Body fat


In Eigure 1, the lower edge of the drawing is the flesh side of the hide. The hide, as it is removed from an animal, has body fat and a thin membrane separating the hide from the fat and flesh of the body of the animal. The area near the inside of the hide is made up of the heaviest fibers of the hide.  [c.80]

Triacylglycerols are rich in highly reduced carbons and thus yield large amounts of energy in the oxidative reactions of metabolism. Complete oxidation of 1 g of triacylglycerols yields about 38 y of energy, whereas proteins and carbohydrates yield only about 17 kj/g. Also, their hydrophobic nature allows them to aggregate in highly anhydrous forms, whereas polysaccharides and proteins are highly hydrated. For these reasons, triacylglycerols are the molecules of choice for energy storage in animals. Body fat (mainly triacylglycerols) also provides good insulation. Whales and Arctic mammals rely on body fat for both insulation and energy reserves.  [c.243]

Ferro D R and J Hermans 1977. A Different Best Rigid-body Molecular Fit Routine. Acta Crystallographica A33 345-347.  [c.523]

In addition to being an androgen the principal male sex hormone testosterone promotes muscle growth and is classified as an anabolic steroid hor mone Biological chemists distinguish between two major classes of metabolism catabolic and anabolic processes Catabolic processes are degradative path ways in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller ones Anabolic processes are the reverse larger molecules are synthesized from smaller ones Although the body mainly stores energy from food in the form of fat a portion of that energy goes toward producing muscle from protein An increase in the amount of testosterone accompanied by an increase in the amount of food consumed will cause an in crease in the body s muscle mass  [c.1099]

Feeding practices vary from species to species. It is important not to overfeed since waste feed not only means wasted money, it can also lead to degradation of water quahty. Most species require only three to four percent of body weight in dry feed daily for optimum growth. Very young animals are an exception. They are fed at a higher rate because they are growing rapidly and consume a greater percentage of body weight daily than older animals. It is important to have food readily available to them. Food should be spread evenly over the culture chamber area so the young animals do not have to expend a great deal of energy searching for a meal. Feeding rates as high as 50% of body weight daily are not uncommon for young animals. Since total biomass is small, even in intensively stocked units such as raceways, the economic cost is not high. Water quahty in raceways can be maintained by siphoning out waste feed periodically. In ponds, any unconsumed feed acts as fertilizer and the quantities used are not high enough to affect water quahty adversely.  [c.21]

Prevention of Obesity. Cereal products may have an important role in obesity control because of the low concentration of fat in cereals and the fact that the starch in wheat flour acts, in the human body, somewhat like dietary fiber (29). Both the restriction in dietary fat and the presence of dietary fiber aid the individual in reducing caloric intake with a minimum of effort, and decrease the hunger reaction that plagues most people attempting to lose weight. Many people beheve bread and cereal products and fattening, although bread frequently serves as the innocuous vehicle for the conveyance to the mouth of various fattening foods.  [c.352]

Pulpstone Wheels. Grinding wheels play an important role in the production of paper pulp (qv). Massive pulpstone wheels are made from vitrified abrasive segments, bolted and cemented together around a reinforced concrete central body. They may be up to 1.80 m in diameter and have a breadth of 1.70 m. In operation, debarked wood logs are fed into a machine and forced against the rotating pulpstone, which shreds the wood into fibers under a torrent of water. The ground fibers are then screened and passed through subsequent operations to produce various types of paper.  [c.15]

Food Components and Cooking Oils. Fats and oils have a relatively large number of carbon—carbon and carbon—hydrogen bonds. When burned as fuel in the body they provide approximately 37.7 kj/g (9 kcal/g) in energy. By comparison, proteins and carbohydrates contribute only about 16.7 kJ/g (4 kcal/g) (one food calorie = 1 kcal). Fat is therefore the most energy dense food available. In addition, fats contribute essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the most effective component for prevention of fatty acid deficiency. Fortunately, the daily requirement is very low and extremely severe restrictions are required to induce deficiencies. Fats produce a feeling of satiety and attempts to severely curtail fat may result in a "fat hunger." Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble and are generally associated with fats in foods. Eats contribute desirable flavor and texture to food products. In addition to native or modified flavor, fats and oils serve as solvents and modulators for other flavor components present in foods.  [c.134]

