Mauch Chunk

Cia. Quimica Universal de Industrias (Mexico) Cominco (Canada)  [c.123]

Chang C-C and Winograd N 1989 Shadow-cone-enhanced secondary-ion mass-spectrometry studies of Ag(110) Rhys. Rev. B 39 3467  [c.319]

Immerse the flask in ice, start the stirrer, and add about 500 ml. of water through the separatory funnel the excess of carbon tetrachloride usually refluxes during the addition. Distil oflF as much as possible of the carbon tetrachloride on a water bath, and then distil the mixture with steam (Fig. II, 41, 1) during 30 minutes to remove the residual carbon tetrachloride (3) and to hydrolyse the benzophenone dichloride to benzo-phenone. Separate the upper benzophenone layer and extract the aqueous layer with 40 ml. of benzene. Dry the combined benzene extract and benzophenone with anhydrous magnesium sulphate. Remove the benzene with the aid of an air bath (Fig. II, 13, 4 but replace the distilling flask by a 200 ml. Claisen flask with fractionating side arm. Figs. II, 24, 2-5) until the temperature rises to about 90°, allow to cool somewhat, and distil under diminished pressure. Collect the benzophenone at 187-190°/15 mm. it solidifies to a white solid, m.p. 47-48°, on coohng. The yield is 105 g.  [c.734]

Charge the Dewar flask with 3 litres of liquid ammonia, set the stirrer into operation, and introduce 1 5 g. of powdered ferric nitrate followed by 5 g. of clean sodium. After 2 minutes, introduce 160 g. of clean sodium in 3 g. lumps during 30 minutes. Allow to stand until the initially deep blue reaction mixture assumes a light grey colour (about 20 minutes). Add a solution of 510 g. of styrene dibromide in 1500 ml. of dry ether slowly during 2 hours a vigorous reaction ensues, accompanied by the loss of some ammonia by evaporation. Allow to stand for 4 hours, add 180 g. of finely-powdered ammonium chloride to the pasty mass (to decompose the sodio derivative), followed by 500 ml. of ether and continue the stirring for several minutes. Pour the contents of the Dewar flask with the aid of a purpose-made plastic spout into a cold beaker. Allow the ammonia to evaporate overnight. Add ether, filter off the inorganic salts and wash well with ether keep the filtrate (A). Dissolve the inorganic salts in water, extract the solution with ether, and combine the ethereal extracts with the filtrate (A). Wash with dilute sulphuric acid until acid to Congo red paper, then with water, dry with anhydrous magnesium sulphate, distil off the ether on a water bath with the aid of a short but efficient column, and fractionate the residue through a well-lagged Widmer (or other efficient fractionating) column. Collect the phenylacetylene at  [c.900]

Place a mixture of 25 g. of phenol, 50 ml. of formalin and 3 ml. of 40 per cent, sodium hydroxide solution in a 500 ml. conical flask. Attach a reflux condenser to the flask and reflux gently. As the heating proceeds, the mixture acquires a red coloration and becomes increasingly more viscous. After 60-75 minutes the contents of the flask are so viscous that the bubbles which rise through the mass encounter great difficulty in escaping from the surface. At this point remove the flame and immediately pom the viscous mass into a wide test-tube ( boiling tube ) upon coohng, an opaque white solid is obtained. (Immediately clean the reaction flask with 40 per cent, sodium hydroxide solution if it is allowed to stand, the hardened product lining the flask is difficult to remove.) To complete the preparation, place the boiling tube in an air oven for 1 hour at 50° and for 4 hours at 60-75° when the baking process is complete, a hard pink mass of plastic is obtained.  [c.1023]

COMc CHjCl H A(CI), McjCO 582  [c.234]

L. Hus, C. Chang, J. Beddow, and A. Vetter, Proc. Tech. Prog. Int. Powder andBulk Solids Handling and Processing, Atlanta, Georgia, May 24—26, 1983, Books Demand UMI, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1983, pp. 52—66.  [c.247]

