Starkey 1

HM Pickett, HL Strauss. 1 Am Chem Soc 105 7281-7290, 1970.  [c.220]

Note The reagent can be employed on silica gel and cellulose layers. When derivatization is carried out from the vapor phase the detection limit for morphine is 10 ng and that for papaverine 1 ng per chromatogram zone [5]. In some cases it has been recommended that ammonium sulfate be added to the layer with subsequent heating to 150 —180 °C [1] after derivatization. It is also possible to spray afterwards with an aqueous solution of potassium iodide (1 %) and starch (1%) [2].  [c.235]

An agar slant Is prepared containing the following ingredients 20 grams starch, 1 gram asparagine, 3 grams beef extract, 20 grams agar, and 1 liter water. The slant Is inoculated with spores of S. orientalis. Strain M43-05865, and is incubated for about 10 days at 30°C. The medium is then covered with sterile distilled water and scraped to loosen the spores.  [c.1572]

Induction stroke 1 -2 Compression stroke 2-5 Combustion and expansion stroke 5-6 Exhaust stroke  [c.177]

Fuels for TwO Stroke Engines  [c.231]

The method has been utilized for stress investigation in bridges and other steel structures to determine production stresses or stresses originating from body weight, etc. [1 - 4]  [c.3]

During the optical coat work stress examination method the upper plate of the head of some of the bolts was covered with an optical coat work (Fig. 4). On the head of some other bolts strain gauges were stuck which measured the plain biaxial stress state in the middle of the top surface of the head of the bolt (3.5 x 3 mm). The magnetic probe detected average stresses up to 0.1 mm depth in an area of 14 mm diameter in the middle of the head of the bolt.  [c.7]

The vessels will be pressurised up to 1,1 - 1,25 fold of the normal service pressure of the drums, within stress increments of 50 kPa (0,5 bar) and a constant and smooth slope of less than 10 kPa.min . During the complete test the data will be acquired, stored and analysed.  [c.32]

Fatigue tests were performed under load control mode on a Schenck horizontal fatigue testing machine with hydraulic grips and a maximum load capacity of 25 kN. Tension-tension constant amplitude fatigue tests were carried out at three stress levels 60% a , 70% Cu and 80% a at two different stress ratios R = 0.1 and R = 0.5. The test frequency was kept constant (f = 3 Hz) for all the tests.  [c.46]

For the tests carried out at Gom = 60% Ou, only the stress ratio R = 0.1 was tried out  [c.46]

Figure 4 shows correlation plots of load versus cycles for a test carried out at a stress ratio R = 0.1. Each dot in these plots represents one AE event and the ordinate of the plot defines the load level of occurrence of this event, within the fatigue load range. The plot at the top shows non-filtered AE data while the plot at the bottom shows only AE events that occurred during the loading part of the cycle. Events occurring during the unloading part of the cycle have been filtered out.  [c.47]

Fig. 1. Dependence of indications- Wirotest (a) on the tensile stress in a bar 33 mm made of steel 55 Fig. 1. Dependence of indications- Wirotest (a) on the tensile stress in a bar <t>33 mm made of steel 55
Fig. 3 shows results of Wirotest 202 A indications as a function of compressive stress for cylindrical samples d> 18 mm made of steel LH 15, what is turn indieates that the dependence of indications on compressive stress is linear in the range up to 180 MPa with regard of quenched (1) and up 120 MPa with regard to annealed (2) samples.  [c.385]

Fig, 5 Course of stress in pipes with 0 32 mm and wall thickness 6,5 mm after welding (1) and after annealing (2).  [c.386]

In particular, the known stress calibration method was chosen, therefore 6 rosetta strain gauges (R1-R6) on the shell and 7 (R7-R13) on the the head were applied. Their distances measured from the head centre are listed in table 1. R3 and R4 were applied only to check a uniform stress level on the shell surface.  [c.411]

It is interesting to observe that thermographic results of scan area 1 denote a slow increase of the stress level going from the center of the shell to the head.  [c.412]

