Byron field, Wyo.

Solution Mining and Mechanical Evaporation. Bedded and domal salt deposits are solution-mined by drilling wells into haUte [14762-57-7] deposits and injecting fresh and recycled water through the well casings, dissolving the salt. Salt solution mines, called Class III wells, can vary in depth from 150 to 1500 m. Solution-mined brine can be used to produce dry salt or it can be used as feedstock for the production of chemicals such as chlorine and caustic soda (see Alkali AND chlorine products). Solution mines operate with a single well or with several wells in a brine field. Brine is produced from a single well by injecting water into the salt deposit through tubing, then extracting brine through a concentric annulus between the tubing and the well casing. Water injected into one well in a multiple-weU brine field dissolves salt. The resulting brine is extracted through other wells in the same brine field. Solution-mining technology provides control over the size and shape of solution-mined caverns and minimizes the potential for surface subsidence. State-of-the-art drilling and operating techniques, well and cavern logging instmments, and other devices provide precise control over salt cavern development and use. Salt brine is extracted from the cavern and transported by pipeline to the salt refinery, usually at the same site, for processing into evaporated—granulated salt or for use as feedstock for chlor—alkaU production.  [c.180]

During my Cleveland years I also initiated an active seminar program with the participation of many leading chemists who came to visit us. This allowed us to create a lively and stimulating atmosphere in the department, which benefited students and faculty alike. In 1969 I organized the first of many subsequent international research symposia. The symposium was on carbocation chemistry and was attended by many of the major investigators in the field (Nenitzescu, Brown, Winstein, Dewar, Schleyer, Gillespie, Saunders, and others). When I moved to Los Angeles, these symposia became annual events. My own group in Cleveland held weekly meetings and research seminars, which remained a permanent feature over the years. On the basis of our mutual interest, Ned Arnett and John Pople (Nobel Prize in chemistry, 1998) and their research groups from Pittsburgh joined us at regular intervals, and we had joint monthly meetings alternating between Cleveland and Pittsburgh.  [c.93]

The Indian-born physicist Subramanyan Chandrasekhar (Nobel Prize 1983) had a personal style of research, which 1 learned about only recently, that seems to parallel mine. He intensely studied a selected subject for years. At the end of this period he generally summarized his work and thoughts in a book or a comprehensive review and then moved on to something else. He also refuted Huxley s claim that scientists over 60 do more harm than good by sharing the response of Rayleigh (who was 67 at the time) that this may be the case if they only undertake to criticize the work of younger men (women were not yet mentioned) but not when they stick to the things they are competent in. He manifested this belief in his seminal work on black holes, on which he published a fundamental book when he was 72, and his detailed analysis of Newton s famous Principia published when he was 84, shortly before his death. I have also written books and reviews whenever I felt that I had sufficiently explored a field in my research and it was time to move on this indeed closely resembles Chandrasekhar s approach (vide infra).  [c.227]

Indirect Refrigeration (Brine). The process fluid is cooled by an intermediate Hquid, water or brine, that is itself cooled by evaporating the refrigerant as shown in Figure 13. In the chemical industry, process heat exchangers must frequently be designed for corrosive products, high pressures, or high viscosities, and are not weU suited for refrigerant evaporators. Other problems preventing direct use of refrigerant are remote location, lack of sufficient pressure for the refrigerant Hquid feed, difficulties with compressor oil return, or inabiHty to provide traps in the suction line to hold Hquid refrigerant. The brine is cooled in the refrigeration evaporator and then pumped to the process load. The brine system may include a tank, either open or closed but maintained at atmospheric pressure through a small vent pipe at the top, or may be a closed system pressurized by an inert, dry gas.  [c.68]

