Raw material costs


EP = (value of products) - (raw materials costs)  [c.17]

Raw materials efficiency. In choosing the reactor, the overriding consideration is usually raw materials efficiency (bearing in mind materials of construction, safety, etc.). Raw material costs are usually the most important costs in the whole process. Also, any inefficiency in raw materials use is likely to create waste streams that become an environmental problem. The reactor creates inefficiency in the use of raw materials in the following ways  [c.60]

Considering raw materials costs only, the economic potential (EP) of the process is defined as  [c.105]

Raw materials costs dominate the operating costs of most processes (see App. A). Also, if raw materials are not used efficiently, this creates waste, which then becomes an environmental problem. It is therefore important to have a measure of the efficiency of raw materials use. The process yield is defined as  [c.122]

EP = value of products - raw materials costs - annualized capital cost - energy cost  [c.241]

By considering only those raw materials which undergo reaction to undesired byproduct, only the raw materials costs which are in principle avoidable are considered. Those raw materials costs which are inevitable (i.e., the stoichiometric requirements for FEED which converts into the desired PRODUCT) are not included. Raw materials costs which are in principle avoidable are distinguished from those which are inevitable from the stoichiometric requirements of the reaction.  [c.244]

Figure 8.4 shows the cost tradeoffs for the present case. At high conversions, the raw materials costs due to byproduct formation are dominant. This is so because the reaction to the undesired  [c.244]

Again, as with the byproduct case, those raw materials costs which are in principle avoidable (i.e., the purge losses) are distinguished from those which are inevitable (i.e., the stoichiometric requirements for FEED entering the process which converts to the desired PRODUCT). Consider the tradeoffs for the reaction in Eq. (8.1), but now with IMPURITY entering with the FEED.  [c.246]

The whole problem is best dealt with by not making the waste in the first place, i.e., waste minimization. If waste can be minimized at the source, this brings the dual benefit of reducing waste treatment costs and reducing raw materials costs.  [c.274]

The best solution to effluent problems is not to produce the waste in the first place, i.e., waste minimization. If waste can be minimized at the source, this brings the dual benefit of reducing waste treatment costs and reducing raw materials costs.  [c.296]

Choice of reactor. The first and usually most important decisions to be made are those for the reactor type and its operating conditions. In choosing the reactor, the overriding consideration is usually raw materials efficiency (bearing in mind materials of construction, safety, etc.). Raw materials costs are usually the most important costs in the whole process. Also, any inefficiency in raw materials use is likely to create waste streams that become an environmental problem.  [c.400]

In most processes, the largest individual cost is raw materials. Raw materials costs and product prices tend to have the largest influence on the economic performance of the process. The value of raw materials and products depends on whether the materials in question are being bought and sold under a contractual arrangement (either within or outside the company) or on the open market (the spot price). Open-market prices can fluctuate considerably with time. Products are normally sold at below open-market price when under a contractual arrangement.  [c.407]

Group). This published information can be used to assess at what price a new product will sell or to assess the minimum allowable selling price for given raw materials costs.  [c.408]

U.S. Hst prices for acetone were around 100 per metric ton from 1970 to 1973, rose sharply in 1974, and then slowly for the next five years to around 300, rose sharply again to a peak of nearly 750 in 1982, and then declined to the 600 range. The lowest annual Hst prices from 1982 to 1989 were in the 500 range, but tended toward the highest prices during the decade. Unit sales prices (negotiated for very large quantities) were closely parallel to but a Httle lower than Hst prices until 1980 when they diverged sharply and remained about 200 per metric ton lower than the highest Hst prices for the rest of the decade (44). Current pricing is strongly tied to acetone supply and demand and only loosely to raw material costs.  [c.97]

Manufacture Various methods for the manufacture of acrylates are summarized in Figure 1, showing thek dependence on specific raw materials. For a route to be commercially attractive, the raw material costs and utilization must be low, plant investment and operating costs not excessive, and waste disposal charges minimal.  [c.151]

