Methyl 1-pentene G) 44,224 n-Butyraldehyde G) 31,950  [c.183]

Propionaldehyde. Use 34 g. (42-6 ml.) of n propyl alcohol, and a solution containing 56 g. of sodium chromate dihydrate, 300 ml. of water and 40 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid. The experimental details are identical with those for n-butyraldehyde, except that the addition of the dichromate solution occupies 20 minutes, the temperature at the top of the column is not allowed to rise above 70-75°, and during the subsequent heating for 15 minutes the liquid passing over below 80° is collected the receiver must be cooled in ice. The yield of propionaldehyde, b.p. 47-50°, is 12 g.  [c.321]

If the temperature of the laboratory is above 20°, n.butyraldehyde (Section 111,61) may be employed for all the tests with the exception of (vii).  [c.330]

Aldehydes and ketones. re-Butyraldehyde Acetone Methyl re-amyl  [c.1056]

Reactions of aldehydes (111,70, (i), (ii), (iii) and (vi), and 1 in 111,74 on I scale use re-butyraldehyde).  [c.1112]

Butyraldehyde-aniline reaction [34562-31-7]  [c.145]

Rhodium Ca.ta.lysts. Rhodium carbonyl catalysts for olefin hydroformylation are more active than cobalt carbonyls and can be appHed at lower temperatures and pressures (14). Rhodium hydrocarbonyl [75506-18-2] HRh(CO)4, results in lower -butyraldehyde [123-72-8] to isobutyraldehyde [78-84-2] ratios from propylene [115-07-17, C H, than does cobalt hydrocarbonyl, ie, 50/50 vs 80/20. Ligand-modified rhodium catalysts, HRh(CO)2L2 or HRh(CO)L2, afford /iso-ratios as high as 92/8 the ligand is generally a tertiary phosphine. The rhodium catalyst process was developed joindy by Union Carbide Chemicals, Johnson-Matthey, and Davy Powergas and has been Hcensed to several companies. It is particulady suited to propylene conversion to -butyraldehyde for 2-ethylhexanol production in that by-product isobutyraldehyde is minimized.  [c.458]

The important solvent and plasticizer intermediate, 2-ethylhexanol, is manufactured from -butyraldehyde by aldol addition in an alkaline medium at 80-130°C and 300-1010 kPa (3-10 atm).  [c.459]

The -butyraldehyde may be obtained from acetaldehyde [75-07-0] by aldol addition followed by hydrogenation, or from propylene by the 0x0 process. This latter process is predominantly favored (Eig. 7).  [c.459]

Hydroformylation of an olefin usiag synthesis gas, the 0x0 process (qv), was first commercialized ia Germany ia 1938 to produce propionaldehyde from ethylene and butyraldehydes from propylene (12).  [c.472]

Aristech Chemical Corp. United States and Canada butyraldehyde  [c.472]

Fit a 1-litre three-necked flask with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer and a separatory funnel. Place a cold solution of 120 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid in 120 ml. of water, together with 120 g. (148 ml.) of n-butyl alcohol, in the flask and cool in a freezing mixture of ice and salt. Add a solution of 120 g. of crystallised sodium dichromate (or 175 g. of the moist technical hydrated salt) in 200 ml. of water from the separatory funnel to the vigorously stirred mixture at such a rate that the temperature does not rise above 20°. When most of the dichromate solution has been added, the reaction mixture becomes viscous and the stirring is rendered inefficient allow the temperature to rise to 35° to accelerate the oxidation (above this temperature n-butyraldehyde, b.p. 74°, may be lost). Dilute the green, syrupy emulsion with an equal volume of water, and allow the mixture to stand in order that the separation of the oil may be as complete as possible (about 110 ml. containing the ester plus unchanged butyl alcohol, a little butyraldehyde and a little butyric acid). Wash the oil three times with water, dry it with anhydrous sodium or magnesium sulphate and distil slowly through an efficient, adequately-lagged fractionating column. Collect the fraction boiling at 150-170° (ca. 85 ml.) and wash it with ffve 7 -5 ml. portions of 60 per cent, sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1 5) (1), then with dilute sodium hydroxide solution until free from acid, and finally with water until neutral. Dry as before and fractionate. Collect the Ji-butyl n-butyrate at 163-167°. The yield is 50 g.  [c.357]

Acetaldehyde forms aldols with other carbonyl compounds containing active hydrogen atoms. Kinetic studies of the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and deuterated acetaldehydes have shown that only the hydrogen atoms bound to the carbon adjacent to the CHO group take part in the condensation reactions and hydrogen exchange (54,55). A hexyl alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol [97-95-0] is produced industrially by the condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde in dilute caustic solution foUowed by hydrogenation of the enal intermediate (see Alcohols, higher aliphatic). Condensation of acetaldehyde in the presence of dimethyl amine hydrochloride yields polyenals which can be hydrogenated to a mixture of alcohols containing from 4 to 22 carbon atoms (56).  [c.50]

Low boiling substances are removed from the chilled reactor product by distilling up to a cut point of 80°C. These low boilers are gaseous dimethyl ether, methyl acetate, acetaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and ethyl acetate. The bottoms are flash-distilled to recover the rhodium catalyst. Flash distilled acid is a2eotropicaHy dehydrated. In the final distillation, glacial acid is obtained. Traces of iodine that may remain in the finished acid may be removed by fractional crystallisa tion or by addition of a trace of methanol followed by distillation of the methyl iodide that forms. Somewhere in the carbonylation reaction, a minute amount of propionic acid seems to be made. It typically is found in the residues of the acetic acid finishing system and can be removed by purging the finishing column bottoms.  [c.68]

The common method of naming aldehydes corresponds very closely to that of the related acids (see Carboxylic acids), in that the term aldehyde is added to the base name of the acid. For example, formaldehyde (qv) comes from formic acid, acetaldehyde (qv) from acetic acid, and butyraldehyde (qv) from butyric acid. If the compound contains more than two aldehyde groups, or is cycHc, the name is formed using carbaldehyde to indicate the functionaUty. The lUPAC system of aldehyde nomenclature drops the final e from the name of the parent acycHc hydrocarbon and adds al If two aldehyde functional groups are present, the suffix -dialis used. The prefix formjlis used with polyfunctional compounds. Examples of nomenclature types are shown in Table 1.  [c.469]

See pages that mention the term Butyraldehydes : [c.38]    [c.38]    [c.406]    [c.537]    [c.318]    [c.320]    [c.320]    [c.321]    [c.322]    [c.334]    [c.334]    [c.334]    [c.539]    [c.26]    [c.302]    [c.418]    [c.438]    [c.499]    [c.1095]    [c.1095]    [c.145]    [c.145]    [c.145]    [c.383]    [c.112]    [c.453]    [c.454]    [c.466]    [c.470]    [c.470]    [c.471]    [c.472]   
See chapters in:

Encyclopedia of chemical technology volume 4  -> Butyraldehydes

Chemical process design (2000) -- [ c.38 ]