C. N. Satterfield and C. S. Cheng, MJOE J. 18, 710 (1972).  [c.304]

In pricing and packagiag a Hcense, the Hcensor must be very conscious of the perspective of the potential Hcensee. A successful Hcensor is prepared to make the Hcense terms attractive to the Hcensee, emphasising the features, advantages, and benefits of the technology and providing iacentives for the Hcensee to take a Hcense. The Hcense is the basis for a long-term relationship between the Hcensor and Hcensee, and therefore both parties must feel that the agreement is fair and mutually beneficial.  [c.108]

Smectic. Smectic Hquid crystals are distinguished from nematics by the presence of some positional order in addition to orientational order. When the soHd melts, the lateral interactions are strong enough so the molecules spend more time in planes or layers than they do between these planes or layers. Usually the orientational order parameter is quite high throughout a smectic phase, reaching values greater than 0.9 (7). There are deviations from planarity in that the smectic layers can be splayed. Since the layers caimot twist or bend, these distortions do not occur in smectic Hquid crystals. A smectic phase in which the director is perpendicular to the layers, called the smectic M phase, is shown in Figure 8. Keep in mind that the positional order of Figure 8 is much larger than found in just about all smectic Hquid crystals. A snapshot of the molecules would show only a small tendency for more molecules to He in the layers as opposed to between the layers. Fluidity is maintained by the gliding of the layers past each other since large-scale movement in other directions is difficult, smectic phases are typically quite viscous (6). Under the microscope smectic phases usually adopt the focal conic texture, a compHcated texture of fan-shaped areas and polygonal lines and curves. Such a texture is shown in Figure 9.  [c.193]

Gyratory cmshers (Fig. 2b) consist of a long spindle seated in an eccentric sleeve, housed in a fixed conical shell. Material is cmshed as it gets nipped between the rotating spindle and the fixed cmshing shell. The gyratory cmsher has a much higher capacity than a jaw cmsher and can be considered a continuum of jaw cmshers. Common types are the suspended spindle (short or long shaft), the supported spindle (most used), and the fixed spindle. Large cmshers having 0.2—0.7 MW (250—1000 hp) motors, weighing between 150—350 tons, have a gape of 1000—2130 mm, and can cmsh ore at a rate of 500—7000 t/h depending on the gape and discharge setting (10,13).  [c.397]

In the skill-based mode, the individual is able to function very effectively by using "preprogrammed" sequences of behavior that do not require much conscious control. It is only occasionally necessary to check on progress at parhcular points when operating in this mode. The price to be paid for this economy of effort is that strong habits can take over when attention to checks is diverted by distractions, and when imfamiliar activities are embedded in a familiar context. This type of slip is called a "strong but wrong" error. The examples given in Section 2.6.1 can be classified as slips, mistakes, and violations using the categorization scheme in Figure 2.6.  [c.74]

Erlandsson R, Hadzioannou G, Mate M, McClelland G and Chiang S 1988 Atomic scale friction between the muscovite mica cleavage plane and a tungsten tip J. Chem. Phys. 89 5190  [c.1726]

Cheshnovsky O, Taylor K J, Conceicao J and Smalley R E 1990 Ultraviolet photoeieotron spectra of mass-selected copper clusters evolution of the 3d band Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 1785  [c.2404]

Dissolve 156 g. of pure potassium hydroxide in 156 ml. of water in a 1-5 litre round-bottomed flask and add 500 ml. of rectified spirit to produce a homogeneous solution. Introduce 220 g. of ethyl n-propyl-malonate (Section 111,154) slowly and with shaking. Attach a vertical double surface condenser and reflux the mixture for 3 hours hydrolysis is then complete, i.e., a test portion dissolves completely in excess of water. Distil oflF as much alcohol as possible on a water bath, and dissolve the residue in a comparatively small volume of water. Cool the so ition in a large beaker surrounded by ice add dilute sulphuric acid g Dwly from a suitably supported dropping funnel, whilst stirring vigorously with a mechanical stirrer, until the solution is acid to Congo red paper. Extract the solution with three 150 ml. portions of ether, dry the ethereal extract with anhydrous magnesium or sodium sulphate, and distil oflf the ether on a water bath. Spread the syrupy residue in thin layers upon large clock glasses (1) after 2-3 days, filter oflf the crystals at the pump, using light petroleum, b.p. 40-60°, to facilitate the transfer from the clock glasses to the sintered glass filter funnel. Spread the crystals on a porous tile to remove traces of oily impurities the crude n-propyl-malonic acid has m.p. 95-96°. Spread the filtrate and washings on large clock glasses as before and filter off the solid which crystallises after 1 day. Repeat the process until no further crystals are obtained. RecrystaUise all the crystals from hot benzene. The yield of pure n-propylmalonic acid, m.p. 96°, is 110 g.  [c.488]

