]

The swelling of the adsorbent can be directly demonstrated as in the experiments of Fig. 4.27 where the solid was a compact made from coal powder and the adsorbate was n-butane. (Closely similar results were obtained with ethyl chloride.) Simultaneous measurements of linear expansion, amount adsorbed and electrical conductivity were made, and as is seen the three resultant isotherms are very similar the hysteresis in adsorption in Fig. 4.27(a), is associated with a corresponding hysteresis in swelling in (h) and in electrical conductivity in (c). The decrease in conductivity in (c) clearly points to an irreversible opening-up of interparticulate junctions this would produce narrow gaps which would function as constrictions in micropores and would thus lead to adsorption hysteresis (cf. Section 4.S).  [c.236]

Water is an adsorbate which is particularly prone to show penetration effects, on account of its small molecular size, its ability to rehydrate or rehydroxylate various oxides, and its capability of dissolving many ionic solids. These factors are responsible for some notable divergences in behaviour between water and conventional adsorptives such as nitrogen. Thus, in an investigation of the properties of a series of chromia gels prepared in several ways. Sing and his collaborators determined the isotherms of water and nitrogen. The water isotherms showed hysteresis throughout the whole range, down to the lowest pressures, whereas the nitrogen isotherms were free of hysteresis. The figures for the v4(N2) and. 4(H20) calculated by the usual BET procedure with a (Nj) = 16-2 and fl (H20) = 10-6 A, are given in Table 4.14. For most samples i4(HjO)  [c.238]


See pages that mention the term Hysteresis adsorption : [c.618]    [c.122]    [c.498]    [c.112]    [c.150]    [c.239]    [c.242]   
Physical chemistry of surfaces (0) -- [ c.662 ]