Oil early production

Because cmde oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, early products such as kerosene were not uniform, and with new refining processes a whole new technology was developed. By 1920 the demand for gasoline exceeded that for kerosene and lubricating oils. The development of thermal cracking, followed by catalytic cracking, provided more gasoline and petrochemicals (3) (see Catalysis). During World War II the need for higher octane gasoline increased the demand for aromatic hydrocarbons. This led to several refining developments to increase gasoline octane and catalytic hydroforming and reforming to produce aromatics.  [c.364]

Over the last decade some of the major oil companies have been using vast amounts of outcrop derived measurements to design and calibrate powerful computer models. These models are employed as tools to quantitatively describe reservoir distribution and flow behaviour within individual units. Hence this technique is not only important for the exploration phase but more so for the early assessment of production profiles.  [c.25]

Permeability (k) is a rock property, while viscosity (fi) is a fluid property. A typical oil viscosity is 0.5 cP, while a typical gas viscosity is 0.01 cP, water being around 0.3 cP. For a given reservoir, gas is therefore around two orders of magnitude more mobile than oil or water. In a gas reservoir underlain by an aquifer, the gas is highly mobile compared to the water and flows readily to the producers, provided that the permeability in the reservoir is continuous. For this reason, production of gas with zero water cut is common, at least in the early stages of development when the perforations are distant from the gas-water contact.  [c.196]

Oil and gas reservoirs are rarely as simple as early maps and sections imply. Even though this is often recognised, development proceeds with the limited data coverage available. As more wells are drilled and production information is generated, early geological models become more detailed and the reservoir becomes better understood. It may become possible to identify reserves which are not being drained effectively and which are therefore potential candidates for infill drilling. Infill drilling means drilling additional wells, often between the original development wells. Their objective is to produce yet unrecovered oil.  [c.351]

Sea. Cmde oil spills at sea are perhaps the most widely covered environmental incidents in the national and international media. Despite their notoriety, catastrophic tanker spills and well blow-outs are fortunately rather rare, and their total input into the world s oceans is approximately equivalent to that from natural seeps significantly more oil reaches the world s oceans from municipal sewers (11). Physical collection of the spilled oil is the preferred remediation option, but if skimming is unable to collect the oil, biodegradation and perhaps combustion or photooxidation are the only routes for elimination of the spik. One approach to stimulating biodegradation is to disperse the oil with chemical dispersants. Early dispersants had undesirable toxicity, but modem dispersants and appHcation protocols can stimulate biodegradation by increa sing the surface area of the oil available for microbial attachment, and perhaps providing nutrients to stimulate microbial growth (12). Patents have been issued for dispersant formulations that specifically iaclude nitrogen and phosphoms nutrients (13), but the products are not currently commercially available.  [c.29]

For example, hopane (Fig. 12) is a conserved marker in cmde oils in at least the early stages of biodegradation (up to 80% degradation) (108) its concentration increases in the residual oil as biodegradation proceeds. Basing estimates of biodegradation on hopane allowed us to quantify the effect of the successhil bioremediation strategy following the Exxon Valde oil-spiU. (14,15). Even in refined products, the least degradable detectable analyte can serve this role. Thus, the trim ethyl -ph en an th ren es can be used to estimate quaUtatively the degradation of diesel oils in the environment, even though these molecules are themselves biodegradable (109). Of course, since these molecules are themselves biodegradable, estimates of the rates of biodegradation of more readily biodegradable compounds are systematically underestimated using this approach, but it can still provide very valuable information. The more halogenated polychlorinated biphenyls can serve a similar role in assessing the environmental fate of these products (55), and benzene is typically the last compound in BTEX plumes to be degraded, particularly under anaerobic conditions.  [c.39]

Coal gasification technology dates to the early nineteenth century but has been largely replaced by natural gas and oil. A more hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is produced at a lower capital investment. Steam reforming of natural gas is appHed widely on an iadustrial scale (9,10) and ia particular for the production of hydrogen (qv).  [c.79]

