4- butyrate esters

Analysis The unsaturated acid (or better ester) is easy enough while the carbene reagent might be a sulphur or phosphorus yhd based on our old friend TM 31  [c.117]

The changes described above also allowed much easier access to the high voltage cable for routine (6-month) owner directed, service operations, and provided better upper and lower x-ray cabinet and control cabinet ventilation. With the exception of the x-ray tubes, all the individual manufactured components, on all four systems are identical. There are very subtle differences in the warm-up/start-up sequence on the x-ray controllers on the newer systems due to model/year and x-ray tube differences. The last three systems were supplied with environmental type key-boards for the image processors and base-mounted , rather than conduit-mounted exterior warning indicators. The first system was subsequently upgraded to include the better keyboard and the external warning appliances/features.  [c.611]

Although the left to right reaction is exothermic, hence giving a better equilibrium yield of sulphur trioxide at low temperatures, the reaction is carried out industrially at about 670-720 K. Furthermore, a better yield would be obtained at high pressure, but extra cost of plant does not apparently justify this. Thus the conditions are based on economic rather than theoretical grounds (cf Haber process).  [c.297]

As we have seen, a common route to calculating both the partition coefficient and molar refractivity is by combining in some way the contributions from the fragments or atoms in the molecule. The fragment contributions are often determined using multiple linear regression, which will be discussed below (Section 12.12.2). Such an approach can be applied to many other properties, of which we shall mention only one other here, solubility, Klopman and colleagues were able to derive a regression model for predicting aqueous solubility based upon the presence of groups, most of which corresponded to a single atom in a specific hybridisation state but also included acid, ester and amide groups [Klopman et al. 1992]. This gave a reasonably general model that was able to predict the solubility of a test set within about 1.3 log units. A more specific model which contained more groups performed better but was of less generic applicability.  [c.687]

It is interesting to note that under the influence of aluminium alkoxides (in alcohol or, better, in benzene solution) aldehydes produce the ester (Tischenko reaction)  [c.318]

I) A slightly better yield of ester can be obtained by increasing the quantity of acetic acid to 90-120 g. and refluxing for 12-18 hours. This modification is not worth while in a student s preparation.  [c.382]

Speed manufacturers need only look at the molecules and imagine them without those extra OHs or methylenedioxy ring structures attached to the benzene core. These particular pathways are, however, more uniquely suited for X precursor production because they take advantage of the hindrance that methylenedioxy ring structures and OHs provide on one side of the benzene core. This helps to better assure that mono chloromethylations or bro-minations will occur whereas di- and tri-substitutions are possible on a naked benzene molecule which speed chemists are going to be using (please don t ask).  [c.205]

The best known aryl ester is O acetylsalicylic acid better known as aspirin It is pre pared by acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group of salicylic acid  [c.1006]

Finally, to avoid round-off errors in calculations, it is a good idea to retain at least one extra significant figure throughout the calculation. This is the practice adopted in this textbook. Better yet, invest in a good scientific calculator that allows you to perform lengthy calculations without recording intermediate values. When the calculation is complete, the final answer can be rounded to the correct number of significant figures using the following simple rules.  [c.15]

Animal fats and vegetable oils are triacylglycerols, or triesters, formed from the reaction of glycerol (1,2, 3-propanetriol) with three long-chain fatty acids. One of the methods used to characterize a fat or an oil is a determination of its saponification number. When treated with boiling aqueous KOH, an ester is saponified into the parent alcohol and fatty acids (as carboxylate ions). The saponification number is the number of milligrams of KOH required to saponify 1.000 g of the fat or oil. In a typical analysis, a 2.085-g sample of butter is added to 25.00 ml of 0.5131 M KOH. After saponification is complete, the excess KOH is back titrated with 10.26 ml of0.5000 M HCl. What is the saponification number for this sample of butter  [c.363]

Miniature Electrical Components. In the manufacture of miniature transformers and motor armatures, it is often necessary that the winding be electrically isolated from the bobbin. The insulating varnish of fine copper wire often does not survive the rigors of the winding operation, and, particularly in the case of the smaller devices, the bobbin requires insulation. However, a thicker insulation than is absolutely necessary takes up space that otherwise could be used for more turns of wire. Thus, thickness control in the coating of the bobbin means better performance of the finished device. Parylene is used in the manufacture of high quality miniature stepping motors, such as those used in wristwatches, and as a coating for the ferrite cores of pulse transformers, magnetic tape-recording heads, and miniature inductors, where the abrasiveness of the ferrite is particularly damaging. In the coating of complex, tiny objects such as these, the VDP process has an extra labor-saving advantage. It is possible to coat thousands of such articles simultaneously by tumbling them during the VDP operation (65).  [c.442]

