Acid-modified starches  [c.10]

Anionic polymers Anionic starches Anionic surfactants  [c.57]

Cationic starch Cationic starches  [c.175]

Cross-linked starches Cross-linkers Cross-linking  [c.261]

Dialdehyde starches Dialifor [10311-84-9]  [c.292]

Modified starch Modified starches Modifiers Modularity Modulation contrast Modulation doped FETs Module designs Mogadon  [c.640]

Oxidized starches Oxidizers Oxidizing alkyds Oxidoreductases  [c.711]

Quaternary ammonium starches  [c.835]

Starch-Based Adhesives. Starches in the form of amylose [9005-82-7] and amylopectin [9037-22-3] both branched carbohydrates, are obtained from plants by hot water leeching of roots and seeds. The resultant starch (qv) is a granular, semicrystalline material, which must be cooked in order to be dispersed in water and hence used as an adhesive. No tme aqueous solutions form upon heating. Rather the mixture is a dispersion of various portions of the starch molecules. Starch can be chemically modified in a number of fashions. One way is to modify starch in water in the presence of a mineral acid leading to a composition known as thin boiling starch. Treatment using sodium hypochlorite [7681-52-9] or other oxidizing media leads to oxidized starches in which the association of the chains is reduced. Dextran [9004-54-0] is obtained by roasting acidified, dried starch. Starch can also be estetified to give various chemical materials. Typical starch-based adhesives include various additives and modifiers. One modifier is a plasticizer, which can be used to flexibilize the starch adhesive. Preservatives are also added to prevent these materials from providing nutrients for microbes. Fillers, such as kaolin [1332-58-7] clay, and calcium carbonate [471-34-17, are added both to modify the viscosity of the starch adhesive and to reduce the cost of the material. Borax [1303-96-4] which can act as a viscosity modifier, is very often used because it increases the tack, and acts as an antimicrobial. Starch-based adhesives find most use in the area of binding paper (qv). They have been used as gum label and envelope adhesives, and, in certain formulations, provide the adhesive for the bottom of paper grocery bags.  [c.234]

Gums and starches were used in early attempts to replace the viscosity and lubricity of oils in foods. These were not well received by consumers because they assumed fats merely suppHed mouthfeel and a bit of flavor. On closer examination, it became evident that fats in food and in the diet performed many roles, some simple, some extremely complex, some understood, and some not understood.  [c.117]

Sta-Slim modified potato and tapioca starches Staley Mfg.  [c.118]

Each member of the N-Lite Series (National Starch) is aimed at a specific role ia fat replacemeat, ie, N-Lite L for soups and sandwich spreads N-Lite LP for use ia dressiags and dips. N-Lite LP is an iastant modified food starch which yields a very oily texture and is stable to heat, acid, and shear N-Oil is a tapioca dextria suggested for fat-like mouthfeel and the N-Elate and N-Oil Series are propriety mixtures of starches and other fat replacers.  [c.119]

Konjac flour, derived from the konjac plant tuber, has a long history of use in the Ear East, but is a newcomer to the United States. It reacts with many starches to enhance the viscosity of both, and is used in gels that are stable in boiling water.  [c.119]

Eastman Goal Chemicals. In 1983 Eastman Chemical Co. became the first chemical producer in the United States to return to coal as a raw material for large-scale manufacture of industrial chemicals (35). In that year, Eastman started manufacturing acetic anhydride from coal. Acetic anhydride is a key intermediate for production of coatings, ceUulosic plastics, and cellulose acetate fibers. Acetic anhydride from other sources also is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, starches and sweeteners, and flavors and fragrances.  [c.166]

Fillers can be classified according to their source, function, composition, or morphology. None of these classification schemes is entirely adequate due to ovedap and ambiguity of the categories. Morphological distinctions, used here for the discussion of general filler properties, are either crystalline, eg, fibers, platelets, polyhedrons, and irregular masses or amorphous, eg, fibers, dakes, soHd spheres, hoUow spheres, and irregular masses. The compositional scheme used for the compilation of data on specific fillers classifies fibers as either inorganic, eg, carbonates, hydroxides, metals, oxides, siUcates, sulfates, and sulfides or organic, eg, carbon, celluloses, lignins, polymers, proteins, and starches.  [c.366]