Protection against Overpressure. A decomposition propagating through the large mass of ethylene contained in a stirred reactor leads to a high rate of rise of temperature and pressure. To protect the reactor from excessive pressure, without having to resort to a large vent area, requires the pressure relieving device to act quickly and open at an overpressure which is as small as practicable. The early autoclaves used by ICI were protected by hydrauhcaHy balanced safety valves which were held closed by constant oil pressure. As soon as the pressure in the vessel increased significantly above the operating pressure, an oil rehef valve lifted allowing the safety valve to open. In the case of the 250-L autoclave shown in Eigure 28, the safety valves were housed in the recesses located round that part of the vessel provided with the cross-bore (156). Although a bursting disk was fitted in the oil system to accelerate the opening of the safety valve, it was stiU relatively slow in operation and was replaced by precisely machined bursting caps which, when the pressure significantly exceeded the operating pressure, failed in tension (158). The end of the bursting cap which becomes detached is caught in a dead-ended hole in-line with the exhaust port. Other types of bursting and shear element can also be used, provided the element which fails as a result of overpressure is located as close to the bore of the vessel as possible and that the material of constmction does not creep significantly at the operating temperature. It may be necessary to provide a number of bursting elements to secure the required vent area with a large autoclave. The steel surrounding the exhaust ports through which the products of the decomposition reaction pass at sonic velocity when the pressure relieving device opens would be subjected to severe decarburization and cracking were it not for the replaceable sleeves fitted in the ports.  [c.97]

According to most historians, writing ink was first prepared and used by the Chinese and the Egyptians as early as 2600 BC. These early inks were probably composed of carbonaceous materials such as lamp black or soot mixed with animal glue or vegetable oil vehicles. Reference is also made to the Chinese invention of soHd ink blocks and pellets similar to India ink as it is known today the Chinese invention had its origin during the period 220—419 AD. Writing-ink formulation became a highly developed art under the Chinese, who were printing from hand-cut blocks in the eleventh century AD, 400 years before Gutenberg introduced movable type in Europe. Writing inks differ from printing inks in that the latter are generally appHed to a substrate by means of a printing press. Printing inks as suppHed to the graphic arts industry are used in much greater volume by far as compared to writing inks. This article is divided into a discussion of printing inks, followed by some miscellaneous categories of ink, including ink for bail-point pens, with which the greatest amount of ink writing is done. The number of printing-ink manufacturing estabUshments in the United States is approximately 450. This includes some 50 captive ink plants. The value of the total printing-ink production in the United States was approximately 2,800,000,000 in 1992 (see also PRINTING processes).  [c.247]

The commercial production of naphthenic acid from petroleum in based on the formation of sodium naphthenate. Although the separation of naphthenic acids from hydrocarbon fractions is a relatively simple process, extraction from cmde petroleum is not feasible because of the low percentage of acids in the oil, the large volumes of fluids to be handled, and the abundance of other caustic-extractable compounds found in most cmdes. The low water solubihty of high molecular weight naphthenate soaps and the tendency of sodium naphthenate to emulsify also contribute to making direct recovery of acids from cmde oil difficult. Although naphthenic acids can be removed from cmde oil and heavy fractions by reaction with caustic soda prior to and during their distillation, the acids are probably unusable since they are mixed (as salts) with large quantities of asphalt or residual pitch. The numerous patents on this subject are basically modifications to an early patent for distilling oil in the presence of sodium hydroxide (20). The alkaU residues are extracted with alcohol to remove unsaponiftables, followed by acidification to recover the naphthenic acids (21).  [c.510]

Until the end of the nineteenth century, soap (qv), the alkaU metal salt of long-chain carboxyUc acids, was the only synthetic surfactant. With the spread of chemical technology, particularly in the early twentieth century, technical shortcomings of soap, ie, its insolubiUty in hard water and its acidity, were acutely felt in the textile industry (see Textiles). Sulfonated oils were developed as hardness- and acid-stable dyeing and wetting assistants. Activity in Germany in the years following World War I led to many new surfactant stmctures, which can be viewed as the beginning of the modem surfactant industry. The growth of the petrochemical industry after World War II further aided the growth of the surfactant industry in providing high quaUty, relatively inexpensive starting materials (see Petroleum). However, periodic instances of cmde oil shortage and attendant price increases coupled with simultaneous improvements in the production of oil-bearing seeds (see Soybeans and other oilseeds) have led to a reexamination of oleochemical feedstocks as potential sources for surfactant manufacture.  [c.232]