The polymeric products can be made to vary widely in physical properties through controlled variation in the ratios of monomers employed in thek preparation, cross-linking, and control of molecular weight. They share common quaHties of high resistance to chemical and environmental attack, excellent clarity, and attractive strength properties (see Acrylic ester polymers). In addition to acryHc acid itself, methyl, ethyl, butyl, isobutyl, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylates are manufactured on a large scale and are available in better than 98—99% purity (4). They usually contain 10—200 ppm of hydroquinone monomethyl ether as polymerization inhibitor.  [c.148]

Paper. Various paper and board mills have adopted acryhc—vinyl acetate copolymer emulsion polymers as pigment binders for their coated grade papers and boards based on their cost—performance balance. The advantages over the more widely used styrene—butadiene copolymers are higher brightness, opacity, and coating soHds, combined with improved adhesive abiUty (203,204). Acryhc ester polymers have been compared to natural mbber, butadiene—acrylonitrile, and butadiene—styrene as paper saturants (205). Acryhc emulsions are offered that interact with clay in starch—latex-pigmented coatings (206). Acryhc emulsions find some use in size-press apphcations (207) and in beater addition (208) (see Paper making additives).  [c.172]

The predominant cellulose ester fiber is cellulose acetate, a partially acetylated cellulose, also called acetate or secondary acetate. It is widely used in textiles because of its attractive economics, bright color, styling versatiUty, and other favorable aesthetic properties. However, its largest commercial appHcation is as the fibrous material in cigarette filters, where its smoke removal properties and contribution to taste make it the standard for the cigarette industry. Cellulose triacetate fiber, also known as primary cellulose acetate, is an almost completely acetylated cellulose. Although it has fiber properties that are different, and in many ways better than cellulose acetate, it is of lower commercial significance primarily because of environmental considerations in fiber preparation.  [c.290]

Epoxy Resins. Urethane and ester-extended hydantoia epoxy resins cured with several compounds seem to have better properties than the previous ones (98). These resins are prepared from hydantoias such as (21) (99,100).  [c.255]

The phosphate esters have better fire resistance than mineral oils (see Flame retardants, phosphorus flame retardants). The lubricating properties are generally good however, the high temperature stability is fair and decomposition products can be corrosive. Generally, phosphate esters have poor viscosity—temperature characteristics, although pour points and volatility are low. Phosphate esters have considerable effect on paints and finishes and may cause swelling of many seal materials. Compatibility with mineral oils ranges from poor to good, depending on which ester is used hydrolytic stability is fair. Phosphate esters have specific gravities greater than one which implies that water contamination tends to float rather than settle to the bottom, resulting in high pumping losses (see Phosphorus compounds).  [c.265]

Color pigments can be classified chemically as organic or inorganic. Inorganic color pigments are more commonly used than organic pigments in house paints because of thek relatively low cost and better opacifying abiUty. Also, the exterior durabiUty properties of inorganic color pigments are generally better than those of organics. As a result of the advantages of inorganic color pigments, organic color pigments use is limited mosdy to situations where the more saturated and brilliant colors available from them are desked and not available with inorganic pigments (qv).  [c.541]

Glass—rnineral-filled PET mol dings do not have a smooth enough surface (Class A finish) for exterior body parts that would show. However, they are very suitable for internal stmctural components. Because a reduction in automobile weight improves gas mileage, this trend will continue. Some of the mol dings are dimensionally quite large, weighing 4.5 kg (10 lbs) per shot. Improvements in mold design and better understanding of flow behavior in molds, brought about by increasing use of computer-aided design and flow-simulation programs, have all helped to make these large mol dings possible on a routine production basis.  [c.298]