Feed additives are common to swine and poultry feeds for a number of purposes. Antibiotics (qv), used to promote growth and improve feed utilization, are poody digestible and function primarily by controlling the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract. Antibiotics fed to animals for this purpose generally are not used for human antibiotic therapy. Other antibiotics, used for disease therapy, are generally injected or are absorbed into the body tissues where they are effective against the disease-causing organisms. Other feed additives include antioxidants (qv) to protect feeds against oxidative rancidity, mold inhibitors to prevent development of potentially toxic mold products, anticoccidial compounds that protect chickens against this severe parasitic disease, anthelmintics, and other types of growth promoters (see Growth REGULATORS).  [c.146]

Glazed ceramics can be subject to an additional problem. If the glaze does not fit weU, ie, if the thermal expansion coefficient of the glaze does not match that of the ceramic body, changes ia temperature can result ia loss of adhesioa betweea glaze and body. On archaeological objects, the glaze, through devitrification, can change so much ia thermal expansioa behavior that it becomes extremely uastable uader coaditioas other than a rigidly controUed constant temperature.  [c.426]

Fluid mechanics is both a descriptive science of the phenomena that occur when fluids flow and a quantitative science showing how these phenomena may be described ia mathematical terms. To a practicing chemical technologist, fluid mechanics is an entire body of knowledge, theoretical and empirical, qualitative and quantitative, allowing analysis of the performance of complex plant equipment handling moving fluids. Calculation of the details of the flow is secondary to understanding the phenomena well enough to accomplish the process task. At times the technologist s needs are best satisfied by an empirical correlation at other times the necessary skills consist largely of knowing how to fit the idealized solutions of the mathematician into a practical situation.  [c.87]

For welded side-seam cans, sheets of steel are coated, baked, and sHt into body blanks. The blanks are fed into the bodymaker, where the edges are cleaned to remove any interfering layer where the steel is welded. The blank is formed into a cylinder with the edges overlapped at the side seam and tack welded together. The cylinder is then passed between rotating wheel electrodes, which weld each side of the seam. Side-seam coating coverage is achieved by applying a powdered epoxy material to both sides of the seam immediately after welding. Residual heat from the weld fuses and cures the stripe.  [c.450]

Studies in which rats were fed drinking water containing as much as 10% propylene glycol over a period of 140 days (31,32) showed no apparent ill effects. Other investigations have revealed that rats can tolerate up to 4.9% propylene glycol in the diet for two years without significant effects on growth rate (33). However, minor Hver damage was observed. In a more recent study (34), dogs were fed a diet containing 8% propylene glycol for two years and were unaffected, as judged by mortaUty, body weight changes, diet utilisation, histopathology, organ weights, and blood, urine, and biochemical parameters. Because of its low chronic oral toxicity, propylene glycol is considered safe for use in foods and pharmaceuticals.  [c.369]

Four general classes (ca 1993) of growth regulators are approved by the Food and Dmg Administration (FDA) for use in food-producing animals in the United States. These include naturaHy occurring and synthetic estrogens and androgens, ie, anaboHc steroids (qv) ionophores antibiotics (qv) and bovine somatotropin. Compounds in the first class, anaboHc steroids, act as metaboHsm modifiers to alter nutrient partitioning toward greater rates of protein synthesis and deposition, thereby increasing the weight at which 25 to 30% Hpid content in the body or carcass is achieved. Ionophores have highly selective antibiotic activity and appear to enhance feed conversion efficiency through effects on mminal microbes. Antibiotics, adrninistered at subtherapeutic doses, enhance growth through improving feed conversion efficiency and/or growth rate, with no consistent effect on body or carcass composition.  [c.408]

One striking feature common to all animal responses to these compounds is the lack of anaboHc effects on visceral organ or bone growth. Another similarity among responses is that young animals that are nursing, are being reared on milk replacer diets, or have recently been weaned, exhibit htde improvement in growth performance or body composition when fed these compounds. Evidence suggests that responses in young animals may be constrained by the lack of complete -receptor differentiation in responsive tissues. This has not been unequivocally supported. Reductions in Hpid accretion rates appear to be highest in animals that exhibit relatively high rates of Hpid accretion, ie, those which are more physiologically mature, but are still approaching normal market weights.  [c.414]

