Whereas light erudes are preferred in present-day refining operations, inereasingly, heavy petroleum sources also must be processed to satisfy ever-inereasing needs. These range from commereially usable heavy oil (California, Venezuela, ete.) to the huge petroleum reserves locked up in shale or tar sand formations. These more unconventional hydroearbon aeeumulations exceed the quantity of lighter oil present in all the rest of the oil deposits in the world together. One of the largest aeeumulations is located in Alberta, Canada, in the form of large tar sand and carbonate rock deposits containing some 2.5-6 trillion barrels of extremely heavy oil called bitumen. There are large heavy oil accumulations in Venezuela and Siberia, among other areas. Another vast, commercially significant reservoir of oil is the oil shale deposits loeated in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The praetieal use of these potentially vast reserves will depend on finding economical ways to extract the oil (by thermal retorting or other processes) for further processing. Alberta tar-sand oil is already processed in commercially viable large-scale operations.  [c.130]

Table 3. Wyoming Soda Ash Producers Table 3. Wyoming Soda Ash Producers
Searles Lake. Seades Lake is a large evaporite deposit about 78 km square and 46 m deep. It contains a complex mixed salt system that includes trona along with potassium, boron, and other salts (23,24). North American Chemical Company recovers soda ash (1.0 x 10 t/yr) from the lake by carbonating and cooling the brine to crystallize sodium bicarbonate (25). The bicarbonate is filtered and calcined to light soda ash which is densifted by conversion to the monohydrate foHowed by calcining. The procedure results in a dense ash with properties equivalent to Wyoming trona derived ash.  [c.525]

Natural Production Processes. The natural soda ash processes produce no large volumes of associated wastes. The major waste products are the tailings, insoluble shale and minerals associated with the trona and removed during processing. These soHds along with purge Hquors containing organic and trace impurities are sent to large evaporation ponds where concentration of the aqueous streams is a first step in the eventual recovery of the residual alkaU. Because the soHds can create dust when dry, several Wyoming producers are experimenting with injecting the tailings into mined out areas underground. Care must also be taken to avoid groundwater contamination by alkaU mnoff and mine incursion. These risks are not integral to the recovery process, but are affected by plant siting and constmction.  [c.527]

R. B. Parker, ed.. Contributions to Geology, Trona Issue, University of Wyoming, Spring 1971.  [c.527]

Other U.S. phosphate deposits having potential usage but not included in Table 14, are phosphorite formations in Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, and Utah which may contain up to 14.5 x 10 tons of phosphoms. Most of this material is deeply buried, is not weathered, and would require new mining and processing techniques. A formation in Florida known as the Hawthorn formation contains hundreds of biUions of metric tons of phosphate pellets containing 10 X 10 tons of phosphoms, but new mining and processing methods would be necessary for that deposit also.  [c.244]

Wyoming Kentucky West Virginia  [c.3]

The TOSCOAL Process. The Oil Shale Corp. (TOSCO) piloted the low temperature carbonization of Wyoming subbituminous coals over a two-year period in its 23 t/d pilot plant at Rocky Falls, Colorado (149). The principal objective was the upgrading of the heating value in order to reduce transportation costs on a heating value basis. Hence, the soHd char product from the process represented 50 wt % of the starting coal but had 80% of its heating value.  [c.94]

Direct Uses of Hydrothermal Energy. Use of low temperature hydrothermal energy for direct thermal appHcations is widespread (10). The largest volume use of hydrothermal fluid is also one of the simplest. In regions such as some parts of the state of Wyoming, where hydrothermal fluids are found ia close proximity to partially depleted oil fields, the hot hydrothermal fluid is pumped down oil wells at the perimeter of the field to heat the remaining oil. The resultant decrease ia the viscosity of the remaining oil makes it flow much more readily through the formation and enough added oil can thereby be pumped to the surface to make the process economically viable. In some areas, hydrothermal energy is used to provide central heating for all or part of a community as ia Boise, Idaho (11). Hydrothermal energy is also employed to supply process heat for agriculture, primarily to heat greenhouses, and ia aquaculture appHcations which involve warming the water ia commercial ponds to enhance the rate of growth of fish.  [c.265]

Long Valley in east-central California, the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico, and the Yellowstone region of northwestern Wyoming. The sizes of these magma bodies may be in excess of 1000 km of fluid rock at temperatures in excess of 650°C. It has been estimated that only 2 km of magma could provide enough energy to operate a 1000-MW electric power plant for 30 years.  [c.274]