After development of a new process scheme at laboratory scale, constmction and operation of pilot-plant faciUties to confirm scale-up information often require two or three years. An additional two to three years is commonly required for final design, fabrication of special equipment, and constmction of the plant. Thus, projections of raw material costs and availabiUty five to ten years into the future become important in adopting any new process significantly different from the current technology.  [c.152]

Important side reactions are the formation of ether and addition of alcohol to the acrylate to give 3-alkoxypropionates. In addition to high raw material costs, this route is unattractive because of large amounts of sulfuric acid—ammonium sulfate wastes.  [c.155]

Dehydrogenation of Propionates. Oxidative dehydrogenation of propionates to acrylates employing vapor-phase reactions at high temperatures (400—700°C) and short contact times is possible. Although selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutyric acid to methacrylic acid have been developed in recent years (see Methacrylic ACID AND DERIVATIVES) and a route to methacrylic acid from propylene to isobutyric acid is under pilot-plant development in Europe, this route to acrylates is not presentiy of commercial interest because of the combination of low selectivity, high raw material costs, and purification difficulties.  [c.156]

In all appHcations involving zirconia, the thermal instabiHty of the tetragonal phase presents limitations especially for prolonged use at temperatures greater than - 1000° C or uses involving thermal cycling. Additionally, the sensitivity of Y—TZP ceramics to aqueous environments at low temperatures has to be taken into account. High raw material costs have precluded some appHcations particularly in the automotive industry.  [c.325]

In terms of value, the alum market share is expected to decline. Alum is facing strong competition from polyaluminum chloride both ia water treatment and paper (8), and from iron salts (9) ia water treatment. Alum is being replaced ia papermaking by the iatroduction of dual retention and microparticle retention systems which use synthetic polymers as well as modified starches (90). The changeover from acid to alkaline papermaking will also decrease alum usage. Also, to some extent, the change ia papermaking pH may iacrease the usage of anionic retention aids (39,90). Because alum is a high volume/low unit price commodity, alum pricing is affected by iacreases ia shipping and raw materials costs, which have pushed prices up recently (91).  [c.37]

One possible route is to make formaldehyde direcdy from methane by partial oxidation. This process has been extensively studied (106—108). The incentive for such a process is reduction of raw material costs by avoiding the capital and expense of producing the methanol from methane.  [c.494]

Ethers, such as MTBE and methyl / fZ-amyl ether (TAME) are made by a catalytic process from methanol (qv) and the corresponding isomeric olefin. These ethers have excellent octane values and compete on an economic basis with alkylation for inclusion in gasoline. Another ether, ethyl tert-huty ether (ETBE) is made from ethanol (qv) and isobutylene (see Butylenes). The cost and economic driving forces to use ETBE vs MTBE or TAME ate a function of the raw material costs and any tax incentives that may be provided because of the ethanol that is used to produce it.  [c.185]

The relative economics of acetylene for chemical uses from calcium carbide and from hydrocarbon partial combustion or arc processes have swung rather clearly in favor of the hydrocarbon-based processes. Even more economically attractive is the acetylene produced as an unavoidable by-product in the manufacture of ethylene (qv). The economics apply to chemical uses, not industrial gases where calcium carbide does have advantages of scale which overcome its higher production cost. However, the key economic factor in the use of acetylene is the lower price of alternative materials which have decreased or eliminated some of the largest outiets for acetylene. Acetylene s triple bond inherently consumes more energy of formation than olefins thus acetylene is more expensive. There seems no likelihood of reversing the decline in acetylene usage unless there is a change in raw material costs or more by-product acetylene is recovered.  [c.394]

