# Problem-solving, analytical approach

Read a recent article from the column Analytical Approach, published in Analytical Chemistry, or an article assigned by your instructor, and write an essay summarizing the nature of the problem and how it was solved. As a guide, refer back to Figure 1.3 for one model of the analytical approach. [c.9]

Subsection of the analytical approach to problem solving (see Eigure 1.3), of relevance to the selection of a method and the design of an analytical procedure. [c.37]

Applications. Statistical thermodynamics holds great promise as a means to characterize molecules, bonds, reactions, and energy fields in ways which are consistent with both observed and calculated classical thermodynamic properties. However, it is exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to solve analytically for the trajectories of just three mutually interacting bodies from quantum or classical mechanics (118), and the problem at hand involves on the order of 10 bodies. Eew physical property prediction methods ate available that are based solely on statistical thermodynamics. However, its methodology is fundamental to group contribution and most other molecular-based physical property prediction methods (122,137—141). Some insight into the apphcations of statistical thermodynamics to nonequUibtium problems is available (142,143). An alternative approach in which field theory is appHed to replace volume and pressure with strain and stress tensors, respectively, involves continuum mechanics (144). Areas in which molecular thermodynamics goes beyond classical thermodynamics is of interest. The second and third coefficients of the virial equation-of-state for real gases have been shown to correspond to binary and ternary molecular interactions through statistical thermodynamics (118,121). Erom this information, and a basic understanding of intermolecular forces, eg, polar attractions, dipole and quadmpole moments, and dispersion forces (118), these coefficients have been predicted for simple gases (118,138,145). Equations-of-state for a series of low to medium pressure interacting gases have been developed, as weU as thermodynamic properties of crystalline soHds (138). Spectroscopic properties of various energy radiations related to electron and atomic transitions have been explained largely through statistical thermodynamics (146—148). Mathematical descriptions of radiation processes including gamma and x-rays, radiant heating, the propagation of light and the laser effect ate demonstrated through statistical considerations (138,149,150). Other equUibtium statistical thermodynamic demonstrations can be found in prediction of magnetic properties (138,151,152). NonequUibtium statistical thermodynamics are used to explain and predict Brownian motion (153,154) and other physical phenomena based on particle fluctuations (138,142,143). Ab initio techniques are beginning to be developed to directiy correlate atomic wave functions to physical properties (155—158) however, this area does not extend far beyond descriptions of simple species such as methane. [c.248]

Read a recent article from the column Analytical Approach, published in Analytical Chemistry, or an article assigned by your instructor, and write an essay summarizing the nature of the problem and how it was solved. As a guide, refer back to Figure 1.3 for one model of the analytical approach. [c.9]

Subsection of the analytical approach to problem solving (see Eigure 1.3), of relevance to the selection of a method and the design of an analytical procedure. [c.37]

Schematic diagram of the analytical approach to problem solving, showing the role of the quality assurance program. |

Equilibrium chemistry often receives a significant emphasis in the introductory analytical chemistry course. While an important topic, its overemphasis can cause students to confuse analytical chemistry with equilibrium chemistry. Although attention to solving equilibrium problems is important, it is equally important for students to recognize when such calculations are impractical, or when a simpler, more qualitative approach is all that is needed. For example, in discussing the gravimetric analysis of Ag+ as AgCl, there is little point in calculating the equilibrium solubility of AgCl since the concentration of Ch at equilibrium is rarely known. It is important, however, to qualitatively understand that a large excess of Ch increases the solubility of AgCl due to the formation of soluble silver-chloro complexes. Balancing the presentation of a rigorous approach to solving equilibrium problems, this text also introduces the use of ladder diagrams as a means for providing a qualitative picture of a system at equilibrium. Students are encouraged to use the approach best suited to the problem at hand. [c.814]

Equilibrium chemistry often receives a significant emphasis in the introductory analytical chemistry course. While an important topic, its overemphasis can cause students to confuse analytical chemistry with equilibrium chemistry. Although attention to solving equilibrium problems is important, it is equally important for students to recognize when such calculations are impractical, or when a simpler, more qualitative approach is all that is needed. For example, in discussing the gravimetric analysis of Ag as AgCl, there is little point in calculating the equilibrium solubility of AgCl since the concentration of Cl at equilibrium is rarely known. It is important, however, to qualitatively understand that a large excess of Cl increases the solubility of AgCl due to the formation of soluble silver-chloro complexes. Balancing the presentation of a rigorous approach to solving equilibrium problems, this text also introduces the use of ladder diagrams as a means for providing a qualitative picture of a system at equilibrium. Students are encouraged to use the approach best suited to the problem at hand. [c.811]

See pages that mention the term

**Problem-solving, analytical approach**:

**[c.705] [c.705] [c.33] [c.503] [c.741] [c.488]**

Modern analytical chemistry (2000) -- [ c.5 , c.6 , c.6 , c.7 ]

Modern Analytical Chemistry (2000) -- [ c.5 , c.6 , c.6 , c.7 ]