456 Index

Two further examples of type I ternary systems are shown in Figure 19 which presents calculated and observed selectivities. For successful extraction, selectivity is often a more important index than the distribution coefficient. Calculations are shown for the case where binary data alone are used and where binary data are used together with a single ternary tie line. It is evident that calculated selectivities are substantially improved by including limited ternary tie-line data in data reduction.  [c.71]

Set of 2 cards for each component (2M total) component index J  [c.341]

Set of cards for each component added and/or changed component index J  [c.344]


Non-Integ rated / Sequences  [c.143]

The acceptable limits for toxic exposure depend on whether the exposure is brief or prolonged. Lethal concentration for airborne materials and lethal dose for nonairbome materials are measured by tests on animals. The limits for brief exposure to toxic materials which are airborne are usually measured by the concentration of toxicant which is lethal to 50 percent of the test group over a given exposure period, usually 4 hours. It is written as LC q (lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test group). The test gives a comparison of the absolute toxicity of a compound in a single concentrated dose, i.e., acute exposure. For nonairbome materials, lethal dose LD q is an index of the quantity of material administered which results in the death of 50 percent of the test group. It should be emphasized that it is extremely difficult to extrapolate tests on animals to human beings.  [c.259]

Safety indices, such as the Dow index, have been suggested as measures of safety. In these indices, the hazard associated with each material in the process is assessed and given a number based largely on judgment and experience. The numbers are weighted and combined to give an overall index for the process. The indices have no significance in an absolute sense but can be used to compare the relative hazards between two alternative designs. They are intended more for use in the later stages of design when more information is available. Detailed risk assessment, possibly including analysis of probabilities, also can be carried out in the later stages of design.  [c.268]

If the material in two process alternatives is both flammable and highly toxic, then they can be compared on both bases separately. If the assessments of the relative flammability and toxicity are in conflict, then we can only resort to a safety index.  [c.270]

The most commonly used index is the chemical engineering plant cost index published in Chemical Engineering Magazine.  [c.417]

The predicted cumulative cash-flow curve for a project throughout its life forms the basis for more detailed evaluation. Many quantitative measures or indices have been proposed. In each case, important features of the cumulative cash-flow curve are identified and transformed into a single numerical measure as an index.  [c.423]

CICH CHaOH. Colourless liquid with a faint ethereal odour b.p. 129 C. Manufactured by passing ethene into dilute chlorine water or from ethylene oxide plus HCl. Reacts with solutions of sodium hydrogen carbonate to give ethylene glycol and with solid sodium hydroxide to give ethylene oxide with concentrated sulphuric acid at I00°C to give -dichloroethyl ether with ammonia and amines to give aminoethyl alcohols and with sodium salts of organic acids to give glycol esters. It is used in the preparation of these compounds and in the synthesis of phenylethyl alcohol, procaine and indigo. Also used as an insecticide and for forcing the early sprouting of potatoes.  [c.94]

These fuels are used for domestic and indus-  [c.241]

It is an important intermediate in the indigo industry. When phenylglycine is fused with sodamide a good yield of indoxyl is obtained. The indoxyl is easily oxidized to indigo.  [c.305]

It is used for the preparation of indigo into which it is readily converted on alkaline fusion.  [c.305]

When treated with alkaline hypochlorite solution anthranilic acid is obtained. This reaction, the first stage in the indigo synthesis, is the most important commercial outlet for phthalimide.  [c.312]

The sample is irradiated by primary X-rays as illustrated in Figure 2.6. Under the effect of the radiation, some electrons orbiting in internal shells are torn away. The holes created by the departing electrons are filled by electrons coming from higher levels. This electronic rearrangement is accompanied by the emission of what are called secondary X-rays whose wavelengths are characteristic of the element being bombarded. An element can give emissions of several different wavelengths depending on the electron levels of departure and arrival. For example, a series of Kj rays indicates that the electron transitions end up at the K shell, the index i (a, ji, y) referring respectively to the origins of the transition at 1, 2, or 3 levels above therefore the emission results from the movement of the electron arriving at the K shell and coming from the L shell.  [c.33]