Some of the early work on the manipulation of proteins (qv) arose out of the chemurgy movement. This technology has found appHcation in synthetic meat production. Other technologies that may be classified as chemurgic include that of the ceUulosic fibers, eg, rayon and cellulose acetate (see Cellulose esters Fibers, cellulose esters) the recovery of turpentine and rosin from paper and pulping processes (see Tall oil Terpenoids) and the oils and fatty acids business (see Carboxylic acids Fats and fatty oils). Oils and fatty acids are used in a wide variety of chemical products including soap (qv) and detergents (see Detergency Surfactants), cosmetics (qv), and coatings (qv).  [c.448]

In the build-up period, profile A illustrates a gradual increase of production as the producing wells are drilled and brought on steam the duration of the build-up period is directly related to the drilling schedule. Profile B, in which some wells have been predrilled smarts production at plateau rate. The advantage of pre-drilling is to advance the production of oil, which improves the project cashflow, but the disadvantages are the that the cost of drilling has been advanced, and that the opportunity has been lost to gather early production information from the first few wells, which may influence the location of subsequent wells. Economic criteria (the impact on the profitability of the project) are used to decide whether to pre-drill.  [c.208]

In 1986 when the oil price crashed to 10 a barrel, operators began to look very hard at the requirements for offshore developments and novel slimline, reduced facilities platforms began to be considered. The reduced capital outlay and early production start up capability, coupled with the added flexibility, ensured that all companies now consider subsea systems as an important field development technique. Although the interest and investment in subsea systems increased dramatically, subsea systems still had to compete with the new generation of platforms, which were becoming lighter and cheaper.  [c.268]

Faults may extend over several hundreds of kilometres or may be restricted to the deformation of individual grains. They create vast potential traps for the accumulation of oil and gas. Flowever, they often dissect reservoirs and seal fluid and pressures in numerous individual compartments. Each of these isolated blocks may require individual dedicated wells for production and injection. Reservoir compartmentalisation through small scale faulting can thus severely downgrade the profitability of a field under development. In the worst case faulting is not detected until development is in an advanced stage. Early 3D seismic surveys will help to obtain a realistic assessment of fault density and possibly indicate the sealing potential of individual faults. Flowever, small scale faults with a displacement throw) of less than some 8m are not detectable using seismic alone. Geostatistical techniques can then be used to predict their frequency and direction.  [c.83]

STOIIP" s a term which normalises volumes of oil contained under high pressure and temperature in the subsurface to surface conditions (e.g. 1 bar, 15°C). In the early days of the industry this surface volume was referred to as stock tank oit and since measured prior to any production having taken place it was the volume initially in placd.  [c.154]

As for all production profiles, there are three distinct phases, defined by looking at the oil production rate (for an oil field). After the first production date, there is a build-up period, during which the development wells are being drilled and brought on stream, and its shape is dependent on the drilling schedule. Once the plateau is reached, the facilities are filled and any extra production potential from the wells is choked back. The facilities are usually designed for a plateau rate which provides an optimum offtake from the field, where the optimum is a balance between producing oil as early as possible and avoiding unfavourable displacement in the reservoir, caused by producing too fast, and thereby losing ultimate recovery. Typical production rates during the plateau period vary between 2 and 5% of the STOMP per year. Once the well potential can no longer sustain the plateau oil rate, the decline period begins and continues until the abandonment rate is reached. Abandonment occurs when the cost of production is greater than the revenues from the production.  [c.188]

Olefins are produced primarily by steam cracking of hydrocarbon feedstock. Steam cracking is a thermal cracking process in the presence of steam which takes place at low residence times in the tubes of a furnace. The thermal cracking process was originated in the early 1920s and has been the dominant route to olefins since that time (1). Olefin plants ate complex and costiy, with both complexity and cost increasing as the design feedstock increases in heaviness (molecular weight) from the lightest feed (ethane) to the heaviest feed (gas oil). Heavier feeds produce a wider array and larger quantities of products which requite more complex separation and recovery processes. A new wodd-scale ethylene plant (680 x 10 kg per year including off-site faciHties) based on naphtha feedstock will cost approximately 750 million (2). Originally olefins plants were designed to consume a specific feedstock, such as ethane or naphtha, or a narrow range of feedstocks, most commonly ethane—propane mixtures. Starting around 1980 producers in the United States which were based on heavier feedstocks such as naphtha or gas oil began to introduce feedstock flexibiHty to consume a wide range of feedstocks in their olefin plants. This was done to allow the operator to pick and choose the most attractive feedstock at a given point in time in order to maximize profitabiHty. Olefin plants in the United States have incorporated mote feed flexibiHty than those in Europe, and are therefore able to take advantage of a wider array of potential feedstocks.  [c.171]