Since the known stress calibration method was adopted to perform the SPATE setting, the calibration factor was directly obtained from the preliminary tests above mentioned. However, it is interesting to observe that assuming the correction factor equal to 1 at 10 Hz, the ratio of Cf at the others investigated frequencies (2 and 5 Hz) to the calibration factor at 10 Hz gives  [c.413]

The F/B of (a) decreases about 1 8dB in the maximum as the axial compressive stress is loaded, and is constant during an  [c.851]

Langmuir also gave needed emphasis to the importance of employing pure substances rather than the various natural oils previously used. He thus found that the limiting area (at the Pockels point) was the same for palmitic, stearic, and cerotic acids, namely, 21 per molecule. (For convenience to the reader, the common names associated with the various hydrocarbon derivatives most frequently mentioned in this chapter are given in Table IV-1.)  [c.102]

Still another manifestation of mixed-film formation is the absorption of organic vapors by films. Stearic acid monolayers strongly absorb hexane up to a limiting ratio of 1 1 [272], and data reminiscent of adsorption isotherms for gases on solids are obtained, with the surface density of the monolayer constituting an added variable.  [c.145]

In an extensive SFA study of protein receptor-ligand interactions, Leckband and co-workers [114] showed the importance of electrostatic, dispersion, steric, and hydrophobic forces in mediating the strong streptavidin-biotin interaction. Israelachvili and co-workers [66, 115] have measured the Hamaker constant for the dispersion interaction between phospholipid bilayers and find A = 7.5 1.5 X 10 erg in water.  [c.247]

Unlike the situation with liquids, in the case of a solid, the surface tension is not necessarily equal to the surface stress. As Gibbs [25] pointed out, the former is the work spent informing unit area of surface (and may alternatively be called the surface free energy see Sections II-1 and III-2), while the latter involves the work spent in stretching the surface. It is helpful to imagine that the process of forming a fresh surface of a monatomic substance is divided into two steps first, the solid or liquid is cleaved so as to expose a new surface, keeping the atoms fixed in the same positions that they occupied when in the bulk phase second, the atoms in the surface region are allowed to rearrange to their final equilibrium positions. In the case of the liquid, these two steps occur as one, but with solids the second step may occur only slowly because of the immobility of the surface region. Thus, with a solid it may be possible to stretch or  [c.259]

It was mentioned during the discussion on sintering (Section VII-1 A) that some bulk flow can occur with solids near their melting point solids may act like viscous liquids, in that their strain rate is proportional to the applied stress. As shown in Fig. VII-10, the strain rate (fractional elongation per unit time) versus stress (applied load per unit area) for 1-mil gold wires near 1000°C is nearly linear at small loads [119]. The negative strain rate at zero load is considered to be due to the surface tension of the metal and, therefore, the stress such as to give zero strain rate must just balance the surface tensional force along the circumference of the wire. Copper near its melting point has a surface tension of 1370 dyn/cm, while gold at 1000°C has values of 1300-1700 by this technique [1, 119]. Wire heated for long times at low stresses develops interesting waists and bulges analogous to the instability in liquid columns described in Section II-3. Solid paraffin has a surface tension of about 50 dyn/cm at 50°C, compared to that of about 25 dyn/cm for the liquid state [120].  [c.278]

A useful measure of an engineering material s resistance to short-term exposure to heat is the heat deflection temperature (HDT). This test (ASTM D648) indicates the temperature at which a molded test specimen deflects 0.254 mm under a stress (1.82 MPa for engineering plastics) when heated at a rate of 2°C/min. This test does not predict long-term thermal performance of a plastic. The heat deflection temperatures for a variety of fiber glass-reinforced engineering plastics are shown in Table 3. Glass-filled PPS compounds have high heat deflection temperatures, indicating excellent short-term retention of properties at high temperatures. This is important when a part is exposed to high temperatures for short periods of time, such as in soldering operations where temperatures are typically 224°C, but can reach 260°C, for short periods (usually <1 min).  [c.447]

