Wysox, Pa.


Frk for [A ] shells in series can be calculated from the well-established relationships for Fj-. First, 2n is calculated for interval k, from which Pi 2 is calculated for the [AT ] shells from  [c.440]

What is the pH of a solution for which the concentration of H+ is 6.92 X 10 M What is the [H+] in a solution whose pH is 8.923  [c.34]

According to the ladder diagram for this system (see Figure 6.5), a pH of 3.17 results when there is an equal amount of HF and F-. Since we have more HF than F-, the pH will be slightly less than 3.17. Similar reasoning will show you that mixing together 0.090 mol of NH3 and 0.040 mol of HF will result in a solution whose pH is slightly larger than 9.24.  [c.152]

The equilibrium constant for an acid-base indicator is determined by preparing three solutions, each of which has a total indicator concentration of 1.35 X lQ-5 M. The pH of the first solution is adjusted until it is acidic enough to ensure that only the acid form of the indicator is present, yielding an absorbance of 0.673. The absorbance of the second solution, whose pH was adjusted to give only the base form of the indicator, was measured at 0.118. The pH of the third solution was adjusted to 4.17 and had an absorbance of 0.439. What is the acidity constant for the acid-base indicator  [c.455]

The remaining tailings left over from the clay fractionation step is either flocculated with alum, high molecular weight polymers, or a weak (pH 3.0) solution of sulfuric acid, and stored in settling ponds as waste, or may be filtered and sold to the brick industry as a coating material. It also may be dried and sold as a filler in plastics and textured paint (qv).  [c.288]

What is the pH of a solution for which the concentration of H+ is 6.92 X 10 M What is the [H+] in a solution whose pH is 8.923  [c.34]

According to the ladder diagram for this system (see Figure 6.5), a pH of 3.17 results when there is an equal amount of HF and F". Since we have more HF than F", the pH will be slightly less than 3.17. Similar reasoning will show you that mixing together 0.090 mol of NH3 and 0.040 mol of HF will result in a solution whose pH is slightly larger than 9.24.  [c.152]

The equilibrium constant for an acid-base indicator is determined by preparing three solutions, each of which has a total indicator concentration of 1.35 x lQ-5 M. The pH of the first solution is adjusted until it is acidic enough to ensure that only the acid form of the indicator is present, yielding an absorbance of 0.673. The absorbance of the second solution, whose pH was adjusted to give only the base form of the indicator, was measured at 0.118. The pH of the third solution was adjusted to 4.17 and had an absorbance of 0.439. What is the acidity constant for the acid-base indicator  [c.455]

Components in which water temperature changes abruptly with distance, such as heat exchangers, tend to accumulate precipitates. Heater surfaces also accumulate precipitates if the dissolved species have inverse temperature solubilities. Systems in which pH excursions are frequent may accumulate deposits due to precipitation processes. Plenum regions, such as heat exchanger headboxes, tend to collect deposits.  [c.71]

The significance of pH is particularly interesting since pH may either augment or diminish NH3 production. The possible mechanisms by which pH affects NH3 production are (a) inhibition of bacterial metabolism, (b) pH-dependent changes in urea metabolic pathways, (c) pH-dependent bacterial utilization of glucose and urea as energy sources, and (d) increased bacterial uti-  [c.220]

Ho, the acidity function introduced by Hammett, is a measure of the ability of the solvent to transfer a proton to a base of neutral charge. In dilute aqueous solution ho becomes equal to t d Hq is equal to pH, but in strongly acid solutions Hq will differ from both pH and — log ch+. The determination of Ho is accomplished with the aid of Eq. (8-89) and a series of neutral indicator bases (the nitroanilines in Table 8-18) whose pA bh+ values have been measured by the overlap method. Table 8-19 lists Ho values for some aqueous solutions of common mineral acids. Analogous acidity functions have been defined for bases of other structural and charge types, such as // for amides and Hf for bases that ionize with the production of a carbocation  [c.448]