Applications. Statistical thermodynamics holds great promise as a means to characterize molecules, bonds, reactions, and energy fields in ways which are consistent with both observed and calculated classical thermodynamic properties. However, it is exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to solve analytically for the trajectories of just three mutually interacting bodies from quantum or classical mechanics (118), and the problem at hand involves on the order of 10 bodies. Eew physical property prediction methods ate available that are based solely on statistical thermodynamics. However, its methodology is fundamental to group contribution and most other molecular-based physical property prediction methods (122,137—141). Some insight into the apphcations of statistical thermodynamics to nonequUibtium problems is available (142,143). An alternative approach in which field theory is appHed to replace volume and pressure with strain and stress tensors, respectively, involves continuum mechanics (144). Areas in which molecular thermodynamics goes beyond classical thermodynamics is of interest. The second and third coefficients of the virial equation-of-state for real gases have been shown to correspond to binary and ternary molecular interactions through statistical thermodynamics (118,121). Erom this information, and a basic understanding of intermolecular forces, eg, polar attractions, dipole and quadmpole moments, and dispersion forces (118), these coefficients have been predicted for simple gases (118,138,145). Equations-of-state for a series of low to medium pressure interacting gases have been developed, as weU as thermodynamic properties of crystalline soHds (138). Spectroscopic properties of various energy radiations related to electron and atomic transitions have been explained largely through statistical thermodynamics (146—148). Mathematical descriptions of radiation processes including gamma and x-rays, radiant heating, the propagation of light and the laser effect ate demonstrated through statistical considerations (138,149,150). Other equUibtium statistical thermodynamic demonstrations can be found in prediction of magnetic properties (138,151,152). NonequUibtium statistical thermodynamics are used to explain and predict Brownian motion (153,154) and other physical phenomena based on particle fluctuations (138,142,143). Ab initio techniques are beginning to be developed to directiy correlate atomic wave functions to physical properties (155—158) however, this area does not extend far beyond descriptions of simple species such as methane.  [c.248]

The effectiveness of ylides in the field of polymer science was first described in 1966 by George et al. [11] who felt that 3- and 4-(bromo acetyl) pyridines, which contain both the a-haloketone and the pyridine nucleus in a single molecule, could be quaternized to polymeric quaternary salts and finally to polymeric ylides Schemes 9 and 10 by treating these polymeric salts with a base.  [c.374]

Firstly, one have to develop a numerical model (the forward problem) able to regenerate the responses supplied by the sensor. Unfortunately, the relationship between the object function and the observed data which is used to invert eddy current data is inherently non linear because it consists in a pair of coupled integral equations, which involves the product of two unknowns the flaw conductivity and the true electric field within the flawed region. Several methods have been developed to solve this problem. Some sophisticated methods [12], [11], [5] seek to reconstruct simultaneously the object function and the diffracted electric field. They involve a non-linearized iterative process which leads to minimize a cost-functional depending on two terms the error between the computed scattered field at the present iteration and the measured data, and the error in satisfying the equation of state. So, this way requires to solve the direct-scattering problem in each step of iterations and such methods need more computations in the three-dimensional problem. In this work, we assume that the hypothesis using Born approximation is fuUfilled for solving the linearized inverse problem[4]. We assume therefore that the perturbation of the electric field within the flawed region is small and that the flawed region is uniformely illuminated by the incident field. We consider that the linearized model makes a relatively good compromise between the fidelity to measured data and the simplicity of the model.  [c.326]

The Born model is obviously only appropriate to species with a formal charge. Onsagehs lipole model is relevant to many more molecules (in fact, the Onsager model is a special ase of the result derived by Kirkwood [Kirkwood 1934], who considered an arbitrary distribution of charges within a spherical cavity). The solute dipole within the cavity induces 1 dipole in the surrounding medium, which in turn induces an electric field within the cavity (the reaction field). The reaction field then interacts with the solute dipole, so providing additional stabilisation of the system. The magnitucle of the reaction field was determined by Onsager to be  [c.610]

