Daily intakes

Ref. 5. Assumes an average daily intake of 110 g of feed per hen.  [c.143]

Studies have shown manganese to be required for good health in animals (189). Manganese deficiency in animals includes impaired growth, skeletal abnormahties (190), and altered metaboHsm of carbohydrates (qv) (191) and Hpids. Manganese is considered an essential trace element for humans, although there is no direct evidence for this. The National Academy of Sciences recommended dietary allowance for adults is 2.5-5.0 mg/d of manganese (192). The usual daily intake of manganese for humans is in the range of 2-9 mg/d of Mn and comes primarily from food (193).  [c.525]

RED = average daily intake considered adequate and safe.  [c.526]

Nutritional Labeling Content. As part of its efforts to harmonize labeling requirements with the FDA proposal, the FSIS mandates that nutrition information include the same 15 declarations required by FDA as well as allowing certain optional disclosures. The mandatory disclosures include calories, calories from total fat, total fat to nearest one-half gram, saturated fat to nearest one-half gram, cholesterol in milligrams, total carbohydrates in grams excluding fiber, complex carbohydrates in grams, sugars in grams including sugar alcohols, dietary fiber in grams, protein in grams, sodium in milligrams, vitamin A as a percentage of reference daily intake (RDI), vitamin C as a percentage of RDI, calcium as a percentage of RDI, and iron as a percentage of RDI. If the particular product contains insignificant amounts of eight nutrients, the abbreviated format should include calories, total fat, total carbohydrates, protein, and sodium. The optional disclosures include calories from saturated fat and unsaturated fat, unsaturated fat to nearest 0.5 gram (this is mandatory if fatty acid and/or cholesterol claims are made), polyunsaturated and/or monounsaturated fat to the nearest 0.5 gram, declaration of sugar alcohols in grams, insoluble and soluble fiber, potassium in milligrams, and thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and other vitamins or minerals (if a cl aim regarding these nutrients is made) (57).  [c.35]

Estimated safe and adequate daily intake from Ref. 3.  [c.373]

Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester [22839-47-0]) is about 200 times sweeter than sucrose. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) has been estabUshed by JECFA as 40 mg/kg/day. Stmcture-taste relationship of peptides has been reviewed (223). Demand for L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid as the raw materials for the synthesis of aspartame has been increasing, d-Alanine is one component of a sweetener "Ahtame" (224).  [c.296]

Sodium Intake. Where salt is readily available, most of the world s population chooses to consume about 6,000—11,000 mg of salt or sodium chloride a day so that average daily sodium intake from all sources is 3,450 mg (8,770 mg NaCl) (13). The U.S. EDA s GRAS review puts the amount of naturally occurring sodium in the American diet at 1000—1500 mg/d, equivalent to the amount of sodium in approximately 2500—3800 mg NaCl. Thus the average daily intake of NaCl from food-grade salt used in food processing (qv) and from salt added in cooking or at the table is from 4960—6230 mg NaCl. The requirement for salt in the diet has not been precisely estabUshed, but the safe and adequate intake for adults is reported as 1875—5625 mg (14). The National Academy of Sciences recommends that Americans consume a minimum of 500 mg/d of sodium (1250 mg/d salt) (6,15).  [c.185]

The Sugars Task Force s Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs recommended a daily consumption of sugars at 10% of total calories, which approximates current (11%) daily intake levels in the United States. At this level, sucrose does contribute to the development of dental caries however, no firm evidence exists that it causes dietary imbalances or deficiencies of vitamins (qv), minerals, or trace nutrients (62).  [c.6]

Toxicology. Inorganic tin and its compounds are generally of a low order of toxicity, largely because of the poor absorption and rapid excretion from the tissues of the metal (42—49). The acidity and alkalinity of their solutions make assessment of their parenteral toxicity difficult. The oral LD q values for selected inorganic tin compounds are Hsted in Table 2. It is estimated that the average U.S. daily intake of tin, which is mostly from processed foods, is 4 mg (see Food processing).  [c.66]

