Lytle, C. F.


The acceptable limits for toxic exposure depend on whether the exposure is brief or prolonged. Lethal concentration for airborne materials and lethal dose for nonairbome materials are measured by tests on animals. The limits for brief exposure to toxic materials which are airborne are usually measured by the concentration of toxicant which is lethal to 50 percent of the test group over a given exposure period, usually 4 hours. It is written as LC q (lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test group). The test gives a comparison of the absolute toxicity of a compound in a single concentrated dose, i.e., acute exposure. For nonairbome materials, lethal dose LD q is an index of the quantity of material administered which results in the death of 50 percent of the test group. It should be emphasized that it is extremely difficult to extrapolate tests on animals to human beings.  [c.259]

On the other hand, if the hazard is toxicity, process alternatives can be compared by assessing the mass of toxic material that would enter the vapor phase on release from containment, weighting the components according to their lethal concentration.  [c.269]

The various barbiturates differ m the time required for the onset of sleep and m the duration of their effects All the barbiturates must be used only m strict accordance with instructions to avoid potentially lethal overdoses Drug dependence m some mdi viduals IS also a problem  [c.901]

Some substances such as CO form strong bonds to the iron of heme strong enough to displace O2 from it Carbon monoxide binds 30-50 times more effectively than oxygen to myoglobin and hundreds of times better than oxygen to hemoglobin Strong binding of CO at the active site interferes with the ability of heme to perform its biological task of transporting and storing oxygen with potentially lethal results  [c.1150]

The water quahty criteria for each species should be deterrnined from the Hterature or through experimentation when Hterature information is unavailable. Synergistic effects that occur among water quahty variables can have an influence on the tolerance a species has under any given set of circumstances. Ammonia is a good example. Ionized ammonia (NH ) is not particularly lethal to aquatic animals, but unionized ammonia (NH ) can be  [c.19]

The propensity of nitriles to release cyanide subsequent to metaboHsm is the basis of their acute toxicity. Nitriles that form tertiary radicals at their alpha carbon atoms (eg, isobutyronitrile, 2-methylbutyronitrile) are substantially more acutely lethal than nitriles that form secondary radicals at their alpha carbons (eg, butyronitrile, propionitnle). Cyanohydrins are acutely toxic because they are unstable and release cyanide quickly. Alpha-aminonitriles are also acutely toxic, presumably by analogy with cyanohydrins.  [c.218]

In laboratory tests, appHcation of DMAC to the skin of pregnant rats has caused fetal deaths when the dosages were close to the lethal dose level for the mother. Embryonal malformations have been observed at dose levels 20% of the lethal dose and higher. However, when male and female rats were exposed to mean DMAC concentrations of 31,101, and 291 ppm for 6 h per day over several weeks, no reproductive effects were observed (6).  [c.85]

Concentrations of acrolein vapor as low as 0.6 mg/m (0.25 ppm) may irritate the respiratory tract, causing coughing, nasal discharge, chest discomfort or pain, and difficulty with breathing (99). A concentration of 5—10 mg/m (2—4 ppm) is intolerable to most individuals in a minute or two (97) and is close to the concentration considered immediately dangerous to life and health (100). At higher concentrations there may be lung injury from inhaled acrolein, and prolonged exposure may be fatal. In a short time, exposure to 25 mg/m (10 ppm) or more is lethal to humans (101).  [c.128]

Repeated exposures of animals to high (near-lethal) concentrations of vapors result in inflammation of the respiratory tract, as weU as degenerative changes in the Hver, kidneys, and heart muscle. These effects arise at concentrations far above those causing irritation. Such effects have not been reported in humans. The low odor threshold and irritating properties of acrylates cause humans to leave a contaminated area rather than tolerate the irritation.  [c.157]

R. M. Metzger, R. R. Schumaker, M. P. Cava, R. K. Laidlaw, C. A. Panetta, and E. Torres, Langmuir, 4, 298 (1988).  [c.569]

Expressing (k) is complicated by the fact that k is not unique. In the Kronig-Penney model, if one replaced k by k + lTil a + b), the energy remained unchanged. In tluee dimensions k is known only to within a reciprocal lattice vector, G. One can define a set of reciprocal vectors, given by  [c.106]

