In addition to the sex hormones and corticosteroids, other steroid dmgs have substantial worldwide markets. For example, cytostatic hormones had worldwide sales of approximately 1.8 biUion in 1994. Included in these 1.8 biUion are several steroids or steroid-mimetics such as megestrol acetate and tamoxifen (282), respectively (262).  [c.448]

The most successful clinical antiviral agents belong to the nucleoside category. Nucleoside analogues with potent antiviral activity have been known since idoxuridine [54-42-2] and trifluridine [70-00-8] were shown to be efficacious against herpes keratitis more than 30 years ago. However, despite their antiviral efficacy the therapeutic usefiilness of these early nucleosides was limited because of mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, cytostatic, or cytotoxic side effects. Recendy the specificity of antiviral action of this class of compounds has been significantly improved potent and highly selective nucleoside antiviral agents have now been developed. These are either antiviral nucleosides which are only activated by vims-infected cells, or antiviral agents which specifically inhibit vims-induced enzymes required for viral repHcation.  [c.305]

Prostaglandins have been extracted from drugs (149), as well as from aqueous solutions, by loading the sample on an SPE cartridge and, subsequently, carrying out on-line SEC (150). A glycoside, ouabain, was used as a model compound to study the coupling of SEE and SEC, combined with fraction collection, thus allowing determination of the biological activity of the collected fractions (151). Important information pertaining to solute elution density, efficiency of extraction, solute trapping, and Supercritical fluid chromatography (SEC) was obtained. A cytostatic, mitomycin C, has been determined in plasma by SPE-SEC after application on an XAD-2 sorbent. After washing and drying the sorbent, the drug was supercritically desorbed and chromatographed with 12% methanol in CO2 (152). This phase-system-switching approach prevents the direct injection of a polar matrix or solvent into an SEC system. Up to 1 ml of plasma containing 20 ng of mitomycin C has been analysed (Eigure 11.16). The UV chromatogram obtained at 215 nm shows that the isolation step was surprisingly selective. The choice of 360 nm as the detection wavelength has further improved the selectivity.  [c.284]

Therapeutic Function Cytostatic  [c.65]

Chromosomal aberrations represent damage to the chromosomal structure that can be detected microscopically. The most frequent chromosomal aberrations are deletion (lack of a chromosome or its part), duplication (part of a chromosome has been duplicated), inversion (parts of a chromosome have changed place within that particular chromosome), and translocation (parts of chromosomes have changed their position between two chromosomes). Many of these chromosomal changes are transferred to sister cells when the cell divides, and become, therefore, stable chromosomal aberrations. Cytostatic drugs and cigarette smoke are examples of chemical exposures known to induce chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations themselves do not, howevet, give any clue of the causative agents for the changes.  [c.289]

The unsaturated substituent in the carbene complex 1 often is aromatic or heteroaromatic, but can also be olefinic. The reaction conditions of the Dotz procedure are mild various functional groups are tolerated. Yields are often high. The use of chromium hexacarbonyl is disadvantageous, since this compound is considered to be carcinogenic however to date it cannot be replaced by a less toxic compound. Of particular interest is the benzo-anellation procedure for the synthesis of anthra-cyclinones, which are potentially cytostatic agents.  [c.100]

Qualitatively, it was found that these modified and unmodified polymers exhibited almost no cytotoxicity against DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells during the experimental period of superoxide release (20 min to 1 h). The long-term influence of the polymers on cells was evaluated by the use of J774.1 cultured cells derived from macrophage [23]. Figure 10 shows the effect of high-molecular weight polymers on the growth of the cells for 2 days. All three kinds of polymers showed no effect at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/ml. In the case of hexyl group grafted polymer (MA-CDA-20K-H24), cytostatic effect was observed at concentrations greater than 0.3 mg/ml, and the other two polymers showed cy-tostaticity at levels greater than 1 mg/ml. The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the low-molecular weight polymers are shown in Fig. 11. Compared with the results shown in Fig. 10, the cytotoxic action of all low-molecular weight polymers seemed to be greater. The hexyl group grafted polymer (MA-CDA-3.4K-H27) showed cytotoxicity at the concentration of 0.3 mg/ml. The strongest cytotoxic action of hexyl group grafted polymers having both high- and low-molecular weight, MA-CDA-20K-H24 and MA-CDA-3.4K-H27, among the  [c.184]

See pages that mention the term Cytostatic : [c.134]    [c.149]    [c.150]    [c.146]    [c.158]    [c.250]    [c.254]    [c.46]   
Thiazole and its derivatives Ч.2 (1979) -- [ c.134 , c.150 ]