Wiley 1

In the following example, well 1 has found an oil bearing interval in a structure (1). An OWC was established from logs and has been extrapolated across the structure assuming continuous sand development. However, the core (in reality cores from a number of wells) and 3D seismic have identified a channel depositional environment. The channel has been mapped using specific field data and possibly analogue data from similar fields resulting in a net sand map (2). In this case the hydrocarbon volume is constrained by the structural feature of the field and the distribution of reservoir rock i.e. the channel geometry.  [c.156]

Fit a 1-litre round-bottomed flask with a rubber stopper carrying a large Soxhlet extractor (Fig. II, 44, 4), and attach an efficient double surface condenser to the latter. Place 595 g. (750 nil.) of commercial acetone, preferably dried over anhydrous potassium carbonate, and a few fragments of porous porcelain in the flask. Insert two large paper thimbles in the Soxhlet apparatus, one above the other fill each about three quarters full with barium hydroxide and fill the remainder of the space with glass wool (1). Heat the flask on a water bath or steam bath so that the acetone refluxes back into the extractor rather rapidly. Continue the heating until the acetone no longer refluxes when the flask is almost completely immersed in the boiling water bath (72-120 hours). The refluxing may be interrupted at any time for as long as desired without influencing the preparation. Equip the flask with a fractionating column attached to an efficient double surface condenser set for downward distillation. Immerse the flask in an oil bath and raise the temperature gradually to 125° maintain this temperature as long as acetone distils over. The recovery of acetone is complete when the temperature at the top of the column is about 70°. Distil the residue (2) from a Claisen flask under diminished pressure (3) a little acetone passes over first, followed by the diacetone alcohol at 71-74°/23 mm. (or 62-64°/13 mm.). The yield is 450 g.  [c.352]

Phenylpyridine. The first stage is the preparation of a solution of phenyl-lithium in dry ether. Equip a 1-litre three-necked flask with a dropping funnel, a mercury-sealed mechanical stirrer, and an efficient reflux condenser provide the last-named with a drying tube filled with calcium chloride or cotton wool (1). Flush the apparatus with dry, oxygen-free nitrogen gas. Place 7 -35 g. of hthium shavings or wire (2) in the flask, and introduce a solution of 78-5 g. (52-5 ml.) of dry, redistilled bromobenzene in 250 ml. of anhydrous ether into the dropping funnel. Start the stirrer. Run in about 2 ml. of the solution when the reaction starts, as indicated by an initial cloudiness (3), add the remainder at such a rate that the solvent refluxes gently (about 45 minutes). Finally, add 50 ml. of anhydrous ether through the dropping funnel. Continue the stirring until all or most of the hthium disappears (1-1 5 hours) (4).  [c.931]

Concerning my research during my Dow years, as I discuss iu Chapter 4, my search for cationic carbon intermediates started back in Hungary, while 1 was studying Friedel-Crafts-type reactions with acyl and subsequently alkyl fluorides catalyzed by boron trifluoride. In the course of these studies I observed (and, in some cases, isolated) intermediate complexes of either donor-acceptor or ionic nature.  [c.72]

Wall Baffles. Because rotating impellers mainly create tangential flows, wall baffles are needed to transform them to vertical flows and hence top-to-bottom hquid recirculation. Vertical baffles located along the tank wall are necessary for providing top-to-bottom mixing without a swid and for eliminating cavitation. The standard baffle configuration consists of four vertical plates having width equal to 8—10% of tank diameter. Narrower baffles are sometimes used for high viscosity systems, buoyant particle entrainment (width = 2% of T), or when a small vortex is desired. A small spacing between baffles and the tank wall (1.5% of T) is allowed to minimize dead zones particularly in soHd—Hquid systems. The presence of wall baffles causes an increase in power consumption (Fig. 6a), but generally enhances the process result. In square and rectangular shaped tanks, the corners break up the tangential flow pattern thus providing the baffling effect, and wall baffles may not be needed.  [c.424]

Thickness Measurement. Accurate thickness measurement is important in determining the remaining life in many piping and pressure vessel installations. Ultrasonics provide good thickness deterrnination capabiHty, where the time of flight of the pulse in the section in question is compared to the time of flight in a sample of identical material having known thickness and geometry. Typical accuracies are 1% or 0.01 mm for a 1-mm thick wall (1—3,6,24). Whereas this method can be used quite reHably, errors can arise because of signal interpretation problems and because of the overwhelming amount of data to be collected for a test. WeU trained operators are, however, able to extract useful information from the signal, and modem data storage and analysis equipment facUitate the data presentation in order to minimize the likelihood of an error.  [c.132]