Antisoiling Fibers. Low dirt-absorbing fibers have been made by incorporating fluorinated comonomers, and porous fibers with reduced staining tendencies have been made from acrylic copolymers containing sulfonated comonomers. Anti-soiling properties can also be achieved by using finishes, either by treating the fiber during spinning, or by applying finishes directly to the fabric. Treatment of acrylic fabrics with sodium hydroxide also gives improved soil release (92). Soil adhesion and soil removal (93) and the effect of fiber properties on soiling resistance (94) have been reviewed. An example of an acrylic stain-resistant fiber process is Stainorain, jointly developed by Pharr Yarn and Du Pont. Using Du Pont s Teflon technology, the fibers are impregnated with a water—oil repeUant and stain-resistant chemical. This is done early in the fiber production process to lock in the protective properties. The fiber is designed for use in knitted garments for children and active sportswear such as golf and ski sweaters (95).  [c.285]

The early attempts to assess the total energy required to make baled staple fiber from naturally occurring raw materials, wood in the case of ceUulosics and oil in the case of synthetics, used differing approaches and were insufficientiy rigorous to allow hard conclusions to be drawn. In general, the fiber production sequence is broken into monomer making, polymer making, and fiber production, and although a variety of fibers are covered, only viscose rayon and polyester are mentioned in all of them (102—107). Tons of fuel oil equivalent per ton of fiber (TFOE/T) are the most popular units, with rayon requiring from 1.7 to 2.4 TEOE/T and polyester requiring 2.6 to 4.2 TEOE/T.  [c.354]

Foam Control. Whereas some siUcones are known to be foam promoters, Dow Corning FS-1265 Fluid is a Hquid fluorosiUcone with effective antifoam properties. Petroleum industry appHcation of fluids and dispersions in gas—oil separators on offshore drilling platforms has been successful. Their use peaked in the early 1980s, coinciding with constrained cmde oil capacity and production. Diesel fuels are an excellent solvent for dimethyl silicones and render them ineffective as an antifoam. A new antifoam which does not require the use of added siUca is formulated from a fluorosiUcone copolymer. It has shown promise to antifoam (8) diesel fuel (see Defoamers).  [c.401]

U.S. formaldehyde prices for 1966—1989 are shown in Table 4 (115). Since the cost of methanol represents over 60% of formaldehyde s production costs, the formaldehyde price normally reflects the methanol price. Also, freight is a significant cost for formaldehyde since 1—3 kg of water maybe shipped with every kg of formaldehyde. The significant price increase in the early 1970s was due to the sudden rise in hydrocarbon prices caused by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Companies (OPEC) cartel increasing oil prices.  [c.495]

Domestic petroleum, natural gas, and natural gas Hquids production has declined at a rate commensurate with the decrease in reserves (see Table 2). Consequently, the reserves/production ratio, expressed in years, remained relatively constant from about 1970 through 1992, at 9—11 years (16). Much of the production in the early 1990s is the result of enhanced oil recovery techniques water flooding, steam flooding, CO2 injection, and natural gas reinjection.  [c.4]

Investment Opportunities and Capital Requirements. Despite some of the temporary economic problems that confront the biomass energy industry in the early 1990s, several business opportunities are being developed at rapid rates. These projects are distributed across the nation and include landfill gas recovery plants, MSW-to-energy systems, and nonutility power generation that qualifies under PURPA. Conventional combustion technology is utilized in the majority of plants gasification seems to have been largely ignored and should offer several advantages (112). A production tax credit equivalent to 0.48/m ( 3.00/BOE) indexed to inflation and linked to the price of oil is available it amounted to about 0.71/GJ ( 0.75/MBtu) of product gas in mid-1985 (112,129), and can have a significant beneficial impact on the profitability of a biofuels project. The lower the cost of oil, the greater the credit. Taking the most optimistic view of the language in the law, wastes are included in the definition of biomass, so it appears the production tax credit is appHcable to all of the above projects, not just those based on wood and other nonwaste biomass.  [c.43]