Organic chemists who are dealing with carbon compounds (or perhaps more correctly with hydrocarbons and their derivatives) have considered 2e-3c bonding limited to some inorganic or at best organ-ometallic systems and have seen no relevance to their field. The long-drawn-out and sometimes highly personal nonclassical ion controversy was accordingly limited to the structural aspects of some, to most chemists rather obscure, carbocations. Herbert Brown, one of the major participants in the debate and, besides Lipscomb, one of the great boron chemists of our time, was steadfast in his crusade against bridged nonclassical ions. He repeatedly used the argument that if such ions existed, a new, yet unknown bonding concept would need to be discovered to explain them. This, however, is certainly not the case. The close relationship of electron-deficient carbocations with their neutral boron analogs has been frequently pointed out and discussed. Starting in a 1971 paper with DeMember and Commeyras, I pointed out the observed close spectral (IR and Raman) similarities between isoelectronic C(CH3)3 and B(CH3)3 and emphasized the point repeatedly thereafter. My colleagues Robert Williams, Surya Prakash, and Leslie Field did a fine job in carrying the carbocation, borane, and polyborane analogy much further and also reviewed the topic in depth in our book, Hypercarbon Chemistry.  [c.156]

Fig. 9. Fabrication sequence for an oxide-isolated -weU CMOS process, where is boron and X is arsenic. See text, (a) Formation of blanket pod oxide and Si N layer resist patterning (mask 1) ion implantation of channel stoppers (chanstop) (steps 1—3). (b) Growth of isolation field oxide removal of resist, Si N, and pod oxide growth of thin (<200 nm) Si02 gate oxide layer (steps 4—6). (c) Deposition and patterning of polysihcon gate formation of -source and drain (steps 7,8). (d) Deposition of thick Si02 blanket layer etch to form contact windows down to source, drain, and gate (step 9). (e) Metallisation of contact windows with W blanket deposition of Al patterning of metal (steps 10,11). The deposition of intermetal dielectric or final Fig. 9. Fabrication sequence for an oxide-isolated -weU CMOS process, where is boron and X is arsenic. See text, (a) Formation of blanket pod oxide and Si N layer resist patterning (mask 1) ion implantation of channel stoppers (chanstop) (steps 1—3). (b) Growth of isolation field oxide removal of resist, Si N, and pod oxide growth of thin (<200 nm) Si02 gate oxide layer (steps 4—6). (c) Deposition and patterning of polysihcon gate formation of -source and drain (steps 7,8). (d) Deposition of thick Si02 blanket layer etch to form contact windows down to source, drain, and gate (step 9). (e) Metallisation of contact windows with W blanket deposition of Al patterning of metal (steps 10,11). The deposition of intermetal dielectric or final
Texturing Processes. Texturing is the conversion of flat to crimped continuous-filament yams to simulate properties inherent in natural and synthetic spun staple yams, such as thermal insulation, fullness, cover (bulk), softness, and moisture transport. In texturing, the geometry and, to a degree, the surface of the filaments are mechanically deformed by bending, twisting, or compression to introduce permanent waviness (crimp) loops and cods. Prior to the texturing step, heat is appHed in the range of 100—190°C to soften the filaments. After texturing, the yam is cooled to set the crimp and the mechanical deformation is removed by tensioning the yam during package windup. Texturing affects the tensde properties, dyeabdity, and the macromolecular stmcture of the fibers in a nonuniform way that can cause dye stmcture and barrn problems in dyeing fabrics. Depending on how the filaments have been mechanically deformed and the temperature used, differential stresses and random disoriented molecular chains are set in specific configurations to give one of three classifications of textured yams stretch, modified stretch—bulk, or bulk. The textured stretch or bulk is developed when the yam experiences a stress-relaxing environment under low or no tension, as in steaming, hot air, or dyeing. Stretch yams have high extensibdity and good recovery, but ordy moderate bulk compared to modified stretch and high bulk-textured yams.  [c.255]

There are five a helices positioned on both sides of the p sheet. The GTP is bound in a pocket at the carboxy ends of the p strands in a way similar to the binding of nucleotides to other nucleotide-binding proteins. Loop regions that connect the p strands with the a helices form the binding pocket. The topology of this fold, shown in Figure 13.4b, as well as the mode of nucleotide binding, is exactly the same as that observed earlier by Jens Nyborg in Brian Clark s laboratory at Aarhus University, Denmark, and Frances Jurnak at the University of California, Riverside, in their crystal structures of the elongation factor Tu, which is involved in protein synthesis on the ribosome.  [c.255]