Safrole from the Grignard reagent Keeping the apparatus from the above reaction, pour 60g of allylbromide into the sep funnel. As with the ingredients of the last procedure the allylbromide must be dried over sodium sulphate. This stuff is really nasty, use a mask at least or a fume cupboard if you can get access to one or fill the sep funnel outdoors. The fumes are invisible and pretty lethal -please be warned.  [c.236]

It is almost impossible to OD on X. A lethal dose is 70 hits for God s sake Because of this, and the fact that there is rarely an adverse reaction to a normal dose, hospital personnel are not going to be very familiar with the proper treatment. So, if such a thing occurs it should be related to the doctor what drug it is and how it is treated [155], The most immediate concern for any amphetamine overdose is fatality caused by hyperthermia (body gets too hot, bubba ). MDA and MDMA have a wide range of effects on the human body, but any of the following drugs, alone or in combination, will help 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as Fluoxetine and Citalopram, 5-HT antagonists such as Ritanserin and Me-thiothepin, dopamine antagonists such as Haloperidol and  [c.250]

The cyano part of cyanoborohydride is going to come from cyanide of course, and cyanide is lethal. Cyanide has no odor and will kill you instantly if a single whiff of it is inhaled. Everything must be done in a hood and study or investigation of the literature beyond what is published here is strongly urged. To acquire a stabilized source of cyanide one is going to need to introduce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) into tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. Ideally one would want to use a cannister of cyanide gas and bubble it into the THF but Strike seriously doubts such a thing will be sold to a street punk. This is because such an item, in the wrong hands, could be a terrible terrorist weapon. The best way a home chemist could safely produce HCN is by generating it herself.  [c.281]

T. Gallagher, P. Magnus and J. C. Huffman, J. Am. Chem. Sot. 105. 4750 (1983) K.. Cardwell, B. Hewitt, M. Ladlow and P. Magnus, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2242 (1988).  [c.169]

The editorial staff at McGraw-lTill has helped guide a novice through the process of developing this text. I am particularly thankful for the encouragement and confidence shown by Jim Smith, Publisher for Ghemistry, and Kent Peterson, Sponsoring Editor for Ghemistry. Shirley Oberbroeckling, Developmental Editor for Ghemistry, and Jayne Klein, Senior Project Manager, patiently answered my questions and successfully guided me through the publishing process.  [c.816]

The heart of a recirculating water system is the biofilter, a device that contains a medium on which bacteria that help purify the water become estabhshed (Fig. 7). Fish and aquatic iavertebrates produce ammonia as a primary metaboUte. If not removed or converted to a less toxic chemical, ammonia can quickly reach lethal levels. Two genera of bacteria are responsible for ammonia removal ia bio filters. The first, N trosomonas, converts ammonia (NH ) to nitrite (NO ) The second, N trobacter, converts nitrite to nitrate (NO3 ). Nitrite is highly toxic to aquatic animals, although nitrate can be allowed to accumulate to relatively high levels. If both genera of bacteria are active, the conversion from ammonia through nitrite to nitrate is so rapid that nitrite levels remain within the safe range.  [c.18]

S. Bernstein, R. H. Lenhaid, W. S. Allen, M. HeUei, R. Littel, S. M. Stolai, L. I. Feldman, and R. H. Blank, / Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 5693 (1956).  [c.111]

Although Brevundimonas (Pseudomonas) diminuta (ATCC 19146) is most commonly used for steriliziug-grade filter vaUdation, iu certain appHcations other bacteria are used. For example, when it is necessary to demonstrate removal of mycoplasma in appHcations involving sera and tissue culture media, membranes having a smaller pore size rating, eg, 0.1 p.m, are frequentiy used. For these membranes,laidlawii may be employed for vaHdation purposes (9).  [c.141]

Since chloroacetyl chloride can react with water in the skin or eyes to form chloroacetic acid, its toxicity parallels that of the parent acid. Chloroacetyl chloride can be absorbed through the skin in lethal amounts. The oral LD q for rats is between 120 and 250 mg/kg. Inhalation of 4 ppm causes respiratory distress. ATLV of 0.05 ppm is recommended (28,41).  [c.89]


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