In the early 1970s production of low sulfur, ashless (sofld) boiler fuel was the preferred commercial appHcation (119). This basic process (SRC-I) yielded small amounts of Hquid oil products with additional processiag. Liquid output was significantly iacreased by the coal-oil-gas (COG) refinery concept (120—122) which iacorporated high degrees of hydroconversion and hydrotreating. A SCR-II process has been developed, ia which hydrocrackiag occurs ia the solution (hydrogenation) vessels (123). A low viscosity fuel oil is the primary distillate product ia this case, although naphtha and LPG are also recovered.  [c.90]

Since 1920, the price of refined glycerol in the United States has varied from a low of 0.22/kg in the early 1930s to a high of nearly 1.95/kg in 1987. In 1992 glycerin prices for USP grade ranged from 1.28 to 1.65 /kg. Since glycerol is a by-product of fatty acid, ester, and alcohol production, prices are quite sensitive to changes in oleochemical demand. Glycerol prices also respond to prices for tallow, coconut oil, and petroleum, the feedstocks from which it is prepared.  [c.349]

Early Consideration. In the 1950s, the U.S. Bureau of Mines studied pyrolysis of both oil shale and shale oil for the production of light olefins. High temperature retorts were used to determine the effect of continuing the cracking, which is begun when the kerogen is converted to shale oil (46). Low temperature shale oils are low in aromatic content, thus one goal has been the production of an aromatic-rich naphtha. High temperature retorting of this type on Green River oil shales has the disadvantage of the additional energy requirements of the endothermic carbonate decomposition, with over 50 wt % decomposition occurring at 815°C. This effect has Htde importance for low carbonate oil shale, eg, the eastern U.S. Antrim oil shales (41). Comparison of thermal cracking of conventional shale oil to high temperature retorting under the same conditions illustrates that naphtha production is enhanced considerably by high temperature retorting (46).  [c.354]

By 1980, research and development shifted from relatively inexpensive surfactants such as petroleum sulfonates to more cosdy but more effective surfactants tailored to reservoir and cmde oil properties. Critical surfactant issues are performance in saline injection waters, adsorption on reservoir rock, partitioning into reservoir cmde oil, chemical stabiUty in the reservoir, interactions with the mobiUty control polymer, and production problems caused by resultant emulsions. Reservoir heterogeneity can also greatly reduce process effectiveness. The decline in oil prices in the early 1980s halted much of the work because of the relatively high cost of micellar processes.  [c.194]

High Impact Polystyrene. The toughening of brittle, glassy PS was introduced in the late 1940s. High impact polystyrene (HIPS) grew rapidly because of its improved toughness and satisfactory rigidity, and in the 1990s it accounts for about 50% of all commercial polystyrene production. It is manufactured by the solution polymerization of styrene in the presence of ca 5—10% dissolved polybutadiene (PBD) or a copolymer mbber (233,238—240). Early in the polymerization, phase separation begins at ca 2% conversion because of the immiscibility of the mbber with the polystyrene being formed and the depletion of the solvent (styrene) grafting of PBD with PS takes place (220,241,242). As the volume ratio of the PS—PBD solutions in styrene approaches one, phase inversion takes place. The presence of some PS-grafted PBD at this stage is cmcial for the stabilization of the polymeric oil-in-oil emulsion. Shearing agitation of the reaction mixture is essential to control the mbber droplet size. The PS—styrene content of the mbber droplet is affected by the shear stresses imposed on the system. Accordingly, the PS occlusions within the mbber particle and the mbber-phase volume fraction ate strongly influenced by the agitation during and shortly after phase inversion. During the latter stage, shearing agitation is no longer cmcial. In fact, some processes use suspension polymerization for finishing. Neat the completion of polymerization and during the removal of residual monomer between 180 and 240°C, cross-linking of the mbber phase readily takes place. During the eadiet stages of polymerization, only grafting occurs. Cross-linking is cmcial to maintaining the particle morphology and toughness during heat fabrication, as unctoss-linked particles ate prone to disintegrate during melt shearing. Typical mbber particles of HIPS ate shown in Figure 9. The light portions within the mbber particles represent the occluded or entrapped PS. Rubber particles separated from the PS matrix ate shown in Figure 8.  [c.419]