In addition to its growth-stimulating properties, GH exerts potent metaboHc actions. It induces a decrease in blood urea and amino acid levels this action may be secondary to an increase in the rate of amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in peripheral tissues. Growth hormone antagonizes the blood sugar-lowering effect of insulin by suppressing glucose uptake and utilization, and promotes body leanness by decreasing fat synthesis and stimulating adipose breakdown. As a result of these deskable metaboHc effects, recombinant GH preparations may find significant commercial appHcations as performance stimulators in domestic animals. Research has shown that growth hormone enhances milk production in lactating animals and improves feed efficiency, growth rate, and carcass lean meat-to-fat ratio in growing animals (see Growth regulators, animal). Interestingly, there is an increasing body of evidence to support the role of growth hormone as a stimulator of immune function, with the abiHty to reverse the aging-related decrease in thymus size (28).  [c.176]

Growth hormone from one species is not necessarily active when adrninistered to other species. Bovine GH [66419-50-9] for example, is active in sheep and rodents, but not in primates. Growth hormone from primates, but not other species, exerts prolactin-like activity, which reflects its abiHty to bind to the prolactin receptor (18). The evidence supporting the abiHty of growth hormone to create a deskable physiological profile, ie, high protein—water and low fat body composition, and to enhance immunity has created a high degree of research interest in the pharmaceutical industry. U.S. Food and Dmg Administration (FDA) approval has been granted for the use of a recombinant bovine GH preparation, produced by Monsanto Co.,  [c.176]

Conventional reactors used for conducting hydrothermal reactions, leaching or precipitation, ate frequentiy called autoclaves. Vessels can be vertical, horizontal, or spherical. Vertical autoclaves ate generally steam heated and agitated, whereas horizontally oriented vessels may be mechanically agitated. Spherical autoclaves ate rotated to impart gentie mixing to the slurry. Steam agitated vessels ate fabricated from welded stainless steel cylinders with spherical heads. Steam is generally fed from the bottom, and a liner of acid-proof brick may be incorporated. Horizontally oriented vessels ate divided into several mixed sections. The body can be lined with mbber, lead, or alloy steel.  [c.501]

The reactivity of the individual O—P insecticides is determined by the magnitude of the electrophilic character of the phosphoms atom, the strength of the bond P—X, and the steric effects of the substituents. The electrophilic nature of the central P atom is determined by the relative positions of the shared electron pairs, between atoms bonded to phosphoms, and is a function of the relative electronegativities of the two atoms in each bond (P, 2.1 O, 3.5 S, 2.5 N, 3.0 and C, 2.5). Therefore, it is clear that in phosphate esters (P=0) the phosphoms is much more electrophilic and these are more reactive than phosphorothioate esters (P=S). The latter generally are so stable as to be relatively unreactive with AChE. They owe their biological activity to m vivo oxidation by a microsomal oxidase, a reaction that takes place in insect gut and fat body tissues and in the mammalian Hver. A typical example is the oxidation of parathion (61) to paraoxon [311-45-5] (110).  [c.289]

The most abundant spin-bearing nucleus in the human body is hydrogen. The two most abundant forms of hydrogen are fat and water hydrogens. These hydrogens yield one signal in the image, as chemical shift and spin—spin splitting information is generally not utilized. Occasionally the different  [c.55]

They are widely distributed in vegetable lipids, and in the body fat of animals, though animals cannot synthesize them. They have vitamin E activity and can protect unsaturated lipids against oxidation. Four are found naturally  [c.400]

Growth Performance Response. The consistent net effect of anaboHc steroid implant use in growing mminants appears to be increased rate of protein and Hve weight gain, and increased Hve weight at which carcass or empty body fat concentration equals that in nonimplanted cattie thus increasing their potential mature size. Increased feed intake is frequentiy observed.  [c.409]

Body fat content is also a factor affecting the bioacciimiilation of chemicals. Organisms with a high body fat content will bioaccnmiilate larger amounts than those with a lower body fat content. Compartmentalisation of compounds within an organism depends on the body fat content and distribution, with higher concentrations apparent in lipid-storing organs.  [c.76]

Phytoestrogens are present in plants (soya, beans, grains, vegetables and fruit) and are consumed by both man and animals. They are structurally and functionally similar to oestradiol and there are three main types isoflavones, conmestans/hgnans and mycoestrogens. Unlike many of the chemicals, phytoestrogens do not bioaccnmulate in body fat and are readily metabolised. However, they are considerably more potent oestrogenically. Interestingly, there are data which suggest that some phytoestrogens, for instance genistein, may have a stronger binding affinity for ER/1 than ERa. Since soy-derived protein is being used increasingly in processed foods in the West and approximately 60% of such foods are thought to contain soy derivatives, human intake could be substantial especially for Orientals and vegetarians whose diet will contain higher quantities of phytoestrogens.  [c.105]

