Hypospadia


Cm ORINE OXYGEN ACIDS AND SALTS - DICm ORINE MONOXIDE, HYPOCm OROUS ACID, AND HYPOCbD ORITES] (Vol 5)  [c.195]

State Water-Pollution-Control Offices Eveiy state has its own water-pollution-control office. Some states have reorganized along the lines oi the federal EPA with state EPA offices, while others haveIcept their water-poUution-control offices within state health departments. Prior to 1965, each state controlled its own water-poUution-control programs. Conflicts between state and uneven enforcement of state regulations resulted in the federal governments assuming the leadership role. Unfortunately, conflicts between states shifted to being conflicts between the states and the federal EPA. By 1980, the state water-pollution-control offices were primarily concerned with handling most of the detailed permit ana paperwork for the EPA and in furnishing technical assistance to industries at the local level. In general, most of the details of regulation are carried out by state water-pollution-control agencies with oversight by EPA.  [c.2210]

The best evidence of a growing problem with male reproductive health is the fact that the incidence of testicular cancer, which predominantly affects young men aged 15-45 years, is known to be on the increase in most countries. Testis cancer is caused by the abnormal development of germ cells during fetal life (see Section 4 on determinants of fertility in adulthood below). The diagnosis and reporting of testicular cancer has always been accurate, which means that these data do not suffer some of the limitations which affect the data collected on incidence of hypospadia and cryptorchidism. Cancer incidence has increased by 2-4% per year since the 1960s in Great Britain, the Nordic and Baltic countries, Australia, New Zealand and North America. It should be noted that there is substantial geographical variation in the incidence of testicular cancer and in the observed rate of increase. This is one of the reasons why environmental factors have been implicated as having a causal role in the increased incidence. Currently, Denmark has the highest incidence of testicular cancer, which has increased threefold from the period 1943-1945 to the period 1985-1989, and the lifetime risk of a male developing testis cancer is 0.8%. As an example of geographical variation, the incidence of testicular cancer is four times higher in Denmark than in Finland. Interestingly, this higher rate of cancer incidence appears to be correlated with the opposite difference in semen quality, since the available studies suggest that men in Denmark have lower sperm counts than those observed in the Finnish popiilation. However, some of the countries with the lowest incidence of testicular cancer are showing some of the highest rates of increase for example, the annual change in incidence in Finland is 3.4% and 4.8% in Poland.  [c.86]


See pages that mention the term Hypospadia : [c.931]    [c.85]    [c.89]    [c.517]    [c.282]    [c.29]   
12 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (1999) -- [ c.6 , c.85 , c.89 , c.93 ]