After 1950, the demand for benzene exceeded the output by the coal carbonization iadustry and to supply the increasing demand, processes were developed for produciag and separating benzene directiy from petroleum feedstocks. The production of benzene from petroleum iacreased rapidly thereafter, and by the early 1960s the amount of benzene derived from petroleum was several times greater than that derived from coal. By the late 1970s coal-derived benzene accounted for less than 10% of total benzene produced. Although coke oven light oil often contains useful quantities of benzene, it is expected to further decrease as a source of aromatics as the number of steel companies that produce metallurgical coke from coal decreases.  [c.40]

In the early 1990s almost half of the total production of cemented carbides was used for nonmetal-cutting appHcations such as mining, oil and gas drilling, transportation and constmction, metalforming, stmctural and fluid-handling components, and forestry tools. The majority of compositions used in these apphcations comprised straight WC—Co grades. In general, cobalt contents vary from 5 to 30 wt % and WC grain sizes range from <1 to <8 fim and sometimes to 30 p.m. Extensive discussion of hard metals employed in nonmachining apphcations is available (21—24).  [c.446]

Whereas commercial production of castor oil existed ia the United States ia the 1800s, production shifted to tropical and subtropical countries ia the early 1900s. World War I, World War II, and the Korean conflict each iafluenced efforts to produce hybrid castor species and iacrease U.S. planting, and by the late 1960s, approximately 80,000 acres of castor were grown ia the United States produciag 29,500 metric tons of castor oil. U.S. production was competitive until 1972 when Federal price supports were withdrawn. U.S. production dropped almost to zero by 1974.  [c.150]

Within 15 years, the enclosing of the coal during carbonization allowed for the first attempts at profitably recovering the off-gases from the coking process. Commercial success in this endeavor is generally credited to Germany s by-product coke ovens of the early 1880s (1) which led to rapid growth in the steel industry as well as to development of chemical industry for use of the cokemaking by-products. Carbonization faciUties at different locations in various countries aimed at different products depending on local needs. Eor some faciUties, COG (also called coal gas) for street lights, etc was the prime product and the coke produced was a troublesome by-product. Production of COG or illuminating gas began about 1800 and was accompHshed by heating coal in iron or steel retorts. Other faciUties concentrated on producing tar and oil for use as rope preservatives. But a growing proportion of cokemaking faciUties concentrated on quahty coke for blast furnaces and used sale of the other carbonization products to offset the coke costs.  [c.242]

Liquef ction/Pyrolysis. Large-scale research and development on coal pyrolysis was carried out on the char oil energy development (COED) process (34). This scheme involved temperature staged pyrolysis in three interacting fluidized beds, as shown in Eigure 8, and was tested in a 36 t/d process demonstration unit during the early 1970s. Pyrolysis temperatures ranged from 450 to 540°C in the COED process, and the long residence times associated with the fluid beds mandated low yields of Hquid products. Typical product yields for four different U.S. coals are shown in Table 3. The yield stmcture is heavily weighted toward production of char and gas. Production of coal-derived Hquids ranged from 0.04 to 0.21 m /1 of coal as compared to 0.61—0.79 m /1 for direct hydrogenation. Eurther, the Hquids produced were high in heteroatoms (especially nitrogen) and required extensive hydrotreating before use as a synthetic cmde oil.  [c.287]

Grace Sierra Horticultural Products Co. This company uses technology originally patented by Archer Daniels Midland Corp. for the production of polymer-coated products. The alkyd reski coating technology, developed ki the early 1960s, kivolves coating a soluble fertilizer core with a thermoset copolymer of dicyclopentadiene and a glycerol ester (Lkiseed oil) dissolved ki an aHphatic hydrocarbon solvent.  [c.135]