Non-Newtonian fluids include those for which a finite stress 1,. is reqjiired before continuous deformation occurs these are c ailed yield-stress materials. The Bingbam plastic fluid is the simplest yield-stress material its rheogram has a constant slope [L, called the infinite shear viscosity.  [c.630]

Light emitted from an ordinary source, such as a filament lamp, is not of a single wavelength (non-monochromalic) and neither is it coherently phased, i.e. the wave fronts are out of step with one another. When an atom in its ground state ( 0) absorbs energy (photons) it is excited to a higher energy level ( 1). The energy absorbed may now be spontaneously released either immediately or after some time to yield the ground state of the atom once more. In a laser, however, the excited atom is struck by a photon of exactly the same energy as the one which would be emitted spontaneously. The excited atom is stimulated to emit a photon and return to the ground condition with the result that two photons of precisely the same wavelength are produced. The process can now be repeated throughout the system.  [c.235]

Starch consists of amylose, v hich is water-soluble and retrogrades on concentration forming an insoluble precipitate, and amy-lopectin, a mucilaginous substance with the characteristic paste-forming properties. Amylose is composed of long straight chains containing 200-1000 glucose units linked by a-1,4-glycoside links amylopeclm consists of comparatively short chains (about 20 glucose units) cross-linked by a-1,6-glycoside links. Both amylose and amylopectin have been synthesized from glucose-1-phosphate by the action of the enzyme phosphorylase.  [c.371]

At a given depth, the overburden pressure remains constant (at a gradient of approximately 1 psi/ft), so that with production of the reservoir fluid, the fluid pressure decreases, creating an increase in the grain-to-grain stress. This may result in the grains of rock crushing closer together, providing a small amount of drive energy (compaction drive) to the production. In extreme cases of pressure depletion in poorly compacted rocks this can give rise to a reduction in the thickness of the reservoir, leading ultimately to surface subsidence. This has been experienced in the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands (approximately 1m of subsidenoe), and more dramatically in the Ekofisk Field In the Norwegian sector of the North Sea (around 6m subsidence), as mentioned in Section 5.1.3.  [c.117]

In order to carry out non destructive tests on the stress state of magnetizable materials, magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements are becoming more and more widespread The method is based on the phenomenon that the MBN originating when the material is magnetized depends on the stress state of a given piece of the material. The noise - stress correlation must be determined on a sample made of the material which was used for the given structure (Fig. 1). After this, the stress state at any point of the structure can be determined by performing the measurement in two directions at the given point.  [c.3]

Let us consider investigation of stresses in a 3-D specimen. It has been shown [1] that in the case of weak birefringence a 3-D specimen can be investigated in a conventional transmission polariscope as if it were a two dimensional specimen. On every ray of light it is possible to determine the parameter of the isoclinic and the optical path difference A. The latter are related to the components of the stress tensor on the ray by linear integral relationships  [c.135]

Aben, H., Idnurm, S., Josepson, J., Kell, K.-J., Puro, A. Optical tomography of the stress tensor field. Proc. SPIE, ISfS "Analytical methods for optical tomography , 1991, 220-229.  [c.138]

The shown in Fig. 1. results of stress measurement originating from external loading, have shown, that within the range of tensile deformations the dependence of indications on the loading is linear, whereas after exceeding the propotionality limit the angle of curve inclination changes.  [c.383]

Fig. i. Results of Wirotest 202A indications as-a function of compressive stress of cylinder samples [c.384]

In Fig.8, it is thought that F/B decreases by the plastic deformation as the axial compressive stress is loaded, was a rapid decrease for the increasing Sa/So by the creep defomation and the diffusion bonding. Therefore, the Sa /So is in real time measured from the each decreasing F/B Moreover, the straight line in figure is that the ratio of theoritical bonding area Sa/So obtained from expression (1) and (3). The F/B after the cooling specimen is almost corresponding with this line s value. On the other hand, a rapid change in the echo height shown with A point was admitted as Sa /So=100% of the Ti side incidence. This reason is that the r of expression (3) becomes + from — at the A point and the  [c.854]

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Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.0 ]