Improving Properties Through Compounding. The potential value of most polymers can be realized only after proper compounding. Materials used to enhance polymer properties or reduce polymer cost include antioxidants (qv), cross-linking agents, accelerators, fillers (qv), plasticizers (qv), adhesion promoters, pigments (qv), etc. Antioxidants are essential to retard degradation in unsaturated polymers. Cross-linking agents are used to build modulus, resistance to permanent deformation, and greater solvent resistance in many types of polymers. Accelerators are frequently used to reduce the time and temperature required to affect the cross-linking. Fillers, such as carbon black (qv) and clays (qv), do not reinforce latex polymers as they do their dry polymer counterparts. Rather, they are used in most latex appHcations to adjust processing rheology and to lower raw materials costs of the product, or to impart specific effects, eg, aluminum trihydrate to increase resistance to flame degradation, or carbon black to increase resistance to uv degradation. Plasticizers and oils are used to soften and increase flexibiUty at lower temperatures, improve resistance to crystallization, or depress the brittle point of the product. Hydrocarbon process oils, glycols, vegetable oils, ester plasticizers, and low melting point resins are some of the common materials used. Many types of resins are added to enhance the tackiness of polymers. Generally, within a class of tackifying resins, the lower the melting point, the greater the tack developed in the compounded polymer. The optimum amount of any resin for maximum tack depends on the type of polymer to which it is added. Resins added as solvent-cut emulsions rather than as solventless emulsion or dispersions develop more tack in the polymer, because the residual solvent in the polymer contributes to the tack of the polymer resin blend. Pigments and dyes are used to impart color. Some pigments with some polymers also impart other effects such as improved water resistance or reduced flammabiUty.  [c.28]

Elements that the researcher evaluates about competitors include plants, processes, raw material costs and avakabiHty, distribution channels, product development skills, service faciHties, personnel, pricing poHcies, eg, does the competitor lead or foUow , and practices or concessions to secure and hold large customers. AH of these factors are weighed and then the researcher decides on a strategy for the company.  [c.536]

Synthesis. Exploratory research has produced a wide variety of odorants based on natural stmctures, chemicals analogous to naturals, and synthetic materials derived from available raw materials and economical processing. As in most areas of the chemical industry, the search for new and useful substances is made difficult by the many materials that have been patented and successfully commercialized (4). In the search for new aroma chemicals, many new materials are prepared for screening each year. Chemists who perform this work are involved in a creative exercise that takes its direction from the commercial sector in terms of desirable odor types and specific performance needs. Because of economic limitations, considerations of raw material costs and available processing methods may play a role eady in the exploratory work.  [c.84]

High Ortho Novolaks. The process for high ortho novolaks is similar to the one used for those catalyzed by strong acid. Zinc acetate is used at concentrations higher than the acids, typically 2% or more. The formaldehyde phenol ratio is similar (0.75—0.85) but yields are 5—10% lower than those produced with strong acids, and reaction times are longer. Problems with gel particles and bulk gelation occur more frequendy because small amounts of reactive dibenzyl ether groups are present. Overall, the process is more expensive because of higher raw material costs, lower yields, and longer cycle times.  [c.298]

Raw-material costs are the largest cost items over the lifetime of a plant and typically make up between 40 and 90% of the total manufacturing cost. The placement of plants near production faciHties making alkenes and/or phenol is important to producers of alkylphenols. The raw-material costs are so important that a large fluctuation in a raw material price can drive a product from a reasonably profitable situation to a clearly unprofitable one.  [c.64]

Raw material costs and utilisation yield improvement reduced losses  [c.78]

Propanol economics are sensitive to the raw material costs of ethylene (qv) and the feedstock for synthesis gas, ie, natural gas or Hquid petroleum feedstocks (qv). Natural gas-based technology is slightly more economical.  [c.119]

The desired hand and drape is obtained by the proper selection of fillers and filler-loading ratio. Filler-loading ratio is the largest single factor ia determining raw material costs. The higher the loading, of course, the lower the cost of the compouad. A high ratio of biaders-to-filler results ia a stroag backiag of tufts or pile, improved dimensional stabiUty, and excellent drape and nonskid properties. Common fillers are whiting and soft clays plus some titanium dioxide for opacity. The stabiUty of the size to degradation and discoloration under the influence of light and heat is important.  [c.260]