Characterization of a Petroleum Cut by Refractive Index, Density, and Molecular Weight (ndM method)  [c.42]

As in the case of density or specific gravity, the refractive index, n, for hydrocarbons varies in relation to their chemical structures. The value of n follows the order n paraffins < n naphthenes < n aromatics and it increases with molecular weight.  [c.42]

Refractive index this is one of the most precise measurements that can be carried out on a petroleum cut. The ASTM method D 1218 indicates a reproducibility of 0.00006, which is exceptional.  [c.43]

As a consequence, other than its use in the ndM method, the refractive index is very often used in process operations because it can indicate smaii differences in product quality that would be missed by other measurements. The only restriction is that the color of the sample should be less than 5 on the ASTM D 1500 scale.  [c.44]

An important application of this type of analysis is in the determination of the calculated cetane index. The procedure is as follows the cetane number is measured using the standard CFR engine method for a large number of gas oil samples covering a wide range of chemical compositions. It was shown that this measured number is a linear combination of chemical family concentrations as determined by the D 2425 method. An example of the correlation obtained is given in Figure 3.3.  [c.52]

One can see that the hydrogen NMR spectrum contains implicitly the molecular structure of all hydrocarbons contained in a petroleum cut. This same structure being the essential origin of the properties of cuts, correlations based on NMR structures can be studied. Correlations have been established allowing cetane indices to be calculated for gas oils. Once having determined the cetane number by the motor method for about one hundred samples, one can produce an equation to calculate a cetane index based on percentages of different types of hydrogen atoms measured using the NMR spectrum. Figure 3.11 is an example of one such correlation. The advantage of the NMR method is its rapidity, taking only a few minutes, and the small sample volume (a few ml) required this is compatible with a micro-pilot unit s production.  [c.67]

Ring condensation index 2.1 1.6  [c.70]

Ring substitution index 0.515 0.471  [c.70]

It is an important dyestuffs intermediate. It condenses with chloroethanoic acid to give phenylglycine-o-carboxylic acid for the synthesis of indigo. It can be diazotized and used as a first component in azo-dyes it condenses also with chloroanthraquinones to give intermediates for anthraquinone dyes.  [c.36]

Important sources, e.g. in South Africa, are the basic igneous rock known as kimberlite and also alluvials. The valuable diamond may be colourless or faintly coloured, but must be transparent. The heavily coloured forms, known as carbonado or bort, are of no value as gems, but are used for rock drills, for lathe tools, and when powdered for cutting and polishing clear diamonds. In cutting, the natural crystalline form is obliterated and an artificial shape, which gives rise to a large amount of internal reflection producing the fire of the stone, produced. The diamond is extremely hard, and stands highest in Mohs s scale of hardness. It possesses a high refractive index, and dispersive power. It is relatively much more transparent to X-rays than are its imitations. World production 1979 48 MKT, 62-5% southern Africa including Zaire.  [c.132]

With the accumulation of results obtained from various and complex analyses of narrow cuts (Waterman method), correlations have been found f ctween refractive index, specific gravity and molecular weight on one hand, and percentages of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic carbon on the other.  [c.42]

This usefulness of the correlation is twq-fpld first it provides information on the cetane indices that are not aViit le in the literature as in the cases of polynuclear aromatics and sulfur-containing aromatics, and second it helps provide an evaluation of the cetane index based on a few milligrams of sample, instead of the liter or so required for the motor method.  [c.52]

See pages that mention the term 456 Index : [c.88]    [c.417]    [c.35]    [c.68]    [c.107]    [c.147]    [c.215]    [c.215]    [c.215]    [c.318]    [c.368]    [c.27]    [c.88]   
Chemical process design (2000) -- [ c.0 ]