At pH 7, [H ] = [OH ] that is, there is no excess acidity or basicity. The point of neutrality is at pH 7, and solutions having a pH of 7 are said to be at neutral pH. The pH values of various fluids of biological origin or relevance are given in Table 2.3. Because the pH scale is a logarithmic scale, two solutions whose pH values differ by one pH unit have a 10-fold difference in [H ]. For example, grapefruit juice at pH 3.2 contains more than 12 times as much H as orange juice at pH 4.3.  [c.44]

The process of decolorizing solutions of amphomycin then involves treatment with activated charcoal, followed by the steps of (1) extracting the antibiotic into a water-immiscible organic solvent under strongly acid conditions or precipitating the amphomycin from aqueous solution by adjusting the pH to a point within the range of pH 3.0 to 4.0, (2) removing impurities from strongly acid,aqueous solution of amphomycin by extraction of the impurities with methyl isobutyl ketone and amyl acetate, (3) extracting the amphomycin from a strongly acid solution in butanol by the use of water having a pH higher than 4, (4) extracting the amphomycin from solution in water-im miscible organic solvent into water whose pH is greater than 6.0, (5) precipitating amphomycin from solution by formation of insoluble derivatives of the basic function, and (6) precipitating amphomycin from solution by formation of insoluble derivates of the acidic function.  [c.83]

Acids and alkalis Zinc dissolves in liquids whose pH is below about 5 and above 12-5. Table 4.37 shows the approximate pH value of 0-01 and 0-1 n  [c.820]

The precipitation process tends to be complicated when a number of metals are present in solution. If this is the case, then the pH must be adjusted to precipitate out the individual metals, since the pH at which precipitation occurs depends on the metal concerned.  [c.311]

F(n)=Pa + iT which is normally written as  [c.420]

The sodium ethanoate which is largely dissociated, serves as a source of ethanoate ions, which combine with any hydrogen ions which may be added to the solution to yield more of the acid. The addition of hydrogen ions has therefore much less effect on such a solution than it would have on water. In a similar manner, the solution of the salt of a strong acid and a weak base, in the presence of a weak base, has a pH that is insensitive to additions of alkali.  [c.69]

Most enzymes work best within a narrow pH range and are susceptible to a wide variety of compounds which inhibit or sometimes promote the activity. The majority of enzymes work most efficiently at around 40°C and at higher temperatures are rapidly destroyed.  [c.159]

Karl Fischer reagent A mixture ofU and SO2 dissolved in pyridine - MeOH used as a titrant for water with which HI is liberated and the pH determined with a meter.  [c.230]

Cpi = specific heat of the liquid C pi = specific heat of the liquid whose is 11.8  [c.121]

The term c//agenes/s describes all chemical and physical processes affecting a sediment after deposition. Processes related to sub-aerial weathering and those which happen under very high pressures and temperatures are excluded from this category. The latter are grouped under the term metamorphosis . Diagenesis will alter the geometry and chemistry of the pore space as well as the composition of the rock. Many of these changes are controlled by the oxidising potential (eH) and the acidity/alkalinity (pH) of the pore-water which circulates through the formation. Consequently, the migration of hydrocarbons and the displacement of water out of the pore system may end or at least retard diagenetic processes.  [c.86]

The capillary pressure can be related to the height of the interface above the level at which the capillary pressure is zero (called the free water level) by using the hydrostatic pressure equation. Assuming the pressure at the free water level is PI  [c.122]

Here a - surface tension pa - atmospheric pressure 9 - contact angle of crack s wall wetting by penetrant n - coefficient, characterizing residual filling of defect s hollow by a penetrant before developer s application IT and h - porosity and thickness of developer s layer respectively W - minimum width of crack s indication, which can be registered visually or with the use of special optical system. The peculiarity of the case Re < H is that the whole penetrant volume is extracted by a developer. As a result the whole penetrant s volume, which was trapped during the stage of penetrant application, imbibes developer s layer and forms an indication of a defect.  [c.614]