When the energy gradient is evaluated by a computer the calculation of atomic forces fa produced by bonded and nonbonded interactions takes a vast majority of time. Summations involved in Eqs. (1) and (2) are rapid because the articulated bodies fit one into another like in a Russian doll. In an unbranched chain D[ 3 D2 3 3 D i 3 D , and therefore the sums in Eqs. (1) and (2) can be computed starting from the tip of the chain, moving to the base, and at the /th variable adding only the contribution from subset DJDi+i. Extension to trees is straightforward. The idea of such recurrent calculations belongs to Go and collaborators [28], and it appears in many other applications. As a result, in tenns of computer time, energy gradients with respect to internal coordinates are no more expensive than atomic forces in Cartesian coordinate calculations. In fact, even a small savings can be achieved, because the last terms in Eqs. (1) and (2) can be evaluated directly.  [c.121]

The polar bear is magnificently adapted to thrive in its harsh Arctic environment. Research by Malcolm Ramsey (at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada) and others has shown that polar bears eat only during a few weeks out of the year and then fast for periods of 8 months or more, consuming no food or water during that time. Eating mainly in the winter, the adult polar bear feeds almost exclusively on seal blubber (largely composed of triacylglycerols), thus building up its own triacylglycerol reserves. Through the Arctic summer, the polar bear maintains normal physical activity, roaming over long distances, but relies entirely on its body fat for sustenance, burning as much as 1 to 1.5 kg of fat per day. It neither urinates nor defecates for extended periods. All the water needed to sustain life is provided from the metabolism of triacylglycerides (because oxidation of fatty acids yields carbon dioxide and water).  [c.243]

Because they represent the most highly concentrated form of stored biological energy, fatty acids are the metabolic fuel of choice for sustaining the incredibly long flights of many migratory birds. Although some birds migrate over land masses and dine frequently, other species fly long distances without stopping to eat. The American golden plover flies directly from Alaska to Hawaii, a 3300-kilometer flight requiring 35 hours (at an average speed of nearly 60 miles/hr) and more than 250,000 wing beats The ruby-throated hummingbird, which winters in Central America and nests in southern Canada, often flies nonstop across the Gulf of Mexico. These and similar birds accomplish these prodigious feats by storing large amounts of fatty acids (as triacylglyc-erols) in the days before their migratory flights. The percentage of dry-weight body fat in these birds may be as high as 70% when migration begins (compared with values of 30% and less for nonmigratory birds).  [c.790]

In a prolonged fasting state, liver glycogen can supply glucose to the blood, and ultimately to tissues such as the brain that preferentially use glucose, for only about twelve hours, even at rest. Thereafter fat and protein stores are broken down for energy. Even people of normal weight have an average of 15 percent (for men) to 21 percent (for women) body fat. So, as long as their fluid intake is sufficient, a healthy person may suiwive as much as two months of fasting. Flowever fasting has significant negative effects. Fats are broken down to glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is converted to glucose by the liver in a process called gluconeogenesis, and the glucose is released into the blood to provide energy for the brain. The fatty acids are metabolized by a variety of tissues, leaving keto acids that cause the acid level in the blood to rise (fall in pH). Some protein is broken down to amino acids and these, like glycerol, takes part in gluconeogenesis. The metabolic rate falls as the body attempts to conserve energy. This reduction in metabolic rate with fasting is one reason crash dieting is so ineffective. WTien fat stores are used up, protein catabolism accelerates. Body muscle is digested and the person develops the stick-thin extremities characteristicsc of starving children and those with anorexia nervosa. If they do not receive nourishment, these people will soon die.  [c.177]

