Abbreviations


CODE = six-letter abbreviated name MOL WT = molecular weight  [c.143]

Abbreviations and symbols commonly used in this book include  [c.7]

At Argon. Sometimes used as an abbreviation for an aromatic group.  [c.40]

For fuels it is quite usual to employ kilocalories per kilogram as a measure of calorific value while for foods the unit used is kilocalories per gram. This, however, is often abbreviated to Calories , so that a value for carbohydrates of 4-1 Calories per gram is 4100 calories per gram.  [c.77]

Over 1,000 pages long and with over 68,000 definitions, this cheap, compact and totally up-to-date book is ideal for today s needs. It includes many technical and colloquial terms, guides to pronunciation and common abbreviations.  [c.438]

This analysis, abbreviated as FIA for Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption, is standardized as ASTM D 1319 and AFNOR M 07-024. It is limited to fractions whose final boiling points are lower than 315°C, i.e., applicable to gasolines and kerosenes. We mention it here because it is still the generally accepted method for the determination of olefins.  [c.79]

Represented by its abbreviation, MAV, the Maleic Anhydride Value Is based on the fact that olefinic conjugated double bonds can be added to maleic anhydride by the reaction below m]  [c.84]

A fairly simple treatment, due to Guggenheim [80], is useful for the case of ideal or nearly ideal solutions. An abbreviated derivation begins with the free energy of a species  [c.65]

The function of this chapter is to review these methods with emphasis on the types of phenomenology involved and information obtained. Many of the effects are complicated, and full theoretical descriptions are still lacking. The wide variety of methods and derivative techniques has resulted in a veritable alphabet soup of acronyms. A short list is given in Table VIII-1 (see pp. 313-318) the lUPAC recommendations for the abbreviations are found in Ref. 1.  [c.293]

However, a body of thermodynamic treatment has been developed on the basis that the adsorbent is inert and with attention focused entirely on the adsorbate. The abbreviated presentation given here is based on that of Hill (see Refs. 65 and 113) and of Everett [114]. First, we have the defining relationships  [c.642]

Following Gibbs, the f space is defined as a 2/-dimensional space for a system with/degrees of freedom (p, > abbreviated as (p, q). Here (p-, < j), i = 1,. .., /are the canonical momenta and  [c.382]

The consistency condition for this set of equations to possess a (unique) solution is that the field intensity tensor defined in Eq. (99) is zero [72], which is also known as the curl condition and is written in an abbreviated form as  [c.148]

Let us introduce the following abbreviations h = 9i -9 ,  [c.286]

Nowadays, chemical elements are represented in abbreviated form [2]. Each element has its ovm symbol, which typically consists of the initial upper-case letter of the scientific name and, in most cases, is followed by an additional characteristic lower-case letter. Together with the chemical symbol, additional information can be included such as the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, the atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus) thus isotopes can be distinguished, e.g., The charge value and, finally, the number of atoms which are present in the molecule can be given (Figure 2-3). For example, dioxygen is represented by O2.  [c.19]

Figure 10.3-19. Representation of the reaction shown fn Figure 10.3-16, indicating all the atoms and bonds of the chemical structures as well as the reaction center. For the sake of clarity, the coenzyme A has been abbreviated. Figure 10.3-19. Representation of the reaction shown fn Figure 10.3-16, indicating all the atoms and bonds of the chemical structures as well as the reaction center. For the sake of clarity, the coenzyme A has been abbreviated.
I lere, f. is the energy of the particle and we have used the abbreviation (pronounced del-.squared )  [c.47]

It i- Li -ual to abbreviate the left-hand side of Equation (2.1) to where is the  [c.47]

This product, given the abbreviation FOD (fuel-oil domestique) in France, still held a considerable market share there of 17 Mt in 1993. However, since 1973 when its consumption reached 37 Mt, FOD has seen its demand shrink gradually owing to development of nuclear energy and electric heating. FOD also faces strong competition with natural gas. Nevertheless, its presence in the French, European and worldwide petroleum balance will still be strong beyond tbe year 2000.  [c.233]

Concurrent operations refers to performing the simultaneous activities of production and drilling, or sometimes production, drilling and maintenance. In some areas simultaneous production and drilling is abbreviated to SIPROD. Clearly the issues which drive the operator s decision on whether to carry out SIPROD are safety and cost. Shutting in production while drilling will reduce the consequences of a drilling incident such as a blowout, but will incur a loss of revenue. Risk analysis techniques may be used to help in this decision, and if SIPROD is adopted, then procedures will be written specifying how to operate in this mode. It is common practice in production operations to close in production from a well when another near-by operation is rigging up or rigging down, to avoid the more serious consequences of a load being dropped during equipment movements.  [c.280]

