Eads, Colo,


Table 7. Monsanto EHD Cell Configurations Table 7. Monsanto EHD Cell Configurations
The major classes of organic compounds common to living systems are lipids pro terns nucleic acids and carbohydrates Carbohydrates are very familiar to us— we call many of them sugars They make up a substantial portion of the food we eat and provide most of the energy that keeps the human engine running Carbohy drates are structural components of the walls of plant cells and the wood of trees Genetic information is stored and transferred by way of nucleic acids specialized derivatives of carbohydrates which we 11 examine m more detail m Chapter 28  [c.1026]

Biosynthetic Human Insulin from E. coli. Insulin [9004-10-8] a polypeptide hormone, stimulates anaboHc reactions for carbohydrates, proteins, and fats thereby producing a lowered blood glucose level. Porcine insulin [12584-58-6] and bovine insulin [11070-73-8] were used to treat diabetes prior to the availabiHty of human insulin [11061 -68-0]. AH three insulins are similar in amino acid sequence. EH LiHy s human insulin was approved for testing in humans in 1980 by the U.S. EDA and was placed on the market by 1982 (11,12).  [c.42]

Several cleaning formulations for specific uses contain unreacted polyamines. Examples include mixtures of ammonium alkylbenzenesulfonate, solvents, and PIP which give good cleaning and shine performance on mirrors and other hard surfaces without rinsing (305), and a hard-surface cleaner composed of a water-soluble vinyl acetate—vinyl alcohol copolymer, EDA, cyclohexanone [108-94-1] dimethyl sulfoxide [67-68-5] a surfactant, and water (306). TEPA, to which an average of 17 moles of ethylene oxide are added, improves the clay sod removal and sod antiredeposition properties of certain hquid laundry detergents (307).  [c.48]

Monsanto Cell EHD Processes. The key cell parameters of Monsanto s divided and undivided cell processes are given in Table 7. The divided cell process is no longer used. The cell was of the plate and frame type (38) with external manifolding. Electrolyte flow was in parallel and recirculated through external heat exchangers the anolyte was dilute sulfuric acid the electrolysis system consisted of 16 cell presses, each containing 24 bipolar cells, and a current of 3000 A at 300 V was distributed to each cell bank. Four separate catholyte systems were used to feed the cell banks to minimise contamination in the event of a significant diaphragm mpture (38,80,124).  [c.99]

In the divided cell EHD process, the catholyte was relatively expensive and a poor electrical conductor, the ion-exchange membrane was an added cost and gave added voltage drop, and the plate and frame cell was expensive to constmct and maintain. These problems were addressed, and led to the development of an undivided cell technology (80). In the undivided cell, the electrolyte contains the good conducting phosphate ion and only low concentrations of the quaternary ammonium salt (QAS), which faciUtates the dimerization. Sodium EDTA is present to solubilize the iron and cadmium electrode corrosion products and maintain cathode quaUty. Additionally, the cell stmcture was very much simplified. The membrane was eliminated, and the bipolar electrode stmcture was simplified by using cadmium-coated steel sheets. These rectangular sheets were simply stacked with insulator spacers in packs of 100—200 cells. The cell packs were then placed in an insulated vessel in a way to give uniform electrolyte flow (see Fig. 15) in the direction of the longer side.  [c.99]

In addition to antibodies, the immune system also consists of bone-marrow derived lymphocytes, or B cells, and T cells that come from the thymus gland, both of which (indirectly) produce antibodies. These cells, in turn, may be helped by helper cells (= H) and suppressed by suppressor cells (= S). Helper cells may be alarmed as to the presence of antigens by macrophages (= M) that eat the antigens and leave parts of their meal on their cell surface.  [c.426]

Escherichia coh. A broad genetic and biochemical database combiaed with a critical mass of academic scientists made E. coli the preferred host for gene manipulations ia the 1970s. Some of the therapeutic proteias such as iasulia and human growth hormone are commercially manufactured from E. coli (see Insulin and other antidiabetic drugs Hormones, human growth hormone). The EDA approval process for recombiaant proteias for therapeutic purposes iavolves elaborate tests which are both time consuming and expensive. Thus, once a recombinant proteia from E. colih.2LS beea approved, it is thea less expeasive for companies to use the same expressioa system for aew products. However, E. coli produces an endotoxia and thus caimot be used as a host for the production of food processiag enzymes ia certaia European countries. Another limitation of E. coli is the lack of glycosylation of proteias.  [c.248]