Fr. Pat. 2,299,410 (Oct. 1,1976), (to Wyoming Mineral Corp.).  [c.484]

Other iron ore deposits of lesser importance in the United States are located in Missouri, Utah, Alabama, Wyoming, Texas, California, Nevada, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Of these deposits, only Missouri and Utah have mines operating. The Missouri deposit is located southwest of St. Louis near Sullivan and is a steeply dipping igneous intmsion in surrounding rock. The ore is composed principally of magnetite with some hematite, and minor amounts of quartz, apatite, and pyrite. The cmde ore is mined by underground methods and is upgraded from 56 to 70% iron by magnetic separation. The upgraded ore is used for specialty iron oxide appHcations such as pigments, ceramics (qv), and powdered metals.  [c.413]

Lignite was deposited relatively recendy (ca 2.5-60 x 10 yr ago), mainly during the Tertiary era. U.S. deposits include those in the Dakotas, Alaska, Montana, and Wyoming. Other deposits exist in Saskatchewan and northwestern Canada, Germany, Asiatic Russia, Pakistan, northern India, Borneo, Sumatra, and Manchuria. The Miocene period provided the brown coal deposits that are up to 300 m thick in the Latrobe Valley of Victory in AustraUa. In addition, deposits in Venezuela, Mexico, southern Germany, the Volga region, and northern China were laid down during this period (6). The oldest deposits, which occur in the Moscow basin, were formed in the lower Carboniferous period, ca 200 x 10 years ago.  [c.149]

Domestic. Estimates of U.S. uranium resources for reasonably assured resources, estimated additional resources, and speculative resources at costs of 80, 130, and 260/kg of uranium are given in Table 1 (18). These estimates include only conventional uranium resources, which principally include sandstone deposits of the Colorado Plateaus, the Wyoming basins, and the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. Marine phosphorite deposits in central Elorida, the western United States, and other areas contain low grade uranium having 30—150 ppm U that can be recovered as a by-product from wet-process phosphoric acid. Because of relatively low uranium prices, on the order of 20.67/kg U (19), in situ leach and by-product plants accounted for 76% of total uranium production in 1992 (20).  [c.185]

The first reactor, SM-1, was operated at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Others were located ia Wyoming, Greenland, Alaska, and Antarctica. The fuel consisted of highly enriched uranium as the dioxide, dispersed ia stainless steel as plates or rods. Details are available ia Reference 18.  [c.223]

Estimates of oil shale deposits by continent are given in Table 1 (2). Characteristics of many of the world s best known oil shales are summarized in Table 2 (3,4). Oil shale deposits in the United States occur over a wide area (Table 3). The most extensive deposits, covering ca 647,000 km (250,000 mi ), are the Devonian-Mississippian shales of the eastern United States (5). The richest U.S. oil shales are in the Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Typical mineral and organic analyses for Green River oil shale are given in Table 4.  [c.344]

Green River Formation, ie, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming 636 445 191 318 223 83  [c.345]

Utah (US.) Wyoming (U.S.) Colorado 1 (U.S.) Colorado 2 (U.S.) Indiana (U.S.) Kentucky (U.S.) China  [c.357]

Bentonite concentrations ia drilling fluids vary widely, but may range up to 100 kg/m (35 lb/bbl). Specifications for the three grades of drilling fluid bentonite recognized by the API are Hsted ia Table 4 (32). The higher performance grades are produced mainly ia the Wyoming—Montana—South Dakota area. This bentonite contains montmorillonite clay ia both sodium and calcium forms. The sodium form predominates. Most such bentonites are processed usiag a small amount of a peptizing polymer to enhance the viscosity building properties of the clay. This is the standard API bentonite. High quahty bentonite that is not treated ia any way to enhance its viscosity building characteristics is sold as API nontreated bentonite.  [c.178]

The estimated selenium content of the oceans is only ca 0.5 ppb, and only a small fraction of the selenium is transported into the sea by weathering and erosion (20). The principal species in the seas is SeO . Adsorption by some marine organisms contributes to the removal of selenium from seawater. Thus selenium often, though not always, occurs in the pyrite and marcasite of sedimentary formations as well as in soils derived from them. Selenium is particularly concentrated in soils of the drier regions, eg, the North American great plains from Mexico to the prairie provinces of Canada and westward to the Pacific Ocean at California, but especially in Wyoming and South Dakota, and in locaUties in Colombia, Ireland, Israel, and the People s RepubHc of China. It is also found in much smaller quantities in Argentina, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Algeria, Morocco, AustraUa, and some regions of the former USSR, as shown by analyses of locally grown crops. Selenium occurs in coals in 0.5—12 ppm concentrations, probably associated with pyrite and marcasite (21).  [c.327]