CHaNOj -t- 6H = CHaNH, -f- aHjO Moderate the reaction if necessary by dipping the tube in cold water. When the tin has completely dissolved, cool the solution thoroughly, and make alkaline by the addition of concentrated (30%) sodium hydroxide solution. A strong ammoniacal smell of monomethylamine is produced, and white fumes form when the open end of the tube is placed near an open bottle of concentrated hydrochloric acid. This formation of methylamine proves that in the original nitromethane the nitrogen atom is joined directly to the carbon.  [c.133]

B) Amides. All colourless solids except formamide, HCONH, a liquid which decomposes on boiling at atmospheric pressure. Formamide, acetamide, CHjCONHj, and urea, COINH,), are readily. soluble in water thiourea, CS(NH.,)2, is moderately soluble oxamide,f (CONHj)., benzamide, C H CONH., and salicylamide, HOCjHjCONHj, are almost insoluble in cold water salicylamide is readily soluble in cold NaOH solution. All are odourless acetamide, however, has an odour of mice unless it has been purified by recrystallisation.  [c.359]

One factor that makes conjugation m arenes special is its cyclic nature A conju gated system that closes on itself can have properties that are much different from those of open chain polyenes Arenes are also referred to as aromatic hydrocarbons Used m this sense the word aromatic has nothing to do with odor but means instead that arenes are much more stable than we expect them to be based on their formulation as conjugated trienes Our goal m this chapter is to develop an appreciation for the con cept of aromaticity—to see what properties of benzene and its derivatives reflect its special stability and to explore the reasons for it This chapter develops the idea of the benzene ring as a fundamental structural unit and examines the effect of a benzene ring as a substituent The chapter following this one describes reactions that involve the ring Itself  [c.423]

Cereals were among the eadiest plants cultivated. They were related to some of the wild grasses indigenous to those parts of the world where civilizations had their origins. AU of them are ideaUy suited for use as food under both primitive, and advanced conditions. Eor one thing, they can be stored for long periods under many conditions, thus providing a reserve against food shortages. This was done in ancient Egypt when Joseph advised the Pharaoh to store grain during the seven "plenteous" years to be used in the foUowing seven "lean" years. In addition, cereals are nutritious foods that can be used in many ways, thus facUitating their incorporation in the diet at high levels over long periods of time. Even today, there are some areas, such as mral Iran, where wheat products, especiaUy in the form of the flat breads indigenous to that region, provide as much as 70—90% of the daily caloric intake. Most of the cereals also respond weU to primitive methods of agriculture with good yields and, with advanced technology and improved varieties, large yields per worker can be secured. Much more food is secured from fields planted in grains than can be obtained from cattle or other animals on the same land. The importance of this became evident during World War I. In the early stages of that conflagration, the German High Command made a conscious decision to continue the prewar level of meat, milk, and egg production to provide adequate nutrition for the men in the armed services and for the civiHans who would be called on for arduous work in connection with the war. Had they decided instead on conversion of meadows and pastures to wheat fields and the direct consumption of the grain by human beings, the yield of food for the German people would have been far greater than it was when the land was given over to raising cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry. This led a group of Scottish physicians to suggest that this mistake probably did more than any army general to lose the war (10). EinaHy, cereals grow in a wide variety of climatic and soil conditions, and they successfully compete with weeds for the limited amounts of nutrients and water where these plant factors are in short supply. This is an important reason why cereals have played, and continue to play, such an important role in the development of the human race.  [c.351]