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of the National Academy of Sciences are intended as daily intake guidelines for preventing deficiencies and maintaining reasonable reserves among most healthy people. These recommendations, revised every 5 to 10 years, are made by a committee of the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board and are based on scientific information that is available at the time of the review. This includes studies on subjects on deficient diets, nutrient balance studies, measures of tissue saturation, normal intakes of the nutrient, and extrapolation from animal data. The most recent RDAs are given in Table 7 (18). The 1989 RDA has a special requirement of 100 mg of vitamin C for cigarette smokers. Otherwise, there is no recognition of special needs for specific groups such as those using certain dmgs chronically, people with disease, or the elderly (eg, over 65 years). Neither does it address the needs for the prevention of any of the chronic diseases.  [c.7]

The half-life of ascorbic acid is inversely related to the daily intake and is 13—40 d in humans and 3 d in guinea pigs, which is consistent with the longer time for humans to develop scurvy.  [c.22]

Requirements. The level of ascorbic acid intake required is dependent in part upon the body s handling of the nutrient. The recommendations for the daily intake of vitamin C in various countries range from 30 to 100 mg/d. There is an extensive lack of knowledge about the biochemical and physiological functions of vitamin C. Although as Httle as 10 mg/d of ascorbic acid can prevent clinical scurvy, this intake is insufficient to maintain an adequate body pool of the vitamin for peak physical and mental health. The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for vitamin C in the United States is 60 mg for men and women to maintain the body pool (Table 5). Vitamin C levels are higher for pregnant and lactating women to account for losses to the fetus and to breast milk.  [c.22]

Since exact requirements for biotin ate uncertain owing to incomplete knowledge regarding biotin availabiHty from food and a lack of definitive studies concerning biotin requirements, the United States National Research Council has estabHshed a safe and adequate daily dietary level of intake for biotin rather than a recommended dietary allowance (RDA). The recommended daily intake of biotin in the United States for all persons ages seven years and older is 30—100 lg/d. In France and South Africa, a recommended daily intake for adults of up to 300 lg/d has been estabHshed, whereas in Singapore an intake of up to 400 lg/d is recommended. Diets consisting of a daily biotin intake of 28—42 lg/d ate considered adequate. A level of 60 lg/d is sufficient for patients under long-term total parenteral nutrition (fed intravenously). An infant s daily intake ranges from 15—20 lg/d and is acquired mosdy through human milk containing 3—20 )-lg/L, or formulas fortified with biotin. An adequate intake level of 10—30 ]l/d for infants and young children is recommended. The safe and adequate levels for daily dietary intake of biotin ate Hsted in Table 1 (11). No side effects have been reported with oral doses of biotin as great as 40 mg or parenteral doses of 5—10 mg/d in infants. No toxicity of biotin has been found (5—7).  [c.27]

Requirement. A daily intake of 1 pg should cover the daily loss of vitamin and maintain an adequate body pool. The RDA (34), however, has been estabHshed at 2 pg/day to cover metaboHc variation among individuals and to ensure normal semm concentrations and adequate pool sizes (Table 2).  [c.112]

Generally, barium content of food parallels calcium content in a ratio from 1 /10 to 1/10 (47). Milk contains about 45—136 micrograms Ba per gram Ca wheat and oatmeal contain 1300 and 2320—8290 micrograms Ba per gram Ca, respectively. The average daily intake of barium may be as high as 1.33 mg in the diet of the general population. Dietary barium intake has been estimated to originate 25% from milk, 25% from flour, 25% from potatoes, and 25% from miscellaneous high barium foods, such as nuts, consumed in small quantities.  [c.483]

Calcium is readily abundant in the mammalian diet. A 70 kg human contains approximately 1200 g of calcium and has a daily intake of 1100 mg/day. There are no pubHshed exposure limits (38). Low levels of calcium in the blood, hypocalcemia, can lead to tetany high levels, hypercalcemia, can lead to coma and death. Calcium toxicity, above 160 mg/L in the blood, is not related to an excessive intake of calcium.  [c.416]