A second field evaluation of the ASP process has been initiated in Wyoming. Additionally, an ASP field project has been designed for the Peoples Repubhc of China. The appHcability of the ASP process to a variety of reservoirs has yet to be fully determined. AppHcation of alkali and alkali polymer flooding has been limited to cmde oils having discernible acid numbers, wherein the alkali produced cmde oil soaps which in combination with alkali resulted in providing low interfacial tensions. The ASP process appears to be suitable for cmde oils with nil acid numbers (177), and hence should have broad apphcabdity.  [c.82]

Another dynamic iastmment, the Scentometer, is the basis for odor regulations ia the states of Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, and Wyoming, and ia the District of Columbia (324). The portable Scentometer (Bameby-Cheney) can produce dilution ratios up to 128 1 ia the field. The Scentometer blends two air streams, one of which has been deodorized with activated carbon. The dilution ratio is decreased until the odor becomes detectable (325). Improvements to dynamic methods have been recommended (326).  [c.412]

Sodium carbonate beating deposits and brines exist around the world. Locations are known ia the United States, China, Turkey, BoHvia, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, India, Pakistan, USSR, Kenya, AustraHa, and Botswana (14—20). The overwhelming majority of natural ash production comes from the Green River Basia ia southwestern Wyoming. Significant amounts are also produced at Seades Lake ia California lesser amounts at Lake Magadi ia Kenya. Minor quantities are reportedly produced ia Pakistan, the USSR, and China and small amounts of impure trona come from Owens Lake, California. A plant is currentiy under constmction to recover soda ash from brine at Sua Pan, Botswana. Each deposit has its own distinctive characteristics and each requires different processiag techniques.  [c.524]

Capital and operating costs for soda ash production are extremely site specific (29,10). Key factors iaclude iafrastmcture development, freight to consumers, local energy and labor costs, and by-product saleabiUty. 1990 Hst price of bulk natural soda ash was 108/t, F.O.B. Wyoming.  [c.526]

Coal production and consumption in the 1990s reflects the shift toward the use of western, lower sulfur coal. In 1970, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Peimsylvania ranked 1—3 in coal production, respectively. In 1990, Wyoming, Kentucky, and West Virginia held those ranks, and Texas and Montana entered the top 10 coal producers. Whereas Appalachia remained the most significant energy production region, the western coal producing states surpassed the interior states in soHd fossil fuel production (Table 6). The average coal heating value reflected the shift from Appalachia and the interior to the West, declining from 25.8 X 10 J/kg(ll.l x 10 Btu/lb) in 1973 to 24.8 x 10 J/kg(10.7 x 10 Btu/lb) in 1980 and  [c.3]

Fig. 14. Preferred Hquefaction-coking Hquid yields in the EDS process for various coals where Hrepresents Flexicoking Hquids and , Hquefaction Hquids (124). A, Ireland (West Virginia) B, Monterey (Illinois) C, Burning Star (Illinois) D, Wyodak (Wyoming) and E, Big Brown (Texas). Fig. 14. Preferred Hquefaction-coking Hquid yields in the EDS process for various coals where Hrepresents Flexicoking Hquids and , Hquefaction Hquids (124). A, Ireland (West Virginia) B, Monterey (Illinois) C, Burning Star (Illinois) D, Wyodak (Wyoming) and E, Big Brown (Texas).
Properties. Results for the operation using subbituminous coal from the Wyodad mine near Gillette, Wyoming, are shown in Table 13. Char yields decreased with increasing temperature, and oil yields increased. The Fischer assay laboratory method closely approximated the yields and product assays that were obtained with the TOSCOAL process.  [c.94]

The principal source of helium is certain natural gas fields. The helium contents of more than 10,000 natural gases in various parts of the world have been measured (9). Helium concentrations of a few are Hsted in Table 2. In the United States, recovery of helium is economical only for helium-rich gases containing more than about 0.3 vol % belium. Most of the United States helium resources are located in the midcontinent and Rocky Mountain regions, and about 89% of the known United States supply is in the Hugoton field in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas the Keyes field in Oklahoma the Panhandle and Cliffside fields in Texas and the Riley Ridge area in Wyoming (11).  [c.5]