Over the years the number of reference dimensions ia physics has evolved from the original three, to four, to five, and then gradually downwards to an absolutely necessary one, and then upwards again through an understanding that, though only one is absolutely necessary, a considerable convenience can stem from usiag three, to four, or five reference dimensions depending on the problem at hand (1,6,7,15—20). There is nothing sacrosanct about the number of reference dimensions, and dimensional analysis is merely a tool that maybe manipulated at will (1). This principle of free choice of the reference dimensions has been widely accepted, although one stiU finds references to tme dimensions. Thus, an important step ia dimensional analysis is the selection of reference dimensions ia such a way that the others, called the secondary or derived dimensions, can be expressed ia terms of them. The relation between reference and derived dimensions is generally estabUshed either through the fundamental law or equation governing the phenomenon or through definitions. When length, mass, and time are taken to be the reference dimensions, the dimensions of velocity for example, are the dimensions of length divided by time, or expressed by symbols, v =. Likewise, through Newton s law of motion, which relates force, mass, and acceleration by  [c.103]

Wool 1.32 82 Sandstone 1.9-2.5 137 Hornblende 3.0 187  [c.163]

FIG. 25-72 Typical detail of an isolated gas vent. (From Bagchi, A., Design, Construction, and Monitoring of Sanitary Landfill, Wiley, 1.9.90,)  [c.2255]

Seller warrants that Product delivered to [insert company name] will (1) conform to the descriptions and specifications as set forth in this Agreement (2) be of good quality and workmanship and free from defects, latent or patent and (3) be merchantable and fit and sufficient for [insert company name] s intended purpose. Payment, inspection, acceptance or use of Product will not affect Seller s obligation under this warranty.  [c.72]

When Bruce presented his ten-minute solution to the graduate student instructor the next morning, the instructor remarked, You have the right answer, but 1 have never seen it done this way. I will never forget Bruce s reply, Well, 1 guess that s how they do it in the field.  [c.399]

To allow for spray- and aerosol-formation, the mass of fuel in the cloud is assumed to be twice the theoretical flash of the amount of material released, so long as this quantity does not exceed the total amount of fuel available. Blast effects are modeled by means of TNT blast data according to Marshall (1976), while 1 bar is considered to be upper limit for the in-cloud overpressure (Figure 4.18). Because experience indicates that vapor clouds which are most likely to explode  [c.117]

Weil, 1. Morris, J.C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1949, 7/. 1664.  [c.458]

Regardless of substrate and solvent, isomerization fell in the order 5% Pd-on-C 5% Rh-on-C > 5% Pt-on-C, and, regardless of substrate or catalyst, isomerization fell with solvent in the order ethanol > pentane > 1 1 benzene-ethanol. Benzene is effective as an isomerization inhibitor mixed with other solvents as well 1 20 benzene-acetone showed marked inhibition. Substituted benzenes are less effective than benzene.  [c.34]

Another interesting result of the present investigation was the fact that the oligomer 7 of higher calix[4]ar-ene content exhibited a different property than that of 1. While 1 extracted little Ag", Hg", and Hg 8 was capable of extracting these ions.  [c.348]

We now make two coimections with topics discussed earlier. First, at the begiiming of this section we defined 1/Jj as the rate constant for population decay and 1/J2 as the rate constant for coherence decay. Equation (A1.6.63) shows that for spontaneous emission MT = y, while 1/J2 = y/2 comparing with equation (A1.6.60) we see that for spontaneous emission, 1/J2 = 0- Second, note that y is the rate constant for population transfer due to spontaneous emission it is identical to the Einstein A coefficient which we defined in equation (Al.6.3).  [c.234]