Region Number of facilities Intake, TPD % of daily intake Tip fee, /ton  [c.2250]

The amount of phytoestrogens to which an individual is exposed will depend upon the types and amounts of food they consume, and the composition of the foodstuff s. The level of the various phytoestrogens in foodstuffs varies widely (e.g. soy products tend to be high in isoflavones, alfalfa contains high levels of coumestrol, and celery, linseed oil and onions contain lignans and flavonoids). The levels present depend not only on the genetic constitution of the plants used, but also on external factors during the growing of the plants (e.g. agricultural practice and environmental conditions) and post-harvest storage. In addition, subsequent food processing practices may have a profound influence on the levels occurring in the final foodstuff. Overall, daily intakes of phytoestrogens can vary markedly. For example, in Japan, intakes appear at least 30 times greater than in the Increasingly, the suggested health benefits of phytoestrogens are  [c.111]

Based on the results of risk assessment, decision makers have to attempt to manage risks, e.g., by determining various exposure limits to protect individuals against deleterious effects of chemical exposures. This kind of procedure is commonly used for determining acceptable daily intake values (ADIs) for contaminants in foods and acceptable operator exposure level (AOELs for pesticides. Even though the results obtained in experimental animal tests are part of the basic data on which the OELs have been based, the levels result from consideration of many other aspects, especially epidemiological data. In addition, these decisions take into consideration economic and political consequences of the decisions, as well as perception of various risks by the general public. Furthermore, properties such as strong odor or irritation influence the levels of OELs. It needs to be kept in mind that even though risk assessment of exposures  [c.254]

CDl = clu-onic daily intake averaged over 70 years (mg/kg-day)  [c.403]

Toxicology of Insecticide Residues. Risk assessment from the chronic ingestion of insecticide residues is made from the results of lifetime feeding studies at several dosage ranges with mice, rats, and dogs. The observed no adverse effect level (NOAEL) in mg of pesticide ingested per kg of body weight is evaluated by considerations of the test animals general health, food intake, weight gain, gross histopathology, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans exposed to pesticide residues in the diet is determined from such laboratory animal investigations by incorporating a safety factor to accommodate for inter- and intraspecific variations. This safety factor is set at 10-fold where vaHd human exposure data are available, at 100-fold where there are vaHd laboratory data but no human data, and at 1000-fold where no adequate chronic exposure data are available.  [c.309]

The safety of lecithin is also confirmed by the World Health Organi2ation (WHO). WHO has not set any acceptable daily intake (ADI) to lecithin as  [c.103]

Tin. The widespread use of caimed foods results in a daily intake of tin that is ca 1—17 mg for an adult male (154). At this level it has not been shown to be toxic. Some grains also contain tin. Too much tin can adversely affect 2inc balance and iron metaboHsm. EssentiaUty has not been confirmed for humans. It has been shown for the rat. An enhanced growth rate results from tin supplementation of low tin diets (85). Animals on deficient diets exhibit poor growth and decreased feed efficiency (155).  [c.388]

Adenosine is a ubiquitous neuromodulatory agent that is normally present in the extracellular milieu and functions to maintain tissue homeostasis. This is most evident in the daily intake of caffeine [58-08-2] a weak yet effective adenosine antagonist, that is the most widely used dmg. Consumed in various beverages, caffeine acts to counteract the sedative actions of adenosine. A side effect of caffeine intake is the diuretic actions produced via the blockade of adenosine receptors in the kidney. More potent analogues of caffeine such as (37) are being evaluated for use as cognition enhancers and A receptor agonists have potential use as antiischemic agents, both centrally and peripherally. Adenosine receptor ligands may have therapeutic potential in cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and immune system-associated disease states. The human A receptor is knpHcated in the pathophysiology of asthma (see Antiasthmatic agents).  [c.525]

