Szent-Gyorgyi Albert

In 1935 in Hungary, a crucial discovery was made by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, who was studying the oxidation of similar organic substrates by pigeon breast muscle, an active flight muscle with very high rates of oxidation and metabolism. Carefully measuring the amount of oxygen consumed, he observed that addition of any of three four-carbon dicarboxylic acids—fumarate, succinate, or malate—caused the consumption of much more oxygen than was required for the oxidation of the added substance itself. He concluded that these substances were limiting in the cell and, when provided, stimulated oxidation of endogenous glucose and other carbohydrates in the tissues. He also found that malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (Chapter 14), inhibited these oxidative processes this finding suggested that succinate oxidation is a crucial step. Szent-Gyorgyi hypothesized that these dicarboxylic acids were linked by an enzymatic pathway that was important for aerobic metabolism.  [c.641]

In the pnrsnit of research or observation many wonld see what others have seen before, but it is the well-prepared one who [according to Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel Prize in medicine 1937] may think what nobody else has thonght before and achieve a discovery or breakthrough. Mark Twain once wrote that the greatest of all inventors is chance. Chance, however, will favor only those who are capable of recognizing the significance of an unexpected invention and explore it fnrther.  [c.7]

Only Albert Szent Gyorgyi received his Nobel Prize (physiology or medicine 1937 for biological combustion processes with reference to vitamin C) while working in Hungary, but he also spent the last four decades of his career in the United States. Perhaps a small country could not offer its scientists opportunities for growth and work at home. Notably, there is no woman scientist on the list, perhaps telling something about the gender-separated educational system of the past and the bias against giving women an equal chance for a scientific career. 1 remember that in my university days there was not a single girl in our class Hitler and Stalin also greatly contributed to the flight from Hungary. At the same time, 1 know that there were many highly talented contemporaries of ours who never left Hungary but somehow did not develop to their real potential. In any case, an isolated, small, and rather poor country, despite all its handicaps, turned out a remarkable number of excellent scientists, mathematicians, engineers, composers, musicians, filmmakers, writers, economists, and business leaders.  [c.223]

The molecular events of contraction are powered by the ATPase activity of myosin. Much of our present understanding of this reaction and its dependence on actin can be traced to several key discoveries by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi at the University of Szeged in Hungary in the early 1940s. Szent-Gyorgyi showed that solution viscosity is dramatically increased when solutions of myosin and actin are mixed. Increased viscosity is a manifestation of the formation of an actomyosin complex.  [c.551]

The isolation of ascorbic acid was first reported by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (who called it hexuronie add) in 1928. The structure was determined by ITirst and Haworth in 1933, and, simultaneously, Reichstein reported its synthesis. Haworth and Szent-Gyorgyi, who together suggested that the name be changed to L-ascorbic acid to describe its antiscorbutic (antiscnrvy) activity, were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1937 for their studies of vitamin C.  [c.600]

A life of magic chemistry (2001) -- [ c.0 ]