Depending on energy and raw material costs, the minimum economic carbon disulfide plant size is generaHy in the range of about 2000—5000 tons per year for an electric furnace process and 15,000—20,000 tons per year for a hydrocarbon-based process. A typical charcoal—sulfur facHity produces approximately 5000 tons per year. Hydrocarbon—sulfur plants tend be on the scale of 50,000—200,000 tons per year. It is estimated that 53 carbon disulfide plants existed throughout the world in 1991 as shown in Table 2. The production capacities of known hydrocarbon—sulfur based plants are Hsted in Table 3. The United States carbon disulfide capacity dropped sharply during 1991 when Akzo Chemicals closed down a 159,000 ton per year plant at Delaware City, Delaware (126). The United States carbon disulfide industry stiH accounts for about 12% of the total worldwide instaHed capacity.  [c.31]

The current market situation for dimer acids includes relatively high raw material costs, high energy costs, slow growth and relatively low prices. It is generally recognized as a mature market, with hopes for future growth hinging on factors such as increased polyamide use and a resurgence of oil drilling, where dimers are used for corrosion inhibition.  [c.116]

Raw material costs should be estimated by direct computation from flow rates and material prices. The flow rates are deterrnined from flow sheet material balances. The unit prices are obtained from vendors, company purchasing departments, or the Chemical Marketing Reporter. For captive raw materials produced internally, a suitable transfer price must be estabHshed. Initial catalyst charges can be treated as a start-up expense, working capital component, or depreciable capital, depending on the expected catalyst life and cost. Makeup catalyst is frequendy treated as a raw material.  [c.444]

Unwanted byproducts usually cannot be converted back to useful products or raw materials. The reaction to unwanted byproducts creates both raw materials costs due to the raw materials which are wasted in their formation and environmental costs for their disposal. Thus maximum selectivity is wanted for the chosen reactor conversion. The objectives at this stage can be summarized as follows  [c.25]

Multiple reactions in parallel producing byproducts. Raw materials costs usually will dominate the economics of the process. Because of this, when dealing with multiple reactions, whether parallel, series, or mixed, the goal is usually to minimize byproduct formation (maximize selectivity) for a given reactor conversion. Choice of reactor conditions should exploit diflTerences between the kinetics and equilibrium effects in the primary and secondary reactions to favor the formation of the desired product rather than the byproduct, i.e., improve selectivity. Making an initial guess for conversion is more difficult than with single reactions, since the factors that affect conversion also can have a significant effect on selectivity.  [c.26]

Figure 10.7 Effluent treatment costs should be included with raw materials costs when traded off against separation costs to obtain the optimal recovery. (From Smith and Petela, Chem. Eng., 513 24, 1991 reproduced by permission of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.) Figure 10.7 Effluent treatment costs should be included with raw materials costs when traded off against separation costs to obtain the optimal recovery. (From Smith and Petela, Chem. Eng., 513 24, 1991 reproduced by permission of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.)
The propylene-based process developed by Sohio was able to displace all other commercial production technologies because of its substantial advantage in overall production costs, primarily due to lower raw material costs. Raw material costs less by-product credits account for about 60% of the total acrylonitrile production cost for a world-scale plant. The process has remained economically advantaged over other process technologies since the first commercial plant in 1960 because of the higher acrylonitrile yields resulting from the introduction of improved commercial catalysts. Reported per-pass conversions of propylene to acrylonitrile have increased from about 65% to over 80% (28,68—70).  [c.184]

Leaner Guts. The most obvious method for decreasing fat content in further processed red meat products is to use more trimmed, boneless cuts or leaner raw materials. A notable example has been the production of restmctured or sectioned and formed hams or beef top rounds with less than 5% fat content (more than 95% fat free) in which visible surface and seam fat have been removed. Restmctured steaks and chops offer processors greater opportunity to control fat content, portion size, and raw material costs but have different sensory characteristics as the fat content increases. Typically, muscles or trimmings from the chuck, round, or pork shoulder can be defatted, decreased in particle size, blended with ingredients, and shaped into the desired form. As a whole, flavor and overall palatabiUty of restmctured steaks and chops are not dramatically different over the 10 to 20% fat range (42). Further reductions in fat below 10% in restmctured meats and sausages can be formulated by using less caloric dense ingredients such as fat reduced beef or pork, partially defatted chopped beef or pork, and mechanically separated meat or poultry.  [c.34]

