Szilard, Leo


Szilard-Chalmers effect 383  [c.383]

Szilard--Chalmers effeet See recoil atom.  [c.383]

Fermi and another European refugee, Leo Szilard, discussed the impact nuclear fission would have on physics and on the veiy unstable state of the world  [c.499]

I entered the Technical University of Bndapest immediately after the end of World War II. It had been established some 150 years earlier as the Budapest Institute of Technology. Because the Austro-Hungarian education system closely followed the German example, the Technical University of Budapest developed along the lines of German technical universities. Many noted scientists of Hungarian origin such as Michael Polanyi, Denis Gabor (Nobel Prize in Physics 1971), George He-vesy (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943), Leo Szilard, Theodor von Kar-man, Eugene Wigner (Nobel Prize in Physics 1963), John von Neuman, Edward Teller, and others have studied there at one time or other, generally, however, only for short periods of time. Most completed their studies in Germany or Switzerland usually in physics or mathematics, and their career carried them subsequently to England or the United States. To my knowledge, I am the only one who got my entire university education at that institution and who subsequently was also on its faculty. I was proud to be recognized as such when my alma mater welcomed me back after many years in 1988 and gave me an honorary Doctor of Science degree.  [c.47]

A luncheon for the American laureates and some 200 guests was given at the residence of Thomas Siebert, the American Ambassador to Sweden. The Ambassador, a former university classmate of President Clinton, and his wife were most gracious. We were also invited by the Hungarian Ambassador to a reception given for the two Hungarian-born winners (the economist John Harsanyi and myself). Little Hungary indeed can be proud to have produced such an impressive number of Nobel winners in proportion to its population (although nearly all emigrated and did most of their work abroad). Some believe that there must be some special talent in Hungarians for certain fields (besides the sciences, music, film making, engineering, and entrepreneurship are frequently mentioned). I believe, however, that the main reason was a good educational system, which is a more realistic explanation than is sometimes offered to explain the success of Hungarian-born scientists. During the Manhattan project, in which the Hungarian-born Neuman, Szilard, Teller, and Wigner played an important role, Enrico Fermi was quoted as suggesting that they were really visitors from Mars. They possessed advanced intelligence but found themselves in difficulty because they spoke English with a bad foreign accent, which would give them away. Therefore, they chose to pretend to be Hungarians, whose inability to speak any language but Hungarian without a thick foreign accent was well known (I am myself a good example of this). The story was memorialized in the book Voice of the Martians by the Hungarian physicist George Marx. It is an attractive saga, but in fact, the development of scientists depends to a great degree on a good education, which should always be emphasized.  [c.177]

The education many Hungarian-born scientists received in our native country provided the foundation on which our subsequent scientific careers were built. At the same time, it must be remembered that most of us who became somewhat sueeessful and noted did so only after we left Hungary. Denis Gabor (Nobel Prize in physics 1971 for holography), John Neumann (pioneer of computers and noted mathemati-eian), John Kemeny (mathematician and developer of early eomputer programs), Leo Szilard (physicist), Edward Teller (atom physicist), Eugene Wigner (Nobel Prize in physics 1963 for theory of atomic physics), George Hevesy (Nobel Prize in ehemistry 1943 for isotopic tracers), like myself, all received recognition while working in the West.  [c.222]

The ergot of commerce is usually collected from rye crops, but ergots from other botanical sources are occasionally available and have attracted considerable attention during the war. Attempts have also been made to cultivate ergot on host crops, and Stoll s description (1945) indicates that this can be achieved successfully. f ) The commercial separation of ergot sclerotia from grain crops by hand is a laborious operation and labour-saving methods are being investigated.  [c.518]

Wheeler of Princeton published an academic paper on fission. Several leading physists fled Germany and Stalin s Soviet Union for the United States, including Hungarian refugee Leo Szilard. Fearful that the Nazis might build a powerful atomic bomb, Szilard and fellow Hungarian emigre Eugene Wigner convinced Einstein (then at Princeton University) to write President Roosevelt to warn of the possibilities of atomic weapom-y and to suggest U.S. action.  [c.850]

The project s two key scientific advisers were Vannevar Bush, an electrical engineer at head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and a former dean of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and James Conant, a chemist, chair of the National Defense Research Committee, and president of Harvard University. Groves also recruited Nobel laureate Arthur Compton to the project, who in turn recruited Wigner and Szilard as well as Nobel laureates Fermi and James Franck to his burgeoning research laboratory at the University of Chicago (code-named the Metallurgical Laboratory ). Meanwhile, the army brought in Boston-based Stone Webster as principal engineering contractor, and the giant Du Pont chemical firm, which had no experience in plutonium production but took on the work for costs plus 1. After Fermi— working in a racquet-ball court under the stands at the University of Chicago s Stagg Field—achieved the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction in December 1942, the Manhattan Project settled on water as a coolant and forged ahead with construction plans.  [c.851]

The intellectual climate was ripened for such abstract considerations by a number of important earlier contributions, including those by Szilard [szil29], who provided a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of Maxwell s Demon, Turing [turing36], who laid the groundwork for formal computation theory (see section 12.8), and Shannon [shan48], who developed the mathematical formalism appropriate for discussing the fundamental limitations to information transmission through noisy channels.  [c.310]


See pages that mention the term Szilard, Leo : [c.342]    [c.41]    [c.53]    [c.54]    [c.65]    [c.257]    [c.106]    [c.402]    [c.486]    [c.500]    [c.851]    [c.635]   
A life of magic chemistry (2001) -- [ c.0 ]