Voshell 1

Tubular reactors, as previously stated, are also advantageous for high-pressure reactions where smaller-diameter cylindrical vessels can be used to allow thinner vessel walls. Tubular reactors should be avoided when carrying out multiphase reactions, since it is often difficult to achieve good mixing between phases.  [c.55]

Merging more than one operation into a single piece of equipment (e.g., feed preheating and reaction in the same vessel), providing these operations are not limiting the cycle time.  [c.251]

Chemical energy. Chemical energy derives from a chemical reaction. The source of the chemical energy is exothermic chemical reactions, which includes combustion of flammable material. Explosions based on chemical energy can be either uniform or propagating. An explosion in a vessel will tend to be a uniform explosion, while an explosion in a long pipe will tend to be a propagating explosion.  [c.257]

Physical energy. Physical energy may be pressure energy in gases, thermal energy, strain energy in metal, or electrical energy. An example of an explosion caused by release of physical energy would be fracture of a vessel containing high-pressure gas. Thermal energy is generally important in creating the conditions for explosions rather than as a source of energy for the explosion itself. In particular, as already mentioned, superheat in a liquid under pressure causes flashing of the liquid if it is accidentally released to the atmosphere.  [c.257]

A detonation generates greater pressures and is more destructive than a deflagration. Whereas the peak pressure caused by the deflagration of a hydrocarbon-air mixture in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure is on the order of 8 bar, a detonation may give a peak pressure on the order of 20 bar. A deflagration may turn into a detonation, particularly if traveling down a long pipe.  [c.258]

Relief systems are expensive and introduce considerable environmental problems. Sometimes it is possibly to dispense with relief valves and all that comes after them by using stronger vessels, strong enough to withstand the highest pressures that can be reached. For example, if the vessel can withstand the pump delivery pressure, then a relief valve for overpressurization by the pump may not be needed. However, there may still be a need for a small relief device to guard against overpressurization in the event of a fire. It may be possible to avoid the need for a relief valve on a distillation column  [c.265]

At first sight, it might seem that making vessels strong enough to withstand the possible overpressurization would be an expensive option. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that we are not simply comparing one vessel with a thick wall versus one vessel with a thin wall protected by a relief valve. Material discharged through the relief valve might need to be partially contained, in which case the comparison might be between Fig. 9.4a and ft.  [c.266]

Similarly, instead of installing vacuum relief valves the vessels can be made strong enough to withstand vacuum. In addition, if the vessel contains flammable gas or vapor, vacuum relief valves will often need to admit nitrogen to avoid flammable mixtures. A stronger vessel often may be safer and cheaper.  [c.266]

Figure 9.4 A thick-walled pressure vessel might be economical when compared with a thin-walled vessel and its relief and venting system. Figure 9.4 A thick-walled pressure vessel might be economical when compared with a thin-walled vessel and its relief and venting system.
For Jet Al, the pressure drop should be less than 33 mbar, and the visual observation of the tube should correspond to a minimum of three on the scale of reference.  [c.229]

Tube grading (visual) < 3  [c.303]

These hazards are reduced drastically by desalting crude oils, a process which consists of coalescing and decanting the fine water droplets in a vessel by using an electric field of 0.7 to 1 kV/cm.  [c.329]

The basic data gathering methods are direct methods which allow visual inspection or at least direct measurement of properties, and indirect methods whereby we infer reservoir parameters from a number of measurements taken in a borehole. The main techniques available within these categories are summarised in the following table  [c.125]

Low Press. Production Separator Crude Oil Stabiliser Vessel Stabilised Crude Oil Pumps  [c.240]

For a single stage separator i.e. only one separator vessel, there is an optimum pressure which yields the maximum amount of oil and minimises the carry over of heavy components into the gas phase (a phenomenon called stripping). By adding additional separators to the process line the yield of oil can be increased, but with each additional separator the incremental oil yield will decrease.  [c.243]

Knockout vessels are the most common form of basic separator. The vessel contains no internals and demisting efficiency is poor. However, they perform well in dirty service conditions (i.e. where sand, water and corrosive products are carried in the well stream).  [c.245]

A knock out vessel may on the other hand be followed by a variety of dehydrating systems depending upon the space available and the characteristics of the mixture. On land a continuous dehydration tank such as a wash tank may be employed. In this type of vessel crude oil enters the tank via an inlet spreader and water droplets fall out of the oil as it rises to the top of the tank. Such devices can reduce the water content to less than 2%.  [c.247]

Gas processing facilities generally work best at between 10 and 100 bar. At low pressure, vessels have to be large to operate effectively, whereas at higher pressures facilities can be smaller but vessel walls and piping systems must be thicker. Optimum recovery of heavy hydrocarbons is achieved between 20 bar and 40 bar. Long distance pipeline pressures may reach 150 bar and reinjection pressure can be as high as 700 bar. The gas process line will reflect gas quality and pressure as well as delivery specifications.  [c.249]

In case of a major disaster, one platform in a region will be equipped to act as a control centre from which rescue operations are co-ordinated. Evacuation routes will be provided, and where large complexes are clustered together, a standby vessel will be available in the region to supply emergency services such as fire fighting and rescue.  [c.285]