The analysis (in the case of two structures) starts by a translational-rotational fit of the two structures and constructing the displacement vectors of all backbone atoms. Considering these as samples of a vector field, the curl of that vector field is computed, as sampled by each aminoacid. Thus a collection of rotation vectors is obtained. If a rigid body exists, the rotation vectors of all aminoacids in that body are equal, and different from rotation vectors in other rigid bodies. A standard cluster analysis on the rotation vectors, using the ratio of external to internal motion as a discrimination criterion, is then carried out. This yields a subdivision of the protein in semirigid bodies (if they exist) and identifies the links between them. The type of motion of one rigid body with respect to another is then analysed in terms of a unique axis, and such (hinge bending) motions can be objectively characterized as closing or twisting motions (Fig. 5).  [c.24]

The state of knowledge in the early 1990s of the effects of fat on health lacks clarity and general agreement. There is great support for the thesis that fully saturated fats are associated with problems of atherosclerosis and arterial fatty deposit, but there is evidence that stearates, which are saturates, are only poorly utilized in human digestion. Another body of work has estabUshed a connection between unsaturated fatty acids and a better state of arterial health and lowered fat body attachment to the arterial wall (23) contrary evidence exists that highly unsaturated fats polymerize more readily and thus contribute to arterial plaque formation.  [c.117]

The metabohsm of triglycerides has been viewed traditionally as unaffected by fatty acid composition, but work since the 1970s has demonstrated otherwise. Most fats, including soy, com, and safflower oils, are composed of long-chain fatty acids. A group of oils, including coconut, babassu, and palm kernel oil, are composed of fatty acids of C-14 and less and are known as the lauric fats because they contain as high as 45—50% lauric acid [143-07-7]. The difference between the long-chain and lauric fats is the route of absorption in the human body. Long-chain fatty acid oils are absorbed after emulsification by the lymphatic system. Lauric fats are transported directiy to the Hver by the portal system, where they are oxidized and metabolized as rapidly as carbohydrates. These medium-chain glycerides lower blood and tissue cholesterol in animals and humans. They have a very low tendency to deposit as depot fat, and thus are of interest in the control of obesity (24). This leads to the postulation that one could stmcture fats by a dding medium-chain length fatty acids to the glycerol backbone and produce fats that are to be used for energy. The medium-chain length fats produce only 4 or 5 kcal of energy as opposed to the 9 kcal of long-chain fatty acid oils (25). A biotechnology company has been able to insert the laurate gene into rapeseed and produce high levels of lauric acid in the oil fraction. Commercial production of high lauric canola oil from rapeseed is expected in 1993.  [c.117]

The salts of the perfluorinated acids are not corrosive, so one is in a better position to discuss toxicity not related to corrosivity. The toxicity of the salts varies depending on the exact stmcture. The ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid is nonirritating to the skin and moderately irritating to the eyes. Its oral toxicity is rated at moderate the LD q is 540 mg per kg of body weight (52). There has been some concern in the past that ammonium perfluorooctanoate was teratogenic. More recent results indicate that it is neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic (52,53). It was not found to be mutagenic in either the Ames assay or one employing Saccharomjces cerevisiae D4 yeast (52). It also did not cause cell transformation in a mammalian cell transformation assay (53). Although ammonium perfluorooctanoate was fed to albino rats for two years, no compound-induced carcinogenicity was found in the study. There were statistically significant compound-related benign testicular tumors (52,53). Prolonged or repeated exposure can cause liver damage which results in jaundice or tenderness of the upper abdomen (53). The dust from the ammonium salts of the perfluorinated acids is irritating to breathe and should only be handled in a weU-ventilated area or preferably a hood.  [c.312]

Fish Protein Concentrates and Isolates. Fish proteia concentrates (FPC) and isolates (FPI) ate produced for human food use from whole edible species of fish usiag sanitary ptocessiag methods fish meal and fish solubles ate produced for animal feed. FPC taw materials iaclude whole hake, hake-like fish, and herring of the genera Clupea and menhaden and anchovy of the species Engrau/ s mordax without removal of heads, fins, tails, or intestinal contents. FPI taw materials iaclude edible portions of fish body generally recognized as safe for human consumption after removal of heads, fins, tads, bones, scales, viscera, and intestinal contents (139). In the United States, FDA regulations describe the production processes for preparing FPC and FPI (139). The FDA regulations also specify that FPC and FPI contain minimum proteia coateats of 75 and 90%, respectively, a maximum fat content of 0.5%, and a maximum moisture content of 10% by weight. FPC must be free of Escherichia coli Salmonella and other food pathogens and have a total bacterial plate count of not mote than 10,000 pet gram.  [c.471]