IPCS Health Criteria Document No. 104, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Swit2edand, 1990. Explains principles, concepts, and definitions used by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (fMPR) when assessing toxicological date on pesticide residues in food and estabhshing acceptable daily intakes. Guides, design and interpretation of relevant toxicological studies. Alerts readers to multiplicity of factors, from endocrinology of species to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of pesticide, that can influence vaUdity of a study and determine relevance to safety assessment.  [c.153]

JECEA reviewed the safety studies of glutamate and endorsed its safety by allocating an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for L-glutamic acid and its monosodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium salts as being "not specified." The scientific committee for food of EC concurred (40).  [c.305]

Iodized Salt. Iodized table salt has been used to provide supplemental iodine to the U.S. population since 1924, when producers, in cooperation with the Michigan State Medical Society (24), began a voluntary program of salt iodization in Michigan that ultimately led to the elimination of iodine deficiency in the United States. More than 50% of the table salt sold in the United States is iodized. Potassium iodide in table salt at levels of 0.006% to 0.01% KI is one of two sources of iodine for food-grade salt approved by the U.S. Food and Dmg Administration. The other, cuprous iodide, is not used by U.S. salt producers. Iodine may be added to a food so that the daily intake does not exceed 225 p.g for adults and children over four years of age. Potassium iodide is unstable under conditions of extreme moisture and temperature, particularly in an acid environment. Sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate is added to increase alkalinity, and sodium thiosulfate or dextrose is added to stabilize potassium iodide. Without a stabilizer, potassium iodide is oxidized to iodine and lost by volatilization from the product. Potassium iodate, far more stable than potassium iodide, is widely used in other parts of the world, but is not approved for use in the United States.  [c.186]

The acceptable daily intake by human adults for nitrates suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is 5 mg/kg body wt per day (expressed as sodium nitrate). Some studies have suggested that this figure might be iacreased to 25 mg/kg. High doses of nitrates are lethal. Accidental ingestion of ca 8—15 g or more of sodium or potassium nitrate causes severe abdominal pain, bloody stools and mine, weakness, and coUapse. Victims of sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate poisoning contract severe gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of poisoning from the ingestion of meats containing sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite have occurred from the accidental iacorporation of excessive amounts of nitrate—nitrite mixtures, ie, 0.5 wt % nitrite as compared to maximum ingredient specifications of 0.05 and 0.02 wt % of nitrates and nitrites, respectively. The health hazards associated with nitrates result mainly from the bacterial conversion of iagested nitrates to nitrites. Infants ia the first 3 months of life are particularly susceptible to nitrite-iaduced methemoglobiaemia. In most cases of illness and death, well water has been used to add to powdered milk. WHO has recommended a maximum permissible concentration of nitrates of 45 mg/L ia drinking water. The U.S. PubHc Health Service standard for nitrates is 10 mg/L. Nitrate toxicity ia mminants is considered to depend on the abiUty of nitrate to reduce to nitrite, because nitrites are considerably more toxic. Maximum safe levels of nitrate ia water for Hvestock consumption are <100ppm, although levels ia excess of 500 ppm nitrate are required to produce acute poisoning. Levels ia feeds should not exceed 5,000 ppm nitrate, and death may result from 15,000 ppm nitrate ia the total diet. For further information, see Reference 8.  [c.196]

Vanillin is Hsted in the Code of Federal Regulations by the FDA as a Generally Recogni2ed As Safe (GRAS) substance. The Council of Europe and the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Eood Additives have both given vanillin an unconditional Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 mg/kg.  [c.401]

Mobilization and Metabolism. The total ascorbic acid body pool in healthy adults has been estimated to be approximately 1.5 g, which increases to 2.3—2.8 g with intakes of 200 mg/d (151—158). Depletion of the body pool to 600 mg initiates physiological changes, and signs of clinical scurvy are reported when the body pool falls below 300 mg (149). Approximately 3—4% of the body pool turns over daily, representing 40—60 mg/d of metabolized, or consumed, vitamin C. Smokers have a higher metaboHc turnover rate of vitamin C (approximately 100 mg/d) and a lower body pool than nonsmokers, unless compensated through increased daily intakes of vitamin C (159). The metaboHsm of ascorbic acid varies among different species.  [c.22]