Alkalies. In the 1960s, 3.2-34 x 10 t /yr of lime was captively produced by the U.S. alkaH industry for manufacturing soda ash and sodium bicarbonate via the Solvay process. Electrolytic process caustic soda and natural soda ash (trona) from Wyoming have largely replaced the Solvay process. Three of the trona producers in Wyoming now purchase quicklime for producing caustic soda.  [c.178]

Hectorite usually contains 0.3—0.6% Li or 0.7—1.3% Li20. Deposits are found in Nevada, California, Utah, Oregon, Wyoming, Ari2ona, and New Mexico.  [c.221]

In Situ Retorting. True in situ retorting has been considered as a means of avoiding the costs of mining, crushing, and surface disposal of spent shale, and the associated environmental impacts of AGR. However, the impervious nature of the oil shale formation and the overburden pressures have prevented tme in situ operations. Shale oil yields, the amount of oil produced divided by the theoretical amount estimated to be in the oil shale rock, for in situ retorting are usually half that experienced with AGR retorting. A tme in situ experiment, using drilling and resource fracturing procedures typical of conventional petroleum development, was tried by the Energy Research Development Administration (a foreninner of the U.S. Department of Energy) in 1975 in Rock Springs, Wyoming. No significant yields of shale oil were produced (22). Other tme in situ tests were conducted using the Equity BX superheated steam process in Colorado, and Dow hot air process in Michigan neither produced significant yields of oil shale. It appears that tme in situ retorting is not a practical approach for the thick strata of oil shale normally situated deep below the surface.  [c.351]

The plans to develop a commercial oil shale industry in the three-state region of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming in the 1970s raised the possibiUty of significant adverse environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic (EHSS) impacts. Processing oil shale to produce oil on a large-scale commercial basis requires a large amount of mining, cmshing, material transport, and disposal operations.  [c.355]

Adverse EHHS impact could result from uncontrolled, or inadequately controlled, large-scale oil shale operations. Without controls, significant amounts of dust, ie, particulates, would be produced. Because the gas produced from kerogen breakdown contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, uncontrolled release, or direct combustion with no control technology, could pose adverse health impacts and air pollution. The Hquids produced from retorting operations, ie, process water and cmde shale oil, contain significant levels of toxic metals, suspected or known carcinogens, and other ha2ardous materials. Discharge of this water would thus require treatment. Combusting and/or refining the cmde shale oil would also require adequate treatment and environmental controls. The large quantities of materials involved in oil shale development means that disposal of the retorted shale poses special problems. Proper controls are needed to avoid significant air pollution from dust emissions, and surface and groundwater contamination from leaching and mnoff The amount of water required for commercial oil shale operations poses water quaUty impact on the semiarid region of Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Engineering technology was thus developed for oil shale operations. Most predictions of significantiy adverse EHHS impacts (Table 14) were based on assumptions from earUer foreign operations and impacts from similar industries (57—61), and were not realized during the 1975—1990 oil shale boom.  [c.355]

Mining. With the closure of ah North American white phosphoms production fachities outside of the western United States, the only remaining mines utilized for U.S. production are located along the southern Idaho—Wyoming border. The three remaining white phosphoms producers as of mid-1995, Monsanto (Soda Springs, Idaho), Rhc ne-Poulenc (Silver Bow, Montana), and FMC (PocateUo, Idaho), ah operate mines near Soda Springs, Idaho. However, some ore mined in Florida is stih shipped overseas for use in elemental phosphoms plants.  [c.349]

The western phosphates are sedimentary deposits in adjoining areas of Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah derived from a former inland sea. They consist of layers of limestone, phosphate, and chert, now budded and faulted so they are rarely horizontal. The phosphate ore is strip-mined using large earth-moving equipment such as shovels, scrappers, dump tmcks, and bulldozers to mine the overburden and phosphate ore. Mining ratios of overburden to metric ton of recovered ore are from 1—3 m /1 (2—4 yd /short ton). The typical mining practice is to remove ore and overburden from a pit in discrete layers (Lifts) of 10—20 m in depth. Overburden from the pit is back-hauled to a previously mined pit. Extensive land reclamation practices are later carried out to return the mine areas to natural states.  [c.349]