Pulp and Paper. The pulp and paper iadustry presents some of the most critical and troublesome foam problems, and this iadustry has led the way ia the use of defoamers. Early use of large amouats of keroseae or fuel oil has givea way for ecological and cleanliness reasons to much more effective formulated defoamers. Eoams are encountered at every stage from pulpiag, through paper fabrication and coating, to printing. A variety of wastewater streams are generated that are very prone to foaming because of the presence of dissolved soaps. Specific defoamer products are often tailored for each different stream. The so-called black-Hquor defoamers were the first hydrophobic siHca ia hydrocarboa oil products that were thea exteaded to other iadustries. The use of these defoamers has allowed some Kraft pulp mills to exceed original desigaed capacity.  [c.467]

The first synthetic dye, Mauveine, was discovered by Perkin in 1856. Hence the dyestuffs industry can rightly be described as mature. However, it remains a vibrant, challenging industry requiring a continuous stream of new products because of the quickly changing world in which we Hve. The early dyes industry saw the discovery of the principal dye chromogens (the basic arrangement of atoms responsible for the color of a dye). Indeed apart from one or two notable exceptions, all the dye types used today were discovered in the nineteenth century (1). The introduction of the synthetic fibers, nylon, polyester, and polyacrylonitrile during the period 1930—1950, produced the next significant challenge. The discovery of reactive dyes in 1956 heralded a big breakthrough in the dyeing of cotton intensive research into reactive dyes followed over the next two decades and, indeed, is still continuing today (1) (see Dyes, reactive). The oil crisis in the early 1970s, which resulted in a steep increase in the prices of raw materials for dyes, created a drive for more cost-effective dyes, both by improving the efficiency of the manufacturing processes and by replacing tinctoriaHy weak chromogens, such as anthraquinone, with tinctoriaHy stronger chromogens, such as a2o and ben2odifiiranone. These themes are stiU important and ongoing, as are the current themes of product safety, quality, and protection of the environment. There is also considerable activity in dyes for high technology appHcations, especially for the electronics and reprographics industries (see Dyes, anthraquinone).  [c.270]

Driven by the same impetus, the development of the cychc water-gas process in 1873 permitted the continuous production of gas of higher thermal content, about 13.0 MJ/m (350 Btu/fU). Adding oil to the reaclor increased the thermal content of the gas to 20.5 MJ/m (550 But/fF). This type of fuel gas, carbureted water gas, was distributed in urban areas of the United States for residential and commercial uses until its displacement by lower-cost natural gas began in the 1940s. At approximately that time, development of oxygen-based gasification processes was initiated in the United States and in other countries. An early gasification process developed by Lurgi Kohle u Mineraloltechnik GmbH, which operated at elevated pressure, is still in use. Compositions of the coal gases produced by these methods.  [c.2367]

Basic to establishing whether power recovery is even feasible, let alone economical, are considerations of the flowing-fluid capacity available, the differential pressure available for the power recovery, and corrosive or erosive properties of the fluid stream. A further important consideration in feasibihty and economics is the probable physical location, with respect to each other, of fluid source, power-production point, and final fluid destination. In general, the tendency has been to locate the power-recoveiy driver and its driven unit where dictated by the driven-unit requirement and pipe the power-recoveiy fluid to and away from the driver. While early installations were in noncorrosive, nonerosive services such as rich-hydrocarbon absorption oil, the trend has been to put units into mildly severe seiwices such as amine plants, hot-carbonate units, and hydrocracker letdown.  [c.2524]

Ohl demonstrated his results to Kelly early in 1940 Kelly felt that his instincts had been proved justified. Thereupon, Bell Labs had to focus single-mindedly on radar and on silicon rectifiers for this purpose. It was not till 1945 that basic research restarted. This was the year that the theorist John Bardeen was recruited, and he in due course became inseparable from Walter Brattain, an older man and a fine experimenter who had been with Bell since the late 1920s. William Shockley formed the third member of the triumvirate, though from an early stage he and Bardeen found themselves so mutually antagonistic that Bardeen was sometimes close to resignation. But tension can be productive as well as depressing.  [c.258]

See pages that mention the term Oil early production : [c.114]    [c.442]    [c.82]    [c.336]    [c.419]    [c.273]    [c.261]    [c.196]    [c.259]    [c.516]   
A life of magic chemistry (2001) -- [ c.130 ]