A spice oleoresin is a concentrated form of the dried spice, processed by extraction, usually with a volatile nonaqueous solvent. The pharmacological herbs are usually processed by extraction with water or dilute alcohol, yielding powdered, fluid, or soHd extracts. Oleoresins contain the odor and flavor of the spice including nonvolatile principles and, unlike spice essential oils, are usually viscous Hquids, semisoHd, or soHd materials. Natural botanicals contain many components that make no contribution to the odor, flavor, or spice value of the item. Selection of the proper solvent removes such things as resins and resin acids, water, cellulose and pentosans, lignin, carbohydrates, sugars, starches, fiber, tannins, and minerals, while retaining such things as fixed oils (glycerides), essential oils, di- and triterpenoids, proteins, amides, phenols, and some waxes.  [c.23]

In terms of value, the alum market share is expected to decline. Alum is facing strong competition from polyaluminum chloride both ia water treatment and paper (8), and from iron salts (9) ia water treatment. Alum is being replaced ia papermaking by the iatroduction of dual retention and microparticle retention systems which use synthetic polymers as well as modified starches (90). The changeover from acid to alkaline papermaking will also decrease alum usage. Also, to some extent, the change ia papermaking pH may iacrease the usage of anionic retention aids (39,90). Because alum is a high volume/low unit price commodity, alum pricing is affected by iacreases ia shipping and raw materials costs, which have pushed prices up recently (91).  [c.37]

Sales are for starches and gelatins.  [c.445]

Many formulated foods and certain animal products tolerate freezing and thawing weU because their stmctures can accommodate ice crystallization, movement of water, and related changes in solute concentrations. Starches can be modified for freeze—thaw stabiHty against gel breakdown through several cycles. By contrast, most fmits and vegetables lose significant stmctural quaHty on freezing and during storage because their rigid ceU stmctures fail to accommodate to ice crystal formation. Frozen food storage equipment must be designed to minimize temperature fluctuations. It is not possible to store foods at temperatures low enough to ensure complete conversion of all water to ice. Commercial frozen food storage temperatures (—18 to —24°C) represent an economic balance between storage costs measured in time, energy, and capital investment, and desired shelf Hfe and product quaHty.  [c.459]

Nonphotosynthetic Organisms. Nonphotosynthetic microorganisms of interest in SCP production include bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, molds, and higher fungi. Carbon and energy sources considered for growing these organisms include carbohydrates such as simple sugars, starches, and cellulose (qv) agricultural, forestry, pulp (qv), paper, and food processing wastes containing these carbohydrates and hydrocarbons and chemicals derived from them, including alcohols and organic acids.  [c.465]

Inks. Typical inks are water-based, with acryUc emulsion resins as the main binder. Inks of this type occasionally use natural products such as starches, lignins, and lignin derivatives. Hence, ecologically, this process is more desirable. Practically all resins used in this ink system are rendered water soluble or emulsiftable through neutralization with organic amines. Strong absorption of amine by the newsprint renders the resin, after printing, water insoluble and prevents bleeding of printed matter. Press ready inks are very fluid and of low viscosity. Inks contain a variety of additives for the elimination of foaming, dispersion of pigments, rheological modifiers, sHp agents, etc.  [c.250]

Other Better Additives. Beater adhesives are employed widely to enhance ftber-to-fiber bonding. Starches are used in the greatest tonnage. Natural gums (qv), eg, guar and locust bean, also are used as are modified celluloses, eg, the carboxymethyl and hydroxyethyl derivatives (see Cellulose esters). Urea—formaldehyde and melamine—formaldehyde polymers provide wet strength to the finished paper sheet (see Amino resins and plastics). Polyamide epichlorohydrine and dialdehyde starch are also wet-strength resins. The former is used in neutral papers. Other natural and synthetic materials are used to alter the paper properties and to influence the behavior of the system during sheet forming and drying.  [c.5]

Starch (qv), obtained from com, potatoes, tapioca, wheat, etc, is a polymer of glucose in which the units are arranged in the linear amylose and the branched amylopectin forms. Because of the complexity and size of the stmcture and the high viscosity of starch in solution, starches caimot be used directly in coating formulations, but must be modified to produce a lower viscosity system. Modification of starch by enzymes or thermal conversion is common. Acid-hydrolyzed starches that have been hydroxy ethylated or acetylated are also common, as are hypochlorite-oxidized starches. Hypochlorite-oxidized starches are characterized by lower gelatination temperatures, clearer solutions, and lower viscosities at high concentration than their parent forms. Oxidized forms are available in a range of viscosity grades and are used in sizing operations as well as in pigment coating.  [c.10]

A more direct source of energy for animals is provided by the starches found m many plants Starch is a mixture containing about 20% of a water dispersible fraction called amylose and 80% of a second component amylopectm  [c.1049]