R. Englman, The Jahn-Teller effect in Molecules and Crystals, Wiley-1 nterscience. New York, 1972.  [c.37]

Prepare the Grignard reagent, n-butyl magnesium bromide, from 12 2 g. of dry magnesium turnings, a small crystal of iodine, 69 g. (54 ml.) of n-butyl bromide and 260 ml. of anhydrous ether, following the experimental details given in Section 111,23 (compare Section 111,17). Equip a 500 ml. three-necked flask with a mercury-sealed stirrer, a 100 ml. separatory funnel and a double surface condenser. Force the solution of the Grignard reagent with the aid of pure, dry nitrogen and a tube containing a plug of purifled glass wool (1) into the 500 ml. flask through the top of the double surface condenser. Charge the separatory funnel with a solution of 50 g. (35 ml.) of allyl bromide (Section 111,35) in 25 ml. of anhydrous ether place calcium chloride drying tubes into the top of the double surface condenser and of the dropping funnel. Immerse the flask containing the Grignard reagent in cold water, stir vigorously, and add the allyl bromide at such a rate that the ether boils gently cool momentarily in ice if the reaction becomes too vigorous. It is important that the allyl bromide reacts when added, as indicated by gentle boiling of the solution (2). When all the allyl bromide has been introduced, continue stirring for 45 minutes whilst refluxing gently by immersion of the flask in a bath of warm water. Allow to cool (3). Pour the reaction mixture cautiously on to excess of crushed ice contained in a large beaker. Break up the solid magnesium complex and decompose it with ice and dilute sulphuric acid or concentrated ammonium sulphate solution. Separate the ether layer, wash it with ammoniacal ammonium sulphate solution to remove any dissolved magnesium salts, and dry over anhydrous magnesium sulphate. Distil the dry ethereal solution through an all-glass Dufton or a Widmer column after the ether has passed over, collect the 1-heptene at 93-95°. The yield is 29 g.  [c.240]

Fats and oils are one of the oldest classes of chemical compounds used by humans. Animal fats were prized for edibiUty, candles, lamp oils, and conversion to soap. Fats and oils are composed primarily of triglycerides (1), esters of glycerol and fatty acids. However, some oils such as sperm whale (1), jojoba (2), and orange roughy (3) are largely composed of wax esters (2). Waxes (qv) are esters of fatty acids with long-chain aUphatic alcohols, sterols, tocopherols, or similar materials.  [c.122]

Naphthalenediol. 1,5-Dihydroxynaphthalene or Asurol is a colorless material which darkens on exposure to air. It is manufactured by the fusion of disodium 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate with sodium hydroxide at ca 320°C in high yield. 1,5-Naphthalenediol is an important coupling component, giving ortho-a2o dyes which form complexes with chromium. The metallised dyes produce fast black shades on wool. 1,5-Naphthalenediol can be aminated with ammonia under pressure to 1,5-naphthalenediamine.  [c.500]

Seller will furnish [insert company name] a certificate(s) from an insurance carrier showing all insurance set forth above. The certificate(s) will include the following statement The insurance certified hereunder is applicable to all contracts between the [insert company name] and the Insured. This insurance may be canceled or altered only after (X) days written nodce to [insert company name]." The insurance, and die certificate(s), will (1) name [insert company name] (including [insert company name] s officers, directors, employees, servants, affiliates, agents, successors, and assigns) as additional insureds with respect to Seller s performance under this Agreement, (2) provide that such insurance is primary to any liability insurance carried by [insert company name], and (3) provide that underwriters and insurance companies of Seller may not have any right of subrogation against [insert company name] (including [insert company name] s officers, directors, employees, servants, affiliates, agents, successors, and assigns). The insurance will contain an ordinary deductible. Eailure of any of the terms and conditions of this paragraph 13 will be considered a material breach under this Agreement.  [c.74]

Once the geometry and size of the system to be studied are determined, a pure solvent system (i.e., no DNA or RNA) of those dimensions should be built. This can typically be done via standard procedures included with the various modeling packages. These systems should then be subjected to MD simulations using the identical methods for treatment of the nonbonded interactions to be used in the final calculation. This will (1) allow the solvent to properly equilibrate with respect to itself and any ions included at this stage and (2) offer a test of the proposed methodology by ensuring that water density and transport properties are in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Once the solvent is equilibrated, it is overlaid onto the nucleic acid molecule, and all solvent molecules with nonliydrogen atoms within a given distance of solute nonliydrogen atoms (typically 1.8 A) are then deleted. At this stage ions can be added to the system as required.  [c.455]

On slow-speed equipment, where the hub does not have to be removed for maintenance and integral hubs are not available from the supplier, a straight fit can be used with a reasonably heavy shrink—1.25 mil/ in. of diameter. Tolerances may allow this value to vary from 1.0 to 1.5 mil/in. of diameter however, 1.0 mil/in. may be loo loose for some applications, while 1.5 mil/in. over-stresses hubs at maximum bore sizes. In light of this, each application should be carefully evaluated if there is no experience at hand to use as a guide. Of course, field removal at the higher shrink fit is mnrv difficult. Keys should not be used.  [c.335]

Morawetz, H. (1985) Polymers The Origins and Growth of a Science (Wiley-1 nterscience. New York republished in a Dover edition, 1995).  [c.16]