Bashforth and Adams obtained solutions to Eq. 11-17 (with / i replaced by the expression in analytical geometry), using a numerical integration procedure (this was before the day of high-speed digital computers, and their work required tremendous labor). Their results are reported as tables of values of x/b and z/b for closely spaced values of j3 and of . For a given value, a plot of z/b versus x/b gives the profile of a particular figure of revolution satisfying Eq. 11-17. By way of illustration, their results for j3 = 80 are reproduc (in abbreviated form) in Table II-l. Observe that x/b reaches a maximum at 4> = 90°, so that in the case of zero contact angle the surface is now tangent to the capillary wall and hence (x/b)mix = r/b. The corresponding value of r/a is given by (r/b) Vfi/2. In this manner, Sugden compiled tables of r/b versus r/a.  [c.14]

In conclusion, we attempt to provide a snapshot of current research in Raman spectroscopy. Since any choice of topics must be necessarily incomplete, and certainly would reflect our own scientific bias, we choose, instead, an arbitrary approach (at least one not that is not biased by our own specialization). Thus an abbreviated sunnnary of the topics just presented in die keynote/plenary lectures at ICORSXVI in Cape Town, South Africa, is presented. Each of the 22 lectures appears in the Proceedings (and Supplement) of the 16th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy (1998), edited by A M Heyns (Chichester Wiley) in a four-page fonnat, almost all containing a short list of references. Rather than ourselves searching for seminal citations, we instead give the e-mail address of the principal author, when available. Though the intent in this procedure is to expose the wide scope of current Raman activity, it is hoped that the reader who is looking for more details will not hesitate to seek out the author in this fashion, and that the authors will not feel put upon by this maimer of directing people to their work. To relate to table B 1.3.1 and tableBl.3.2. the acronym is given for the principal Raman spectroscopy that is used for each entry.  [c.1217]

The Wood notation ean be generalized somewhat fiirther, by adding either the prefix e for eentred, or the prefix p for primitive. For instanee, one may have a e (2 x 2) unit eell or a p(2 x 2) unit eell, the latter often abbreviated to (2 x 2) beeause it is identieal to it. In a eentred unit eell, the eentre of the eell is an exaet eopy of the eomers of the eell this makes the eell non-primitive, i.e. it is no longer the smallest eell that, when repeated periodieally aeross the surfaee, generates the entire surfaee stnieture. Nonetheless, the eentred notation is often used beeause it ean be quite eonvenient, as the next example will illustrate.  [c.1763]

Figure Bl.25.2. XPS scans between 0 and 450 eV of two organoplatiniiin complexes showing peaks due to Pt, Cl, N and C. The C Is signal represents not only carbon in the compound but also contaminant hydrocarbon fragments, as in any sample. The abbreviation Me in the structures stands for CH (courtesy of J C Muijsers, Eindlroven). Figure Bl.25.2. XPS scans between 0 and 450 eV of two organoplatiniiin complexes showing peaks due to Pt, Cl, N and C. The C Is signal represents not only carbon in the compound but also contaminant hydrocarbon fragments, as in any sample. The abbreviation Me in the structures stands for CH (courtesy of J C Muijsers, Eindlroven).
Versions of tire SmB, SmI and SmF phases witli a higher degree of order were originally classified as smectic phases however, tliey are now known to be soft-crystal phases, witli tme long-range positional order in tliree dimensions. The layers are, however, very weakly attached to each otlier and tliis was tire source of tire original misidentification. The crystal version of SmB is now temied crystal B (abbreviated simply as B [7]) and crystal J and crystal G are tliree-dimensionally ordered versions of SmI and SmF, respectively. A furtlier soft-crystal phase, confused in tire early literature witli a smectic, is tlie crystal E phase in which tlie molecules have a herringbone or chevron packing, which results from the quenching of sixfold rotational disorder in tlie B phase to produce long-range ordering of tlie short molecular axes. Tilted versions of tliis phase, called crystal H and crystal K, are derived from G and J phases respectively [20, 22, 26 and 27].  [c.2549]