PCT has low moisture uptake and is not affected by changes in humidity as is nylon. However, as with all high melting polyesters, care must be taken to dry the polymer chip thoroughly before melting. PCT has both a high melting point (285—290°C) and a high melt viscosity. Processing temperatures must be over 300°C, which is high for non-LCP polyesters. The combination of properties can lead to thermal and thermooxidative degradation and severe IV drop during mol ding, giving brittle parts (146). The presence in the molecule of two tertiary hydrogen atoms both in a P-position to the ester group is possibly a source of stmctural weakness here. Several patents have appeared on the use of extra additives, antioxidants, and other polymer stabilizers to overcome this problem (147—149). Another patent describes copolymers (150) with better crystallization rates and mol ding properties, and two patents have appeared on the use of terephthaUc acid in place of dimethyl terephthalate in the production of the polymer, both in batchwise (151) and continuous polymerization processes (152). The new family of PCT resins was originally called Ektar, but has been re-designated Thermx since the reorganization of Eastman Chemicals into an independent corporation.  [c.299]

The finished resins are usually dissolved in oxygenated coupling solvents, such as glycol ethers, to improve the solubilization of the resin in aqueous media and the handling of the resin. Water and the base are premixed and added to the resin solution when needed. The coupling solvents usually have higher boiling points than water. During the drying process, the solvent is enriched in the coating film as water evaporates preferentially. The resin molecules become better solubiHzed, ie, molecular chains are extended, and result in better formation and integrity of the film. As expected, water-reducible alkyds suffer from limited hydrolytic stabiHty. Therefore, they are primarily used in industrial coatings. A considerable improvement in package stabiHty, from the current 3—4 months to 1—2 yr, would be needed in order for water-reducible alkyds to be viable in trade sale paints. Steric shielding and avoidance of neighboring nucleophiles to the ester groups in the resin are two of the conditions for the attainment of maximum hydrolysis resistance for polymer ester groups (47). Partial esters of TMA are reportedly relatively stable at room temperature, but suffer substantial hydrolysis within a few weeks at elevated temperatures (48). However, they are more hydrolytically stable than partial esters of IPA or PA (49). Glycerol gives resins with poor hydrolytic stabiHty (50), therefore, polyols with primary hydroxyl groups are preferred for the preparation of water-soluble alkyds.  [c.43]

Polyethers are available in a wide range of molecular weights, from ca 400 to greater than 6000. Diols and triols are most common, but higher functionahties are also available. Common diisocyanates employed are toluenediisocyanate [1321 -38-6] (I DI) or 4,4 -methylenediphenyldiisocyanate [101-68-8] (MDI) with toxicity issues leading toward more use of MDI. Aromatic diisocyanates are most common, but aUphatic diisocyanates are also used. Although more expensive than aromatic isocyanates, aUphatic isocyanates have better color and uv stabiUty. They are used in appHcations where added stabihty is needed and where price can support the extra cost. The other unreacted isocyanate end of the prepolymer is stiU reactive to active hydrogens and is the basis for two-part urethanes. The first part consists of the urethane prepolymer and the second part contains a polyether. By mixing the two parts together, reactions occur between the isocyanate prepolymer and the polyether, resulting in a network having elastomeric properties. Most urethane sealants are of these two- or even three-component types that are mixed on-site.  [c.311]

Hydrolysis Step. The hydrolysis of fats and oils by water requires intimate mixing of these two normally immiscible phases. The reaction is carried out under conditions where water possesses appreciable solubiUty (10—25%) in fats and oils. In practice, this is achieved under high pressure 4—5.5 MPa (580—800 psi) and with high temperatures ( 240-270° C) in stainless steel columns of around 24—31 m in height and 50—130 cm in diameter (Fig. 4). ZnO is sometimes added as a catalyst to the feedstock fats and oils to faciUtate the reaction. The fat and oil feedstock is injected at the bottom and water is injected at the top of the column. The columns may be either open in design, or contain baffles to ensure better mixing through turbulent flow. High pressure steam inlets are placed at three or four different heights in the column for heating. This design estabflshes a countercurrent flow pattern with the water moving through the column from top to bottom and the fats and oils the opposite direction. As these materials intermix at the high temperatures and pressures employed, the ester linkages in the fats and oils hydrolyze to create fatty acids and glycerol. The newly formed fatty acids continue to rise up the column, while the resulting glycerol is carried (washed out) downward with the water phase. Because this is a reversible reaction, it is important to remove the glycerin from the mixture through the countercurrent washing process. The concentrations of glycerol and glycerides (mono, di, and tri) are lowest and the concentration of fatty acid is highest toward the top of the column.  [c.154]