Any transverse magnetization precesses about the direction of Bq. An nmr signal is generated from transverse magnetization rotating about the -axis. This magnetization reduces a current in a coil of wine placed around the x- orjy-axis. As long as there is transverse magnetization changing with respect to time, there is an induced current in the coil. Eor a group of nuclei having one identical chemical shift, the signal is an exponentially decaying sine wave which decays with a time constant T q. It is predominantly the inhomogeneities in Bq which cause the spin packets to dephase. Net magnetization which has been rotated away from its equiUbrium position along the -axis by exacdy 180° does not create transverse magnetization and hence does not give a signal. The time-domain signal from a net magnetization vector in the >gi plane is called a free induction decay (EID). This time domain signal must be converted to a frequency domain spectmm to be interpreted for chemical information. The conversion is performed using a Eourier transform. The hardware in most nmr spectrometers and magnetic resonance imagers detects both Af and Af simultaneously. This detection scheme is called quadrature detection. These two signals are equivalent to the real and imaginary signals, therefore the input to the Eourier transform is complex. Sampling theory dictates that digitization of the EID at frequency complex points per second gives a spectmm of frequency width f.  [c.54]

Hair colorants, the fourth class of color additives, may be used only to color scalp hair and may not be used in the area of the eye. Use of these colorants is exempt, that is, coal-tar hair dyes may be sold with cautionary labeling, directions for preliminary (patch) testing, and restrictions against use in or near the eye. The EDA diligently enforces the rules governing color additives and limits the use of, or even dehsts colorants deemed unsafe. The Hst of substances specifically prohibited for use in cosmetics is short.  [c.286]

A.sahi Chemical EHD Processes. In the late 1960s, Asahi Chemical Industries in Japan developed an alternative electrolyte system for the electroreductive coupling of acrylonitrile. The catholyte in the Asahi divided cell process consisted of an emulsion of acrylonitrile and electrolysis products in a 10% aqueous solution of tetraethyl ammonium sulfate. The concentration of acrylonitrile in the aqueous phase for the original Monsanto process was 15—20 wt %, but the Asahi process uses only about 2 wt %. Asahi claims simpler separation and purification of the adiponitrile from the catholyte. A cation-exchange membrane is employed with dilute sulfuric acid in the anode compartment. The cathode is lead containing 6% antimony, and the anode is the same alloy but also contains 0.7% silver (45). The current efficiency is of 88—89%, with an adiponitrile selectivity of 91%. This process, started by Asahi in 1971, at Nobeoka City, Japan, is also operated by the RhcJ)ne Poulenc subsidiary, Rhodia, in Bra2il under Hcense from Asahi.  [c.101]

Asahi also reports an undivided cell process employing a lead alloy cathode, a nickel—steel anode, and an electrolyte composed of an emulsion of 20 wt % of an oil phase and 80 wt % of an aqueous phase (125). The aqueous phase is 10 wt % K HPO, 3 wt % K B O, and 2 wt % (C2H (C4H )2N)2HP04. The oil phase is about 28 wt % acrylonitrile and 50 wt % adiponitrile. The balance of the oil phase consists of by-products and water. The cell operates at a current density of 20 A/dm at 50°C. Circulated across the cathode surface at a superficial velocity of 1.5 m/s is the electrolyte. A 91% selectivity to adiponitrile is claimed at a current efficiency of 90%. The respective anode and cathode corrosion rates are about mg/(Ah). Asahi s improved EHD process is reported to have been commercialized in 1987.  [c.101]

As noted earlier, vaeuum distillation is the first step of lube oil manufaeture. By distillation the redueed erude is eut into fraetions for the produetion of light, medium and high viscosity lube base stocks. It is important that lube fractions of the correct viscosity and boiling range be cut at the VPS, since subsequent lube processing operations cannot be used to control the values of these two properties in the finished lube products. A simplified process flow diagram for a typical lube VPS is illustrated in Figure 29, In a vacuum distillation process, the reduced crude from tankage is preheated by exchange with the hot sidestreams and vacuum bottoms products. The preheated VPS feed is then partially vaporized in a furnace where its temperature is raised to about 750 F. Superheated steam (referred to as "coil steam") is injected into the furnace tubes to lower the hydrocarbon partial pressure thus reducing the furnace outlet temperature required for a given degree of vaporization. Coil steam injection also prevents thermal cracking by decreasing residence time in the furnace tubes.  [c.230]

The major classes of organic compounds common to living systems aie lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Caibohydrates aie very familial to us— we call many of them sugais. They make up a substantial portion of the food we eat and provide most of the energy that keeps the human engine running. Caibohydrates aie structural components of the walls of plant cells and the wood of trees. Genetic infonnation is stored and transfened by way of nucleic acids, specialized derivatives of caibohydrates, which we ll examine in more detail in Chapter 28.  [c.1026]


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