Let us consider one more physical phenomenon, which can influence upon PT sensitivity and efficiency. There is a process of liquid s penetration inside a capillary, physical nature of that is not obvious up to present time. Let us consider one-side-closed conical capillary immersed in a liquid. If a liquid wets capillary wall, it flows towards cannel s top due to capillary pressure pc. This process is very fast and capillary imbibition stage is going on until the liquid fills the channel up to the depth l , which corresponds the equality pcm = (Pc + Pa), where pa - atmospheric pressure and pcm - the pressure of compressed air blocked in the channel.  [c.615]

Peroxomonosulfuric acid [7722-86-3] H2SO, when pure, forms colorless crystals that melt with decomposition at 45°C. One of its protons is strong, as ia sulfuric acid, but its other proton, which is on the peroxide group, is weak (pH = 9.4). Peroxomonosulfuric acid is a strong oxidi2iag agent  [c.94]

Glass Pipe and Tubing These are made from heat- and chemical-resistant borosilicate glass (e.g., Corning Glass Works No. 7740) ASTM C599. This glass is highly stable in acids and resists attack by alkalies in solutions in which pH is 8 or less. It is attacked by hydrofluoric acid and glacial phosphoric acid. Some important physical properties are  [c.977]

That the rates of many reactions are markedly dependent upon the acidity or alkalinity of the reaction medium has been known for many decades. In this section, the kinetic analysis of reactions in dilute aqueous solution in which pH is the accessible measure of acidity is presented in sufficient detail to allow the experimentalist to interpret data for most of the systems likely to be encountered and to extend the treatment to cases not covered here. This section is based on an earlier discussion.The problem has also been analyzed by Van der Houwen et al. "  [c.273]

A useful diagnostic tool for investigating possible hydration of cations of bases for which pA is greater than about one is the measurement of their ultraviolet spectra in aqueous acid solutions and also in an anhydrous acidic solvent such as dichloroacetic acid (for which the Hammett acidity function, Hq, is — 0.9, and in which hydration of the cation cannot occur). This technique has been used with quinazoline to obtain spectra approximating those of the hydrated and anhydrous cations, respectively. For weaker bases, spectral measurements in sulfuric acid-water mixtures of increasing acid content may be used to reveal a progressive conversion of hydrated into anhydrous species as the thermodynamic activity of the water decreases.  [c.48]

The physico-chemical properties of poloxamers, and thus their areas of application, are closely related to the relative and absolute sizes of the hydrophobic PO and hydrophilic EO blocks. However, the hydrophilic/lipo-philic balance (HLB) scale, used widely to characterize the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of surfactants, and especially to predict their emulsifying behavior, is not considered to be useful in describing poloxamers, whose PO hydrophobes exhibit different lipophilic behavior from the hydrocarbon hydrophobes of the nonionic surfactants for which the HLB system was originally developed. Instead, the cloud point, the temperature at which a given concentration of poloxamer will cloud out of solution, may be used as a guide to hydrophobicity. The cloud point increases with increasing percent of hydro-phile as a rule, those poloxamers having low cloud points (10% or 20% EO) do not foam well and have the highest wetting capability, while those having high cloud points (70% or S0% EO) are best suited to stabilizing colloids of hydrophobic materials in aqueous solution.  [c.769]

The fixer composition has a marked influence on tlie desilvering. At low pH, sulfite can also be reduced at the cathode, thus representing a competitive reaction with the reduction of silver. As a consequence, desilvering of low pH fixers is more difficult since it requires a better control of the electrolysis current. In processing of X-ray materials, fixation is usually performed with a hardening fixer, which has a typical pH value of 4 to 4.5. Desilvering of non-hardening fixers, such as used in graphic art films, is appreciably easier. This accounts for the widespread use of desilvering equipment in graphic arts film processing. By using a pH electrode in the control mechanism of the electrolysis ciurent, STRUCTURIX SILVERFIX succeeds in fast and high-quality desilvering of hardening fixers.  [c.606]


See pages that mention the term Wysox, Pa. : [c.360]    [c.517]    [c.669]    [c.269]    [c.12]    [c.20]    [c.69]    [c.107]    [c.146]    [c.161]    [c.177]    [c.215]    [c.263]    [c.306]    [c.309]    [c.317]    [c.345]    [c.408]    [c.409]    [c.221]    [c.388]   
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