Eew studies investigating the effects of anaboHc steroids on growth in mminants in the United States include the direct measurement of carcass or empty body composition necessary to understand the mode of action and to define nutrient requirements. Total carcass lean, ie, muscle, increased 9.5 and 10.4% in steers implanted twice with 300 mg trenbolone acetate and 36 mg resorcyHc acid lactone [26538-44-3] (Ralgro, Pitman-Moore) over the Hve weight range 250 to 400 kg (35). Separable fat was reduced two percentage points. Efficiency of gain was greater in implanted cattle fed at the higher of two levels of energy intake. Dressing percentage was higher in implanted cattle, which implies that neither organ weights nor gut fiU were increased with treatment.  [c.409]

The dramatic effects of exogenous porcine ST (pST) administration are demonstrated by the results of dose-response studies, using growing pigs treated for 6 to 12 weeks, shown in Table 2. The maximum response is not achieved at the same dose for all response variables (2,73—77). Average daily gain is increased with increasing dose of pST, ie, up to 20% with 150 )-lg/kg body weight per day feed conversion efficiency is improved throughout an even greater dose range. The latter is explained in part by the continued reduction in feed intake with further dose increments. These relationships have been documented by numerous studies in market pigs fed ad Hbitum. Carcass protein accretion rates are increased up to 74%, coincident with an 8% decrease in Hpid accretion rate when pST was administered from 30 to 90 kg body weight (BW). Water accretion rates paralleled protein accretion rates, and ash accretion rates were increased 26—40%. The observed stimulation of bone growth by ST is also dose-dependent. Near maximal response is achieved at pST dose of 100 )-lg/kg BW. Weight of bone in the carcass increased 10—17%, and skin mass increased 15—38% with increasing pST dose.  [c.411]

The magnitude of the growth performance response is greatest during the early stages of adrninistration, ie, the first few weeks, and in lambs the full effect on relative increases in skeletal muscle mass is achieved within three weeks when relatively high doses are fed (114). Direct infusion of very low doses of cimaterol into the external iliac artery in the hind leg of growing steers results in maximal increases, up to 260%, in amino acid uptake from the circulation at 14 days of adrninistration, but the response is transient and amino acid uptake is returned to normal after 21 days of treatment (121). However, the relative differences in body composition observed in growing mminants fed P-agonists for three to six weeks are not significantly diminished with continued adrninistration for 10 to 12 weeks. Generalizations across species and the several compounds studied are inappropriate because differential dose-response relationships are apparent. Very few detailed reports that characterize the pharmacokinetics of these compounds in domestic animals have beenpubhshed (122,123).  [c.414]

Breast development is initiated by estrogens with both ductal and stromal growth, resulting in breast enlargement. Estrogens also promote body hair and female distribution of fat in the breasts, buttocks, and thighs. Estrogens modulate bone growth in a biphasic manner. At low dosages, estrogens help to maintain bone growth primarily by inhibiting bone resorption. At high dosages, the hormones stimulate closure of the shafts of the long bone. The positive effects of estrogens on salt and water retention usually cause edema and decrease of bowel motihty. Estrogens also stimulate the synthesis and secretion of prolactin in pituitary lactotrophic cells (87).  [c.242]

Nutritional Value of Milk Products. Milk is considered one of the principal sources of nutrition for humans. Some people are intolerant to one or more components of milk so must avoid the product or consume a treated product. One example is intolerance to lactose in milk. Fluid milk is available in which the lactose has been treated to make it more digestible. The consumption of milk fat, either in fluid milk or in products derived from milk, has decreased markedly in the 1990s. Whole milk sales decreased 12% between 1985 and 1988, whereas the sales of low fat milk increased 165%, and skimmed milk sales increased 48% (35). Nutritionists have recommended that fat consumed provide no more than 30 calories, and that consumption of calories be reduced. Generally, a daily diet of 2000—3000 cal/d is needed depending on many variables, such as gender, type of work, age, body responses, exercise, etc. Further, there is concern about cholesterol [57-88-5] and density of fat consumed. Complete information on the nutritive value of milk and milk products is provided on product labels (36) (see also Table 4).  [c.371]


See pages that mention the term Body fat : [c.242]    [c.163]    [c.289]    [c.1372]    [c.238]    [c.678]    [c.299]    [c.299]    [c.288]    [c.369]    [c.110]   
12 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (1999) -- [ c.76 ]