Variety Selection, Fruit Production, and Harvest. The wine grape is Vitis vinifera and there are estimated to be a few hundred varieties of some note commercially worldwide. The Hst of important, widely planted varieties is much smaller. The grape variety involved is one of the most important factors in the final wine s characteristics. Data on grapes processed through wineries for California, which are essentially the same as the U.S. as a whole, are given in Table 8. For the representative years shown, the fraction of the total cmsh attributable to wine-grape varieties rose greatly, as the fraction attributable to raisin and table-grape varieties fell. These latter varieties, except for the small proportion of muscats, are lacking in distinctive flavor and are made into white dessert (and appetizer) wines, generic white table wines, distilled for beverage and fortifying brandy, and used for juice and concentrate production. The great decrease in winery use of these varieties occurred despite a large increase in consumption of white table wines. This decrease reflects both the greatly decreased interest in appetizer/dessert wines (less base wine and less fortifying spirits needed) and the shift to varietaHy named premium wines from the less expensive generic wines (red or white table wine, California burgundy, etc). In California, 1993 was the first year total varietal wine shipments exceeded those of generally named wines.  [c.372]

Thermal and Oxidative Stability. The thermal transitions of several polyolefins are compared to other polymers in Table 2. In general, polyolefins undergo thermal transitions at much lower temperatures than condensation polymers, thus the thermal and oxidative stabiUty of polyolefin fibers are comparatively poor (18). They are highly sensitive to oxygen, which must be carefully controlled in all processing. The tertiary hydrogen in polypropylene imparts sensitivity to oxidative degradation by chain scission resulting in molecular weight degradation. Polyolefins are stabilized by hindered phenols or phosphites. Hindered phenol stabilizers provide moderate melt stabiUty and good long-term heat aging, but undergo gas yellowing, which is a chemical reaction of phenoHc compounds and nitrous oxide gases producing yeUow-colored compounds. Typical sources of nitrous oxides are gas-fired heaters, dryers, and tenters, and propane-fueled lift tmcks used in warehouses. Phosphites are good melt stabilizers, do not gas yellow, but have poor long-term heat aging. Preferred stabilizers are highly substituted phenols such as Cyanox 1790 and Irganox 1010, or phosphites such as Ultranox 626 and Irgafos 168 (see ANTioxmANTS Heat stabilizers).  [c.314]

Li Si O enstatite [14681-78-8] MgSiO diopside [14483-19-3], CaMgSi O and woUastonite [14567-57-2], CaSiO. A number of sihcate glass-ceramic compositions are given in Table 1.  [c.321]

Processed iron was first produced around 1300 BC. It is presumed that the first iron was made accidentally as a result of very hot fires built on top of some iron-bearing rocks or soil. The iron-bearing rocks could have been reduced to iron by being heated in the presence of hot charcoal and in the absence of air. Upon raking out the ashes, the first ironmaker probably found a sponge-like chunk of hard but malleable metal having considerable slag in its pores. Reduced iron sponge had to be hammered and squee2ed while still hot to expel most of the slag in order to make effective use of the metal. This hammering and working process produced wrought iron.  [c.412]

Cone cmshers, which are modified gyratory cmshers, perform the bulk of secondary cmshing. These have a flat cmshing chamber giving higher capacity and reduction ratio, a short spindle operated at much higher speeds, and a higher capacity. They are classified into standard (secondary) cone cmshers, short-head (Symons design, tertiary cmshing), and fine cmshers (such as Gyradisc, Hydrofine, etc) (2,10). Cmsher sizes are reported as the cmshing-head (mantle) diameter typical range is 610—3050 mm. Weights vary in the range of 5—200 t and coimected power ranges from 7—500 kW (10—700 hp). A 3050-mm Symons Standard cone cmsher can cmsh ore at a rate of up to 3000 t/h at a discharge setting of 64 mm (13).  [c.397]

See pages that mention the term Mauch Chunk : [c.483]    [c.186]    [c.415]    [c.6]    [c.386]    [c.903]    [c.2329]    [c.2845]    [c.2845]    [c.2927]    [c.2927]    [c.3074]    [c.366]    [c.45]    [c.17]    [c.681]    [c.739]    [c.494]    [c.574]    [c.763]    [c.772]    [c.247]    [c.704]    [c.62]    [c.522]    [c.300]    [c.63]   
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