Several coal slurry pipelines were plaimed for the United States during the 1980s, primarily to deHver low sulfur coal from mines in Montana and Wyoming to power plants in Texas and other states in the southern United States. None was built, however, because of vigorous opposition from water conservationists, who opposed using scarce water resources for the slurrying medium, and the railroads, who feared competition for the utiHty coal markets (29,30). In addition, lower prices for oil and natural gas provided Httle incentive to develop lower cost competitive fuels however, a study for the U.S. Department of Energy (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC)) indicated that coal—water fuels (CWE) could be produced for less than 1.91/m of oil equivalent (31), and it is expected that there will be renewed plans for coal slurry pipelines (32).  [c.48]

Proximate Cause. Even when there is a causal connection between the defect and the harm, it is stiU necessary for a plaintiff to estabHsh that the nature of the plaintiff s harm, together with the circumstances of its occurrence, were reasonably foreseeable. The law, ia geaeral, does aot protect agaiast remote uaforeseeable risks. For example, ia Buckley vs BeU (13), the plaintiff ordered gasoHne from the defeadant and the defendant deHvered diesel fuel by mistake, thus making the product "defective." The plaintiff fiUed his hay baler with the diesel fuel and, when it would not start, discovered the error ia deHvery. He emptied the fuel tank onto the ground, refiUed it with gasoHne, and attempted to start the baler. A backfire-iaduced fire ensued, involving the spiUed diesel fuel, and the hay baler was destroyed. The plaintiff sought to recover for the value of the machine. The trial court sitting as trier of fact decided that there was no causal connection between the deHvery of the defective fuel and the plaintiff s loss, because the consequence could not be foreseen. The Wyoming Supreme Court affirmed, concluding that the but-for connection is not, by itself, enough to support HabiHty.  [c.99]

Combining alkali, surfactant, and polymer (ASP) methods may result in decreased chemical costs. The ASP surfactant slug generally contains about 0.8 wt % alkali as Na2C02, NaHCO, Na2Si02, or NaOH ca 0.1 wt % active surfactant and about 1000 mg/L polymer. A micellar polymer slug typically utilized 3—10% active surfactant. A 1987 field test of the ASP process in Wyoming indicated an incremental oil recovery of 20% of the original in-place oil, at an estimated chemical cost of less than 15.60/m ( 2.50/bbl) (176).  [c.82]

Economic Aspects. In the United States, sodium sulfite is produced for merchant sales by General Chemical at 000 t capacity (Claymont, Delaware), Solvay at 000 t capacity (Green River, Wyoming), and Olympic at - 8,000 t capacity (Tacoma, Washington). Indspec (Petrofla, Pennsylvania) makes sodium sulfite at - 50,000 t capacity as a coproduct of resorcinol manufacture by the benzenedisulfonic acid route. There are other large (mostly captive) producers. Pulp uses are 60% water treatment, 15% photography, 10% and miscellaneous, including textile bleaching, food, chemical intermediates, ore flotation, and mineral recovery, 15%. Overall growth estimated in 1993 was 3—4%, stimulated by water treatment, such as boiler water deoxygenation. Further growth was expected as a reductant for hydrogen peroxide in nonchlorine bleaching of pulp (qv). The price for the technical-grade soHd sodium sulfite inmid-1995 was 0.66/kg (338).  [c.149]

The metallic vanadates of lead, copper, and zinc, which occur in Namibia (southwest Africa) and Zambia, are also a large resource of vanadium-bearing ores, as are the phosphatic shales and rocks of the phosphoria formation in Idaho and Wyoming. Vanadium salts are obtained as by-products of the phosphoric acid and fertilizer industries (see Fertilizers). Large reserves of vanadium in Arkansas and Canada and the titaniferous magnetite ores will probably become increasingly significant as sources of production. Certain petroleum cmde oils, especially those from South America, contain varying amounts of vanadium compounds. These accme as fiy ash or boiler residues upon combustion of the cmde oils and they can be reclaimed (see Airpollution controlp thods).  [c.381]

See pages that mention the term Wyoming : [c.522]    [c.524]    [c.3]    [c.4]    [c.303]    [c.5]    [c.116]    [c.345]    [c.219]    [c.327]    [c.297]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.243 , c.244 , c.245 , c.246 , c.247 , c.248 , c.249 , c.250 , c.251 , c.252 , c.253 , c.254 ]