The 1989 Recommended Dietary allowances (RDA) of the Food and Nutrition Board (86) are 0.6 mg riboflavin per 239 kj (1000 kcal) for essentially healthy people of all ages. This leads to the ranging from 0.4 mg/day for early infants to 1.8 mg/day for young males. For elderly people and others whose daily calorie intake may be less than 478 kJ (2000 kcal), a minimum of 1.2 mg/day is recommended. During pregnancy, an additional riboflavin intake of 0.3 mg/day is recommended in view of the increased tissue synthesis for both fetal and maternal development. For the lactating woman, the requirement is assumed to increase by an amount at least equal to that excreted in milk, which has a mean riboflavin content of 35 p.g/100 mL. At an average milk production of 750 mL/day and 600 mL/d during the first and second 6 months of lactation, riboflavin secretion is 0.26 mg/d and 0.21 mg/d, respectively. Because the utili2a tion of the additional riboflavin for milk production is assumed to be 70%, and the coefficient of variation of milk production is 12.5%, an additional daily intake of 0.5 mg is recommended for the first 6 mo of lactation and 0.4 mg thereafter.  [c.80]

Vitamin A toxicity can be categorized as either acute or chronic. Acute toxicity results from extremely high doses (>500,000 lU of vitamin A). In children, approximately half of that amount causes problems. Hypervitaminosis A is characterized by headache, blurred vision, loss of coordination, nausea, and peeling and itchy skin. Chronic vitamin A toxicity occurs in adults with long-term intakes of >50,000 lU/d. Symptoms include dry hair, hair loss, weakness, headache, bone thickening, enlarged Ever and spleen, anemia, abnormal menstmal periods, stiffness, and joint pain. Most of these symptoms are reversible. In animals, extremely high doses of vitamin are teratogenic (56). On the other hand, the carotenoids are generally nontoxic and there have been only a few isolated cases of problems associated with a large daily intake. Tanning pills that contain large doses of canthaxanthin were shown to cause canthaxanthin retinopathy in patients with eryrthropoietic porphyria (68,70).  [c.104]

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) An estimate similar in concept to the RfD, but derived using a less strictly defined methodology. RfDs have replaced ADIs as the USEPA s (Agency) preferred values for use in evaluating potential noiicarcinogenic health effects resulting from exposure to a chemical.  [c.316]

What are the maximum number of excess lifetime cancer cases expected for a population of 5,000 adults with a daily intake of O.lOing of benzene The slope factor for benzene may be assumed to be 0.029 (mgAcg-day)".  [c.346]

For carcinogens, risks are estimated as the incremental probability of an indii idual developing ameer o er a lifetime as a result of exposure to the potential carcinogen. The slope factor (SF) converts estimated daily intakes averaged over a lifetime of exposure directly to incremental risk of an individual developing cancer.  [c.419]

There have been numerous reports of possible allergic reactions to mercury and mercury salts and to the mercury, silver and copper in dental amalgam as well as to amalgam corrosion products Studies of the release of mercury by amalgams into distilled water, saline and artificial saliva tend to be conflicting and contradictory but, overall, the data indicate that mercury release drops with time due to film formation and is less than the acceptable daily intake for mercury in food . Further, while metallic mercury can sensitise, sensitisation of patients to mercury by dental amalgam appears to be a rare occurrence. Nevertheless, there is a growing trend to develop polymer-based posterior restorative materials in order to eliminate the use of mercury in dentistry.  [c.461]

See pages that mention the term Daily intakes : [c.206]    [c.150]    [c.34]    [c.142]    [c.105]    [c.292]    [c.342]    [c.399]    [c.399]    [c.400]    [c.403]    [c.1198]   
12 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (1999) -- [ c.111 ]