The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is the first of several approximations used to simplify the solution of the Schradinger equation. It simplifies the general molecular problem by separating nuclear and electronic motions. This approximation is reasonable since the mass of a typical nucleus is thousands of times greater than that of an electron. The nuclei move very slowly with respect to the electrons, and the electrons react essentially instantaneously to changes in nuclear position. Thus, the electron distribution within a molecular system depends on the positions of the nuclei, and not on their velocities. Put another way, the nuclei look fixed to the electrons, and electronic motion can be described as occurring in a field of fixed nuclei.  [c.256]

There is archaeological evidence that the earliest stone tools were used in Africa more than two million years ago. These pebble tools were often made from flat, ovoid river stones that fit in the palm of one s hand. Another stone was used to chip off a few adjacent flakes to form a crude edge. However crude the edge, it could cut through the thick hide of a hunted or scavenged mammal when fingernails and teeth could not, and thus provide the group with several dozen to several hundred pounds of meat—a caloric and protein windfall. It is a common misconception that stone tools arc crude and dull. Human ancestors learned to chip tools from silicon-based stones such as flint and obsidian that have a glass-like fracture. Tools made from such stones arc harder and sharper than finely-honed knives of tool steel. As early as 500,000 years ago, well-made hand axes were being used in Africa, Europe and Asia. There is evidence that people were using fire as early as one million years ago. With the advent of the use of fire, it is believed that the amount of energy used by early man doubled from 2,000 kilocalories per person per day (energy from food) to about 4,000 kilocalories per person per day (Figure 1). Thus, fire and eventually the apparatus employed to make it were important energy liberating tools. Cooking food allowed humans to expand their diet. Controlled fire could also be used to scare game into the open to be hunted. Present-day hunters and gatherers burn beri-y patches in a controlled way, to encourage new plants and more berries. Fire also subsidized body heat, allowing people to colonize colder regions.  [c.71]

In fact, we are assuming that a particular length scale exists such that a fluid cell can be defined that is shnuitaneously both small enough to justify our treating it as a mathematical point, and large enough so that it possesses whatever macroscopic properties are normally associated with the fluid in bulk. We are also assuming that the velocity field v is smooth enough to allow standard calculus operations to be performed on it. Physically, of course, if we go all the way clown to the molecular level, the continuum assumption is patent nonsense. It is made plausible, however, if we think of the various macroscopic thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas. While the velocities of the individual molec ules may be quite large, for example, the bulk flow velocity or, more precisely, the average molecular velocity - is not. Likewise, the temperature, being essentially the average energy of the Brownian motion of the individual molecules, is also well defined in a statistical sense. All of the other u.sual macroscopic quantities - density, pressure, viscosity, etc. -are defined in the same way. Since such averaging processes make sense only if they are performed over a large number of molecules, our ideal fluid cell must be such that (i) it is large enough to contain a large number of molecules, and (ii) it appears point-like with respect to the bulk fluid flow. In the end, it is worth remembering that the continuum assumption is just that, namely an assumption. Its validity must ultimately be justified through experimental verification of the predictions of fluid behavior made by the equations that are themselves derived  [c.464]

See pages that mention the term Byron field, Wyo. : [c.478]    [c.63]    [c.110]    [c.225]    [c.309]    [c.110]    [c.274]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.194 , c.195 , c.196 , c.197 , c.198 , c.199 , c.200 , c.201 , c.202 , c.203 , c.203 , c.204 , c.205 , c.206 , c.207 , c.208 , c.209 , c.210 , c.211 , c.212 , c.213 , c.214 , c.215 , c.216 , c.217 , c.218 , c.219 , c.220 , c.221 , c.222 , c.223 , c.224 , c.225 , c.226 , c.227 , c.228 , c.229 , c.230 , c.231 , c.232 , c.233 , c.234 , c.235 , c.236 , c.237 , c.238 , c.239 , c.240 , c.241 , c.242 ]