In the 1990s, the price of paint and raw material costs have been growing at a rate lower than that of inflation, and increases in the price of paints have been slim. To control costs, paint manufacturers have generally held industry employment at static or slightly lower levels. In 1993, U.S. paint industry employment stood at 58,200, compared to 61,200 in 1990 the total number of paint manufacturing companies is estimated to be between 800 and 900. Information shows that the industry trend for larger companies increasing in size as the result of mergers and acquisitions has continued. In the early 1980s, it was estimated that 1300 paint companies were producing paint in the United States (15).  [c.547]

Sulfoethjl E,sters of Fatty yicids. Like A/-acyl-A/-alkyltaurates, these compounds, also known as acyl isethionates, are excellent surfactants, mild to skin, and unaffected by hardness ions. The presence of an ester linkage limits hydrolytic stabiUty. This limitation, combiaed with relatively high raw material costs, has prevented widespread usage of the 2-sulfoethyl esters ia consumer detergent products. The cocoyl derivative, however, has been the principal ingredient ia detergent bars for personal use, and is finding increasing use ia other personal wash appHcations.  [c.242]

Chlorinated by-products of ethylene oxychlorination typically include 1,1,2-trichloroethane chloral [75-87-6] (trichloroacetaldehyde) trichloroethylene [7901-6]-, 1,1-dichloroethane cis- and /n j -l,2-dichloroethylenes [156-59-2 and 156-60-5]-, 1,1-dichloroethylene [75-35-4] (vinyhdene chloride) 2-chloroethanol [107-07-3]-, ethyl chloride vinyl chloride mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachloromethanes (methyl chloride [74-87-3], methylene chloride [75-09-2], chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride [56-23-5])-, and higher boiling compounds. The production of these compounds should be minimized to lower raw material costs, lessen the task of EDC purification, prevent fouling in the pyrolysis reactor, and minimize by-product handling and disposal. Of particular concern is chloral, because it polymerizes in the presence of strong acids. Chloral must be removed to prevent the formation of soflds which can foul and clog operating lines and controls (78).  [c.418]

In addition to pyrolysis of urea in certain high boiling solvents, high purity CA may be produced by thermal decomposition of carbamyl chloride (or aHophanic chlorides) produced by the high temperature reaction of ammonia and phosgene (98), and hydrolysis of cyanuric chloride, or acid digestion of aminotriamines, eg, melamine (99). These methods are not commercially viable due primarily to high raw materials costs and/or unwanted by-product formation. However, the conversion of by-product or waste cyanuric chloride or aminotria ines to CA on a break-even or near break-even basis may be economic as a pollution control measure.  [c.420]

Engineering thermoplastics are priced between the very expensive resins and the high volume, low priced commodities, eg, poly(phenylene oxide)—polystyrene alloys at 2/kg to polyetheretherketones at 60/kg (Fig. 1). Many specialty and commodity resins are addition polymers. Their prices are primarily governed by raw material costs and the complexity of the manufacturing process. Thus the raw material for fluoropolymers is much more expensive than the olefins used for polyethylenes (PE), polystyrenes (PS), acryUcs, vinyl chloride polymers, etc. Engineering polymers tend to be composed of aromatic monomers, except for acetals and nylons, and their monomers are usually linked by condensation (ester, carbonate, amide, knide), substitution (sulfide) or oxidative coupling (ether), and in a few cases, addition (polyolefins). High monomer costs and complex polymerisation processes force higher prices (12). Larger volumes of production take advantage of economy of scale. Representative producers and trademarks of engineering plastics are given in Table 2. Key producers include multinational companies, with plants in many countries. Recent pohtical events such as the opening of Eastern Europe, the North American Free Trade Zone, the advancing European Economic Union, and sharpening competition are increasing the multinational efforts to seek local pricing advantages by use of cheaper local labor, elimination of transport charges, and local tax incentives.  [c.262]


See pages that mention the term Raw material costs : [c.17]    [c.407]    [c.66]    [c.481]    [c.377]   
Chemical process design (2000) -- [ c.407 , c.408 ]