The protein fraction is filtered and dried to become high (60%) protein content com gluten meal. The starch slurry can be dewatered and dried to produce regular com starch. Dry starch can be sold as is or heat treated in the presence of acid catalysts to produce dextrins. Or, it is chemically modified before dewatering and drying to produce modified starches used in food and industrial appHcations. Lasdy, it can be hydroly2ed to produce corn sweeteners.  [c.360]

When heated in the presence of water to 62—72°C, normal starch granules swell, forming high viscosity pastes or gels. This process is called gelatini2ation. Starch from normal corns form characteristic firm, opaque gels because of the amylose fraction. The linear molecules align on cooling after gelatini2ation in a process called retrogradation, forming a thick, mbbery mass. The bushy amylopectin molecules in waxy starch caimot align to form such a mass, resulting in softer, translucent salve-Hke gels. High amylose starches are difficult to hiUy gelatini2e and provide Httle viscosity unless cooked above the boiling point of water. These vasdy different characteristics are further enhanced by modification of the native granules, resulting in starches with a wide range of properties for industrial and food appHcations (see Starch).  [c.360]

Low molecular weight polyacrylamide derivatives with mineral specific functionaHties have been developed as highly selective depressants. The depressants have certain ecological advantages over natural depressants such as starches and guar gums. The depressants provide efficient mineral recovery without flocculation. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides with molecular weights of 7,000 to 85,000 can be used in sylvanite (KCl) recovery (115). Polymers having the functionaHty —CONHCN2OH are efficient modifiers in hematite—siHca separations (116). Polymers containing the —CONHCH(OH)COOH functionahty provide excellent selectivity in separation of apatite from siHceous gangue in phosphate benefication. Valuable sulfide minerals containing copper and nickel can be separated effectively from gangue sulfide minerals such as pyrite in froth flotation processes when acrylamide—allylthiourea copolymers are added to depress the pyrite (117).  [c.143]

Fats contribute to the rheological properties in flowable and pastry foods. By combining with starches to form a clathrate, a product different from the native starch is formed, eg, shortening in baked goods. The highly developed shortness of pies baked in eadier times resulted from the use of high levels of lard. The use of less fat in pie cmsts is evident, ie, the cmsts are harder and readily become soggy.  [c.117]

Table 4 demonstrates that starches for fat replacement originate from com, potato, tapioca, oat, and rice. Starches are comprised chiefly of straight (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) chains of glucose. The ratio of branched to straight chains has an effect on the nature of the resultant starch this ratio varies with the starch source. Hydrolysis of these starches yields dextrins and maltodextrins, which are also usefiil in replacing food fats. Hydrolysis can be an enzymatic or acid reaction, and can be stopped at different stages of breakdown to yield a host of products from a single starch, eg, Rice Complete, 10% protein and 90% maltodextrins Rice Pro, 25% protein and 75% maltodexrins and Rice Trin, 100% maltodextrins (Zumbro).  [c.118]

All microorganisms require water, sources of carbon, energy, nitrogen, and minerals. Certain vitamins and growth factors are often required as well. Additionally, oxygen is necessary for all aerobic fermentations. Chemically defined or semidefined media are often used up to the seed stage of a fermentation to ensure rapid and reproducible growth. However, on a large scale, economics play a key role ia determining the components. The material cost and availabiUty, location of fermentation plant and commodity pricing are key variables. In the case of the ICI pressure cycle fermentor for single-cell proteias the whole fermentation process (4) was essentially designed around the avaHabiUty of a relatively iaexpensive and abundant raw material, ie, methanol derived from methane gas. Generally, the nutritional requirements for most conventional fermentations can be met by formulating a medium having, eg, molasses, cereal grains, starches, glucose, sucrose, and lactose as carbon sources. Com steep Hquor, soybean meal, cottonseed flour, slaughterhouse waste, fish meals, ammonia, ammonium salts, and fermentation residues often serve as the nitrogen base. Soya bean oil, lard, and cotton seed oil serve to control foam ia aerated fermentations as well as providing carbon for nutrition. Often, other more traditional defoamers such as siUcone oils and polypropylene glycol are necessary as well. Brewer s yeast is frequently used as a combination nitrogen, vitamin, and growth factor source. The overall contribution of the cost of the medium may be very high ia some commodity-type fermentations thus the producer microorganism is often selected or engiaeered to use components it traditionally would not, but which are available at a reasonable price.  [c.180]