Cyclotrithiazyl chloride is also a useful reagent in organic chemistry in the fusion of 1,2,5-thiadiazoles to quinones as well as the synthesis of (a) isothiazoles from 2,5-disubstituted furans and (b) bis-1,2,5-thiadiazoles from A-alkylpyrroles (Scheme 8.4). Alkenes and alkynes react readily with (NSC1)3 to give 1,2,5-thiadiazoles, while 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene gives a variety of heterocyclic products including a bis(l, 2,5-thiadiazole).  [c.151]

The course of alkylation is also influenced by the steric arrangement of the enamine. 1-Pyrrolidino-l-cycloheptene gave approximately equal quantities of the C- and N-alkylated products in dioxane, while 1-pyrroli-dino-l-cyclooctene, and 1-pyrrolidino-l-cyclononene afforded N-alkylated products exclusively under similar eonditions (29). The reason for N alkylation in the eight- and nine-membered ring compounds is to be found in the conformation of these rings, which prevents full interaction of the unshared electrons on nitrogen with the n eleetrons of the double bond.  [c.121]

Conformations of 4-oxo-l,6,7,8,9,9n-hexahydro-4//-pyrido[l,2-n]pyrimi-dine-3-carboxylates and -3-carboxamides were studied by semiempirical quantum chemical calculations at the AMI level (97H(45)2175). While 1-methyl-9n-unsubstituted derivatives adopt a cA-fused conformation, 9a-ethoxy-1-methyl derivatives adopt a trans-fu ed one to avoid a serious non-bonding interaction between 9n-ethoxy and 1-methyl groups, which would be present in an alternative cA-fused conformation.  [c.197]

Armand and coworkers have shown that, while 1,4-dihydropyrazines are the initial products of the electrochemical reduction of pyrazines, they could not be isolated and readily isomerize in solution into 1,2- or 1,6-dihydropyrazines depending on the substitution pattern in the heterocyclic ring (74CJC3971 84MI1). The rate of the isomerization depends on the type of pyrazine as well as the pH and the nature and amount of the cosolvent.  [c.275]

Phenoxyphenyl)Propior)itrile A well-stirred suspension of 316 grams of 98% sodium cyanide in 5,000 ml of anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (previously dried over molecular sieve) was warmed to 55° to 60°C and maintained at this temperature while 1,702 grams of a-methyl-3-phenoxybenzyl bromide was slowly added. After the bromide addition was completed, the temperature was raised to 75°C and the mixture stirred at this temperature for 1.5 hours. The mixture was then allowed to cool to room temperature and was stirred overnight at room temperature and then poured into ice water. The resulting aqueous suspension was extracted twice with ethyl acetate, and then with ether. The organic extract was washed twice with a sodium chloride solution, once with water, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Evaporation of the solvent in vacuo left an oily residue which was distilled through a 15 cm Vigreux column to yield 1,136 grams of 2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-propionitrile, BP 141° to 148°C (0.1 mm), = 1.5678.  [c.628]

A solution of 3.55 parts of L-trypTtophanyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine amide trifluoroacetate in 30 parts of dimethylformamide is cooled to 0 C, and 1.01 parts of tri-ethylamine are added. The mixture is stirred while 1.84 parts of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-(3-alanine 2,4,5-trichlorophenyl ester are added at 0 C. The reaction mixture is kept at 0°C for 48 hours and then at 20°-23°C for 24 hours. The mixture is added to a mixture of 100 parts of ice-water, 0.37 part of concentrated hydrochloric acid (SG 1.18), 1.2 parts of acetic acid and 20 parts of ethyl acetate. The mixture is stirred for 15 minutes at 0°-10°C and is then filtered. The solid residue is washed with water and then with ethyl acetate, and is dried at 40°-50°C under reduced pressure. There is thus obtained N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-)3-alanyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine amide, MP 213°C with decomposition.  [c.1184]

Figure 7-46 illustrates a typical relationship of limits of flammability and ignitibility for a methane air mixture. Note that energy required to ignite a flammable mixture (within its LET and UEL) varies with the composition, and that a 0.2 millijoule (mj) spark is inadequate to ignite even a stoichiometric mixture at atmospheric pressure at 26°C, while 1-mj spark can ignite any  [c.485]

See pages that mention the term Wiley 1 : [c.154]    [c.176]    [c.643]    [c.706]    [c.24]    [c.362]    [c.414]    [c.148]    [c.499]    [c.135]    [c.552]    [c.529]    [c.179]    [c.179]    [c.179]    [c.116]    [c.147]    [c.73]    [c.499]    [c.789]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.40 , c.335 , c.357 , c.409 ]