Lycoming Natural Gas Co.

Electrophilic Substitution. The processes by which the aromatic ring in lignin is modified by electrophilic substitution reactions are chlorination, nitration, and ozonation. Chlorination, widely used in multistage bleaching sequences for delignifying chemical pulps, proceeds by a rapid reaction of elemental chlorine with lignin in consequence of which the aromatic ring is nonuniformly substituted with chlorine. In nitration, nitro groups are introduced into the aromatic moiety of lignin with nitrogen dioxide (9). As one of several competing processes, electrophilic attack of ozone on lignin ultimately leads to ting hydroxylation (10).  [c.139]

Several states that have a large number of CPI plants offer various types of tax incentives. Louisiana, for instance, offers a 10-yr tax exemption from property taxes on buildings, equipment, and improvements to land (2). Texas, which has a large petrochemical industry, offers a 7-yr tax abatement program. Neither of these states have a state income tax. Both states offer a tax credit for each job created and provide free worker training.  [c.88]

Neither coatings nor water repellents alter the equilibrium moisture content or equilibrium swelling of wood. This can be accompHshed only by depositing bulking agents that block normal shrinkage within the cell walls, chemically replacing the hygroscopic hydroxyl groups of cellulose and lignin with less hygroscopic groups, or forming chemical crosslinks between the stmctural units of wood.  [c.323]

Neither the mechanism by which benzene damages bone marrow nor its role in the leukemia process are well understood. It is generally beheved that the toxic factor(s) is a metaboHte of benzene (107). Benzene is oxidized in the fiver to phenol [108-95-2] as the primary metabolite with hydroquinone [123-31-9] catechol [120-80-9] muconic acid [505-70-4] and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene [533-73-3] as significant secondary metabolites (108). Although the identity of the actual toxic metabolite or combination of metabolites responsible for the hematological abnormalities is not known, evidence suggests that benzene oxide, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, or muconic acid derivatives are possibly the ultimate carcinogenic species (96,103,107—112).  [c.47]

In 1972, van Leusen, Hoogenboom and Siderius introduced the utility of TosMIC for the synthesis of azoles (pyrroles, oxazoles, imidazoles, thiazoles, etc.) by delivering a C-N-C fragment to polarized double bonds. In addition to the synthesis of 5-phenyloxazole, they also described reaction of TosMIC with /7-nitro- and /7-chloro-benzaldehyde (3) to provide analogous oxazoles 4 in 91% and 57% yield, respectively. Reaction of TosMIC with acid chlorides, anhydrides, or esters leads to oxazoles in which the tosyl group is retained. For example, reaction of acetic anhydride and TosMIC furnish oxazole 5 in 73% yield.  [c.254]

See pages that mention the term Lycoming Natural Gas Co. : [c.152]    [c.677]    [c.75]    [c.319]    [c.689]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.3 , c.4 ]