Although many failure mechanisms are involved, the two most common modes are hydrolysis and photochemical oxidation by free-radical chain reactions. In general, resins that have backbone linkages that cannot hydrolyze provide better exterior durabiHty than systems having, for example, ester groups in the backbone. Some esters are more resistant to hydrolysis than others. In general, esters of highly hindered alcohols such as neopentyl glycol are less easily hydrolyzed than those of less hindered alcohols such as ethylene glycol (112). Esters of isophthaHc acid are more resistant to hydrolysis in the range of pH 4 to 8 than esters of phthaHc acid. Ester groups on acryHc polymers are highly resistant to hydrolysis. Even if some of the ester groups do hydrolyze, it would not result in breaking the polymer backbone.  [c.348]

Butanoic acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, colourless syrupy liquid with a strong odour of rancid butter b.p. (sTC. Occurs in butter as the glycerol ester. Prepared by oxidation of 1 -butanol or by the fermentation of sugary or starchy materials by B. subtilis etc. Oxidized  [c.71]

The most imponant r -synthons are obtained from reduction of carbonyi compounds by metals. Corresponding synthetic reactions are the pinacol and acyloin coupling reactions. In the pinacol reduction carbonyl groups are reduced by titanium(II), magnesium, or zinc to ketyl radicals, which combine to give 1,2-diols (S. Tytlik, 1973 T. Mukaiyama, 1973). The reaction is particularly successful in intramolecular formation of cyclic diols (E. J. Corey, 1976). The same holds true for the reductive coupling of two ester groups to form acyloins (= a-hydroxy ketones S.M. McElvain, 1948 J.J. Bloomfield, 1976). The yields are generally better, if the alkoxide anions and enediolate dianions are trapped as silyl ethers. Undesirable side-reactions caused by those strong bases, e.g. cleavage, aldol type reactions, and dehydrations, rue thus prevented (K. RUhlmann, 1971). 1,2-Dicarboxylic esters yield 1,2-bis(trimethylsiloxy)-cyclobutenes, which can be opened thermally. This has been used in a procedure for ring expansion of carbocycles (T. Mori, 1969).  [c.53]

In the second major method of peptide synthesis the carboxyl group is activated by converting it to an active ester usually a p mtrophenyl ester Recall from Sec tion 20 12 that esters react with ammonia and amines to give amides p Nitrophenyl esters are much more reactive than methyl and ethyl esters m these reactions because p mtrophenoxide is a better (less basic) leaving group than methoxide and ethoxide Sim ply allowing the active ester and a C protected ammo acid to stand m a suitable solvent IS sufficient to bring about peptide bond formation by nucleophilic acyl substitution  [c.1139]

Other Applications. Acryhc ester emulsions are used for leather finishing (209) and as acryhc polymer—leather composites. Acryhcs can be used in every stage of pigskin leather production from tanning to finishing. The use of specially designed acryhcs imparts uniformity, break improvement, better durabihty, and surface resistance without impairing the beautiful aesthetic quahties of pigskin (210) (see Leather).  [c.172]

Scalp hair is typically 50—80 p.m in diameter and its exterior consists of a layer of flat, imbricated cuticle scales pointing outward from root to tip. This arrangement of cuticle cells permits better mechanical retention of the fiber in the foUicle and also serves as a self-cleaning feature. Although the individual scales are thin, ie, 0.5 p.m, they are long and overlap each other to form a continuous multilayered shield (3—4 -lm) around the fiber. Enveloped by the protective sheath of the cuticle is hair cortex which constitutes the bulk of the fiber. The cortical cells are fibrillar in nature, highly elongated, and oriented along the length of hair. Dispersed throughout the stmcture of cortex are pigment particles called melanin. Their number, chemical character, and distribution pattern determine the color of hair. In some hairs, centrally located vacuolated medulla cells are also present.  [c.448]

The features of the discussed MO media classes relevant for recording are summarized in Table 3 (35,68). RE-TM based disks meet all requirements for the first generation of MO recording. Their main deficiency is the need of extra protection layers due to the lack of chemical stabiUty. Pt/Co and garnet disks perform better in this respect, enabling a two-layer stack design. For high performance disks, however, dielectric and metallic layers are always necessary to optimize the optical and thermal properties of the disks. A disadvantage of Pt/Co is their higher magnetization, favoring subdomain formation and stable residual domains after erase, so that the magnetic field during writing and erasing has to be increased. Disadvantages of garnet disks are their high preparation temperature, excluding plastic substrates, and their coarse microstmcture, causing noise. Which of these media classes is best suited for recording appHcations in the range of shorter wavelengths is not yet decided, but due to their fine microstmcture and high versatiHty, RE-TM alloys are stiU good candidates.  [c.148]