The percentage share of the inserts made austenite steel in the martensite structure is refered to the visual field of the probe in the given location. Every probe after performance is given a characteristics, in which the visual field is given, determined using special devices defining the visual field at different distances from the tested object.  [c.22]

In Austria, as well as all over Europe, the first and repetition tests of all pressure equipments including steam drums are required for security reasons within fixed time intervals. These repetitive inspections are done differently in the most European countries, but most time these inspections include, according to the European Pressure Equipment Directive" and the specific national law any kind of over-pressurisation (e.g. hydrotest) and visual inside inspection.  [c.30]

It was pointed out, that the periodical inspection of the steam drums has been become an absolute must especially under the circumstance, that the economical pressure results in smaller wall thickness, higher steam pressure and higher rotation speed. The conventional periodical inspection (hydrotest and visual inside inspection) is on one hand time consuming and therefore expensive and on the other hand the results of the hydrotest are doubtful and can result in a seriously damage of the roundness and balance of the steam drum.  [c.34]

Global intensity criteria have been developed and are used in industrial field testing application for the assessment of structural integrity of FRP tanks and pressure vessels l A step forward to increase the applicability of the technique is the complete source characterisation and the definition of evaluation/intensity criteria for each type of AE source. Source characterisation and signature recognition of AE signals, are difficult tasks and are not yet fully adopted by the field testing application experts, mainly due to luck of universal procedures and methodologies. Research in this direction focus on the application of artificial intelligence and more specific Pattern Recognition techniques which increases the possibilities for the identification of Signature of AE signals emitted from Composite Structures. An unsupervised pattern recognition technique was recently established consisting of procedures for descriptors selection, data clustering and techniques to validate the resulting partitions. Representative AE results from laboratory coupon testing and field testing of pressure vessel are presented, demonstrating the advantages of the proposed metliod as well as tlie limitations and the needs for further development.  [c.38]

FRP Pressure Vessel Example  [c.41]

Confined explosions. Conflned explosions are those which occur within vessels, pipework, or buildings. The explosion of a flammable mixture in a process vessel or pipework may be a deflagration or a detonation. The conditions for a deflagration to occur are that the gas mixture is within the flammable range and there is a source of ignition. Alternatively, the deflagration can occur without a source of ignition if the mixture is heated to its autoignition temperature. An explosion starting as a deflagration can make the transition into a detonation. This transition can occur in a pipeline but is unlikely to happen in a vessel.  [c.258]

When synthesizing a fiowsheet, the designer should consider carefully the problems associated with operation under extreme conditions. Attenuation will result in a safer plant, providing the attenuation does not increase the inventory of hazardous materials. If the inventory does not increase, then attenuation not only will make the process safer but also will make it cheaper, since cheaper materials of construction and thinner vessel walls can be used and it is not necessary to add on so much protective equipment.  [c.268]

Keywords process engineer, facilities engineer, feedstock, product specification, process flow scheme, equilibrium constant, stripping, demisting, knock out vessel, settling, skimming, washtank, plate separator, chemical destabilisation, gas flotation, hydrocyclone, hydrates, absorption, Joule-Thomson throttling, refrigeration, turboexpander, LNG, LPG, NGL, slug catcher, fractionation, water treatment, facilities layout, wellsites, gathering station, field station, platform types, topsides modules, subsea satellite, pipeline pigging, emergency shutdown valves.  [c.235]

An equipment item is designed to certain operating standards and conditions, beyond which it should not be operated. To ensure that the equipment is capable of performing safely at the design limit conditions, it must be periodically /nspectedand/or tested. For example, a water deluge system for fire-fighting would be periodically tested to ensure that it starts when given the appropriate signal, and delivers water at the designed rate. If equipment items have to be shut down to test or inspect them (e.g. inspecting for corrosion on the inside of a pressure vessel) this will make the equipment temporarily unavailable. If the equipment item is a main process system item, such as one of those shown in Figure 14.9, then the complete production train would be shut down. This would also be the case in testing a system that was designed to shut down the process in the case of an emergency. This causes a loss of production. Where possible, inspection and testing is designed to be performed on-line to avoid interrupting production, but otherwise such inspections are scheduled to coincide. The periods between full function testing of process equipment is sometimes set by legislation.  [c.343]

Although only 1 % of seriously defective and/or damaged pressure equipments were found, the economical benefit of the testing method for the vessel owner would be meaningful. The most defects, with the exception of the inside corrosion during an inside inspection, which elongate the shut down period significantly, cannot be detected during the conventional inspection.  [c.33]

See pages that mention the term Voshell 1 : [c.69]    [c.121]    [c.121]    [c.265]    [c.13]    [c.144]    [c.170]    [c.171]    [c.171]    [c.226]    [c.255]    [c.297]    [c.346]    [c.357]    [c.368]    [c.418]    [c.42]    [c.245]    [c.247]    [c.271]    [c.41]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.250 , c.251 , c.255 , c.256 , c.257 , c.258 , c.259 , c.260 , c.261 , c.262 , c.263 , c.264 , c.265 , c.266 , c.267 , c.268 , c.269 , c.270 , c.271 , c.272 , c.273 , c.274 , c.275 , c.276 , c.277 , c.278 , c.279 , c.280 , c.281 , c.282 , c.283 , c.284 , c.407 ]