Columnar phases are foniied by discotic mesogens [33], examples of which are shown in figure C2.2.6. An excellent review of molecules tliat fonii discotic phases has recently appeared [34]. Discotic molecules can fonii a nematic phase (teniied N ) just like calaniitic mesogens. In addition, several types of of columnar phase have been observed (figure C2.2.7) [35]. The recommended abbreviation for tliese phases is col [7], altliough D is often encountered, especially in tlie early literature. In tlie col. phase tliere is a disordered stacking of discotic molecules in tlie columns which are packed hexagonally. Hexagonal columnar phases where tliere is an ordered stacking sequence (colj. ) or where tlie mesogens are tilted witliin tlie columns (col ) are also known [9, 20, 34, 35 and 36].  [c.2549]

Residue name - one of the standard amino acids (lliree-letler abbreviations are used), nucleic acids (one- or two-lctter abbreviations), or the non-standard group designation as dc ncd in lire HHT dictionary 23-26 Residue sequence nuniber,  [c.119]

The initial step is to identify which database, from a few thousands worldwide (about 10 000 in 2002), provides the requested information. The next step is to determine which subsection of the topic is of interest, and to identify typical search terms or keywords (synonyms, homonyms, different languages, or abbreviations) (Table 5-1). During the search in a database, this strategy is then executed (money is charged for spending time on some chemical databases). The resulting hits may be further refined by combining keywords or database fields, respectively, with Boolean operators (Table 5-2). The final results should be saved in electronic or printed form.  [c.230]

Because the field code POW is also a hierarchical group code (see also Figure 5-17), the solution behavior retrieval POW OR POWIZOG can be abbreviated in the fact editor to simply POW without further specification.  [c.253]

Confi ration interaction (Cl) solves the problem of electron correlation by considering more than a single occupation scheme for the MOs and by mixing the microstates obtained by permuting the electron occupancies over the available MOs. In its simplest form, a Cl calculation consists of a preliminary SCF calculation, which gives the MOs that are used unchanged throughout the rest of the calculation. Microstates are then constructed by moving electrons fi om occupied orbitals to vacant ones according to preset schemes. The Cl matrix is then calculated, in which the diagonal elements represent the energies of the microstates and the off-diagonal ones their interactions. This matrix is diagonalized in order to obtain the energies of the different states (ground and excited states) of the molecule as linear combinations of the microstates. Once again, the energies are given by the eigenvalues and the coefficients for the linear combinations by the eigenvectors. This procedure results in a stabilization of the ground state, but also gives energies and wavefunctions for excited states. The problem is that if we were to consider every possible arrangement of all the electrons in all the MOs (a full Cl), the calculations would become far too large even for moderate-sized molecules wdfh a fairly large basis set (because there are so many virtual orbitals). Thus, two types of restriction are usually used only a limited number of MOs around the HOMO-LUMO gap are included in the Cl, and only certain types of rearrangement (excitation) of the electrons are used. The most economical form is that in which only microstates in which one electron is promoted firom the ground state to a virtual orbital (single excitations) are used. This is abbreviated as CIS and has traditionally  [c.387]

The abbreviation QSAR stands for quantitative structure-activity relationships. QSPR means quantitative structure-property relationships. As the properties of an organic compound usually cannot be predicted directly from its molecular structure, an indirect approach Is used to overcome this problem. In the first step numerical descriptors encoding information about the molecular structure are calculated for a set of compounds. Secondly, statistical methods and artificial neural network models are used to predict the property or activity of interest, based on these descriptors or a suitable subset. A typical QSAR/QSPR study comprises the following steps structure entry or start from an existing structure database), descriptor calculation, descriptor selection, model building, model validation.  [c.432]


See pages that mention the term Abbreviations : [c.7]    [c.10]    [c.69]    [c.143]    [c.143]    [c.281]    [c.342]    [c.504]    [c.209]    [c.714]    [c.285]    [c.451]    [c.599]    [c.844]    [c.1456]    [c.1622]    [c.2142]    [c.264]    [c.367]   
See chapters in:

Purification of laboratory chemicals  -> Abbreviations


Langes handbook of chemistry (1999) -- [ c.0 ]

Protective groups in organic synthesis (1991) -- [ c.0 ]

Purification of laboratory chemicals (2003) -- [ c.30 , c.80 , c.389 , c.505 ]

Industrial ventilation design guidebook (2001) -- [ c.1399 ]

Protective groups in organic synthesis (1999) -- [ c.0 ]

Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume 1 (1999) -- [ c.25 ]