Wa.ter-Ba.sedInks. Approximately 50% of all flexographic inks use water as their primary solvent and diluent. They contain vehicles based on either acryflc emulsions, or hydrosols or an alkali-soluble rosin ester having a high acid number such as partially esterified fumurated rosin and shellac. Carboxylated acryflc polymers, usually containing some styrene, have largely replaced natural resins because they provide better abrasion and water resistance. Ammonia or other volatile amines are used to solubilize these carboxylated resins and form resin salts. The volatile alkali evaporates from the ink film, rendering the printed matter water resistant.  [c.252]

On dehydration, nitro alcohols yield nitro-olefins. The ester of the nitro alcohol is treated with caustic or is refluxed with a reagent, eg, phthaUc anhydride or phosphoms pentoxide. A mil der method involves the use of methane sulfonyl chloride to transform the hydroxyl into a better leaving group. Yields up to 80% after a reaction time of 15 min at 0°C have been reported (5). In aqueous solution, nitro alcohols decompose at pH 7.0 with the formation of formaldehyde. One mole of formaldehyde is released per mole of monohydric nitro alcohol, and two moles of formaldehyde are released by the nitrodiols. However, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-l,3-propanediol gives only two moles of formaldehyde instead of the expected three moles. The rate of release of formaldehyde increases with the pH or the temperature or both.  [c.61]

Gloss and semigloss paints ate formulated at relatively low Pl Cs and often use only color pigments with no extenders. Gloss enamels can have Pl Cs ranging from 18—23, whereas semigloss paints can range up to 30 Pl C or more. Terms such as semigloss, satin, and luster are used to market paints in this range, though there is no universal acceptance of the actual measured gloss range that constitutes a gloss or a semigloss paint. Gloss paints ate used almost exclusively for interior and exterior doors and trim, whereas semigloss paint may be used for trim, bathroom and kitchen walls, or other surfaces that may be washed or subjected to high humidity. Satin paints are always extended and usually lower in gloss than semigloss paint made by the same manufacturer. Satin paints are mosdy used for walls but can also be used for trim. They are usually more washable than flat paints since they caimot be penetrated as easily by stains, and they can better resist scmbbing due to their lower Pl Cs and greater film integrity ( 30 38PVC). Sheen paints ate similar to satin, but use more extenders so that they give off a luster at low angles close to the surface, but appear flat in a head-on view. Sheen paints are popular as exterior paints for the body of a house, and can give a freshly painted look for many years.  [c.545]

Numerous synthetic transformations have been carried out using enzymes. Oxidoreductases are commonly used to reduce prochiral ketones with high enantioselectivity. The addition of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes, catalyzed by the enzyme mandelonitrile lyase, yields the corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins. Nitrile hydrolase converts cyano functionahties into the corresponding carboxyUc acids, a transformation which usually requires harsh conditions, such as treatment with concentrated hydrochloric acid for 24 hours (62). A principal disadvantage in the use of enzymes is that they produce only one enantiomer it is not always straightforward to produce the other optical isomer. However, in industry this is not problematic because large-scale production of only one isomer is usually required (63). Naproxen [22204-53-1] (41), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory dmg marketed as the pure (3)-enantiomer, is produced from the methyl ester (42) in better than 98% ee using the enzyme Candida iylindracea]i 2Lse (64). The (R)-ester (43) is subsequentiy racemized and retreated with the enzyme to optimize the yield of the (3)-enantiomer.  [c.242]

External Vihra.tors, Air- and electrically operated mechanical vibrators are sometimes placed on the exterior of hoppers and chutes. The type of vibration transmitted can vary from a high frequency, low ampHtude mode, to a low frequency, high ampHtude thumping condition. In general, such devices are better suited to cleaning off chutes than for use on hoppers to be filled with bulk soflds. Disadvantages include noise pollution and possible fatigue damage to the stmcture.  [c.563]