Processing Aids. Manufacturing aids, used to improve the appearance or performance of food products, include clarifying agents (flocculants), clouding agents, catalysts, and filter aids. Clarifying agents eliminate turbidity and particle suspension in products such as beet, wine, fmit juices, oils, and vinegar. Gelatin and lime ate frequently used for this purpose. Clouding agents add a turbid appearance to products such as symps, soft drinks, and powdered beverage mixes. Brominated vegetable oils [8016-94-2], gums, and citms pulp ate commonly used clouding agents. Catalysts, which ate agents that faciUtate a chemical reaction, ate used for the hydrogenation of oil, transesterification of fats, modification of starches, and many en2yme reactions. Raney nickel [7440-02-0], Ni, sodium methoxide [124-41 -4], CH30Na, and a variety of acids ate typical catalysts. Filter aids break down or entrap undesired substances in fmit juices, wines, milk, oils, beet, and vinegar, thus making it easier to remove these substances by filtration (83).  [c.443]

Starch. The most abundant natural, or unmodified, starch [9005-25-8] is that produced by the wet milling of com. Other commercial starches include wheat, potato, sago, rice, and tapioca. Owing to low cost, unmodified starches are used extensively as thickening agents in the food industry. Starch is often pregelatini2ed so it can be used to impart thickening properties in foods that are not normally heated, such as instant pie fillings.  [c.444]

The lambda type is nongelling, and functions as a thickner. Iota-carrageenan has been recommended (45) for use in formulating low fat ground beef due to its abihty to retain moisture, especially through a freeze—thaw cycle which is typical for ground beef patties. Oat bran and oat fiber can also be used to improve moisture retention and mouth feel. Modified starches can be used as binders to maintain juiciness and tenderness in low fat meat products. Maltodextrins (dextrose equivalent less than 20) may be used as binders up to 3.5% in finished meat products. Other carbohydrates such as konjac flour, alginate, microcrystalline cellulose, methylceUulose, and carboxymethylceUulose have also been used in low fat meat products (see CELLULOSE ETHERs).  [c.34]

Peanut Butter. By federal regulation, at least 90% of commercial peanut butter consists of shelled roasted peanuts that are ground and blended with salt, sweeteners, and emulsifiers. No artificial flavors and sweeteners, chemical preservatives, natural or artificial color, purified vitamins, or minerals are allowed (125). To meet consumer demand for low fat products, several U.S. manufacturers have created products ia which the peanut content has been partially replaced by maltodexttins, com symp soflds or similar starches, and soy proteia (126—128). As of the mid-1990s the FDA is stiU considering modifying the standard of identity, ia accordance with the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (129), to permit the adding of vitamin as well as the display of nutrient content cl aim (eg, "reduced fat") to an existing standardized term (peanut butter). This has met with opposition from growers associations. In a 1994 ruling, the FDA upheld the existing standard.  [c.277]

BiodegradabiUty has been approached in several areas. One attempt is to add fillers (qv) such as starches into the product. The U.S. Agricultural Department has been studying biodegradable polyolefins prepared by adding starch as a filler since the mid-1980s (13). Although the incorporation of starch into polyethylene has a severely negative impact on product properties, possible appUcation areas may yet be found in the agricultural field.  [c.378]

Resin additives that have been used to develop wet-strength characteristics in paper include urea—formaldehyde, melamine—formaldehyde, polyamide—polyamine—epichlorohydrin, polyethyleneimine, dialdehyde starches, insolubUized protein, vegetable gums and extracts, and sUicates and sUicones (see Silicon compounds). The degree of wet-strength retention achieved in the paper is dependent on the type of additive, amount of additive appHcation, amount of resin retained in the paper, method of additive appHcation (pulp slurry or finished dry paper), and degree of resin cure achieved. Because of environmental concerns, several aspects must be considered (/) the effect of any resin additive on the abUity of paper mills to recycle fibers from used wet-strength packages (3) (2) the potential of having unacceptable odors transferred from the resin additive to the packaged product, particularly in the case of food or dmg products (methods for measuring odor transfer potential, using gas chromatography—infrared—mass spectroscopy, have been developed (4)) (J) possible chemical adulteration of food and dmg products by the resin additive, within the meaning of the U.S. Food, Dmg and Cosmetic Act and (4) possible release of chemical substances into the atmosphere during packaging manufacturing in terms of any OSHA or U.S.  [c.517]

See pages that mention the term Starches : [c.16]    [c.33]    [c.80]    [c.241]    [c.809]    [c.923]    [c.926]    [c.986]    [c.26]    [c.441]    [c.441]    [c.441]    [c.445]    [c.430]    [c.270]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.58 ]