A number of monobasic acids that are not derived from fats and oils have been used ia alkyd resias. However, except ia the rare cases of making the so-called oil-free alkyds for special purposes, they are used ia conjunction with fatty acids to modify resia properties. Rosia acids, primarily abietic acid [514-10-3] may be used ia neat form or be brought ia as a part of TOFA. Presumably, the fused ring stmcture of rosia coatributes to the film hardness, initial gloss, and water resistance of the alkyd. However, color and color retention, and exterior durabiUty are adversely affected if the rosia coateat goes much above 5—6%. The dryiag rate of alkyds usually appears to be improved with rosia modification. However, siace rosia does aot participate ia the oxidative dryiag mechanism that appHes to polyuasaturated fatty acids, the tme dryiag rate of the alkyd resia is actually reduced due to a reductioa of the fatty acid uasaturatioa. Syathetic saturated carboxyUc acids, such as pelargonic acid [112-05-0] 2-ethylhexanoic acid [149-57-5] isooctanoic acid, and aromatic monobasic acids such as benzoic acid [65-85-0] and -alkylbenzoic acids, can give even better color retention, gloss retention, and exterior durabihty but less flexibiUty than those based on castor or coconut fatty acids. The aromatic acids, similar to rosia, also give higher film hardness and faster apparent drying rate.  [c.35]

Phenohc resia appHcations account for 60—70% of all 4-/ f2 -butylphenol consumed worldwide. These resias are used ia a wide range of appHcations which iaclude paints, coating resias, and printing inks (27). 4-/ f2 -Butylphenol novolak resias react with ethylene oxide to form oil field demulsifiers or are converted into phosphate esters for use as hydrauhc fluids and synthetic lubricants. 4-/ f2 Butylphenol resoles react with alkaline-earth metal hydroxides to produce metal resinates. The resinate is combined with a mbber component to give an adhesive. Other uses of 4-/ f2 butylphenol iaclude the chain termination of polycarbonates where its use in the place of phenol gives a polycarbonate with better heat distortion characteristics and improved processabihty for injection grade material. 4-/ f2 -Butylphenol is converted to its corresponding glycidyl ether by the reaction with epichlorohydrin followed by dehydrohalogenation. The glycidyl ether is used as a hardner in epoxy resins (qv). 4-/ f2 -Butylphenol can be reduced with hydrogen to a mixture of i7j -4-tert-butylcyclohexanol and /n j -4-/ f2 butylcyclohexanol under nickel catalysis. The corresponding acetate derivative is widely used as a perfume in soaps and detergents. The sodium salt of the phosphoric ester of 4-/ f2 -butylphenol, sodium bis(4- / fX butylphenyl) phosphate, is used as a nucleating agent for polypropylene (28). The use of a nucleator provides a polypropylene with improved thermal properties and increased clarity. 4-/ f2 Butylphenol is used in the production of pesticides such as 2-(4-/ f2 -butylphenoxy)cyclohexyl-2-propynyl sulfide [2312-35-8] which is used on a variety of fmits and vegetables (29).  [c.66]

Surface OH and COOH are very useful groups for chemical transformations. Monolayers having terminal COOH functionaUty react with alkanoic acids (318), and decylamine (319) to form bdayer H-bon ding-stabilized stmctures, which lack long-term stabiUty owing to the strong electrostatic repulsion in the newly formed charged interface. The caboxylate group can be transformed to the corresponding acid chlorides by using SOCI2 (320). Further reactions with amines and alcohols yield bdayer stmctures with amide and ester linkages, respectively. Reaction of the acid chloride with a carboxyflc acid-terrninated thiol provides the corresponding thioester. This reaction has been used to form polymeric self-assembled monolayers and multilayers from the diacetylene US(CR ) ( —< Z(CR ) COOU (321).  [c.542]

The particle size distribution of Rhovanil Extra Pure vanillin shows a less narrow profile than other standard mesh grades available on the market. The product shows an improved mixabiUty in blending operations, allowing shorter blending time of compounds or food mixes, and better homogeneity of vanillin content, especially in low content vanillin blends.  [c.398]

See pages that mention the term 4- butyrate esters : [c.51]    [c.167]    [c.2209]    [c.94]    [c.450]    [c.769]    [c.1001]    [c.218]    [c.437]    [c.327]    [c.247]    [c.321]    [c.321]   
Protective groups in organic synthesis (1991) -- [ c.0 ]