Blake 3

Block 3 a device for management and synchronisation. Serves for adjusting the parameters of the system, gain factor, input impedance, amplitude and the duration of the initial pulse, as well as ensures a database communication for the further processing by the computer.  [c.731]

Eigure 3 represents an illustrative biological application an Asp Asn mutation, carried out either in solution or in complex with a protein [25,26]. The calculation uses a hybrid amino acid with both an Asp and an Asn side chain. Eor convenience, we divide the system into subsystems or blocks [27] Block 1 contains the ligand backbone as well as the solvent and protein (if present) block 2 is the Asp moiety of the hybrid ligand side chain block 3 is the Asn moiety. We effect the mutation by making the Asn side chain gradually appear and the Asp side chain simultaneously disappear. We choose initially the hybrid potential energy function to have the form  [c.177]

Right H.tnc s Crown Block Trav. Block 3 A  [c.598]

Common Block (Decimal Words) System Type Key N=2 N=3 N=4 N=6  [c.353]

In the first class, azeotropic distillation, the extraneous mass-separating agent is relatively volatile and is known as an entrainer. This entrainer forms either a low-boiling binary azeotrope with one of the keys or, more often, a ternary azeotrope containing both keys. The latter kind of operation is feasible only if condensation of the overhead vapor results in two liquid phases, one of which contains the bulk of one of the key components and the other contains the bulk of the entrainer. A t3q)ical scheme is shown in Fig. 3.10. The mixture (A -I- B) is fed to the column, and relatively pure A is taken from the column bottoms. A ternary azeotrope distilled overhead is condensed and separated into two liquid layers in the decanter. One layer contains a mixture of A -I- entrainer which is returned as reflux. The other layer contains relatively pure B. If the B layer contains a significant amount of entrainer, then this layer may need to be fed to an additional column to separate and recycle the entrainer and produce pure B.  [c.81]

The blowout preventers are a series of powerful sealing elements designed to close off the annular space between the pipe and the hole through which the mud normally returns to the surface. By closing off this route, the well can be shut in and the mud and/or formation fluids are forced to flow through a controllable choke, or adjustable valve. This choke allows the drilling crew to control the pressure that reaches the surface and to follow the necessary steps for killing the well, i.e. restoring a balanced system. Fig. 3.12 shows a schematic of a typical set of blowout preventers. The annular preventer has a rubber sealing element that is hydraulically inflated to fit tightly around any size of pipe in the hole. Ram type preventers either grip the pipe with rubber lined steel pipe rams, block the hole with blind rams when no pipe is in place, or cut the pipe with powerful hydraulic shear rams to seal off the hole.  [c.40]

API Units GR 100 Depth 2.0 Bulk Density pb (gm/cc) 3.0  [c.146]

Cooccurrence matrix is divided into four bloeks delimited by a threshold t (fig.3). In the block Bl, the included coefficients belong to the background of the image. In the block B4, the coefficients correspond to the objects of the image, and finally, the blocks B2 and B3 contain the coefficients linked to the transitions between background and objects.  [c.235]

The fish blocks are positioned in front of the cabinet on a loading conveyor that will separate and load the first block into the cabinet and move the next block(s) one step forwards. The entrance panel will automatically open and close to admit the blocks in sequence (figure 3, overleaf).  [c.591]

Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the vibrometer, in which the most sensible to small phase variations interferometric scheme is employed. It consists of the microwave and the display units. The display unit consists of the power supply 1, controller 2 of the phase modulator 3, microprocessor unit 9 and low-frequency amplifier 10. The microwave unit contains the electromechanical phase modulator 3, a solid-state microwave oscillator 4, an attenuator 5, a bidirectional coupler 6, a horn antenna 7 and a microwave detector 11. The horn antenna is used for transmitting the microwave and receiving the reflected signal, which is mixed with the reference signal in the bidirectional coupler. In the reference channel the electromechanical phase modulator is used to provide automatic calibration of the instrument. To adjust the antenna beam to the object under test, the microwave unit is placed on the platform which can be shifted in vertical and horizontal planes.  [c.655]

Evaluation of Beam Spread for Surface SH Wave Probes by STB- A1 Calibration Block  [c.907]

As in Section III-2A, it is convenient to suppose the two bulk phases, a and /3, to be uniform up to an arbitrary dividing plane S, as illustrated in Fig. Ill-10. We restrict ourselves to plane surfaces so that C and C2 are zero, and the condition of equilibrium does not impose any particular location for S. As before, one computes the various extensive quantities on this basis and compares them with the values for the system as a whole. Any excess or deficiency is then attributed to the surface region.  [c.71]

We can construct a numerical illustration with a 0.3 mol fraction solution of ethanol in water. We take a slice of surface region deep enough to include some of the bulk solution. This is taken, let us say, from a surface region of area A cm, and contains 10 mol of water and 30 mol of ethanol. We obtain F2 by comparing with a sample of bulk solution containing the same 10 mol of water. This sample would contain only 10 mol of ethanol, and Fj is therefore (30-10)/A = 20/A. FJ would be obtained by comparing with a bulk sample containing 30 mol of ethanol and hence 30 mol of water therefore F] = (10-30)/A = -10 A. We obtain F and F by comparing with a bulk sample having the same total moles as the surface or 40 mol total (20 each of water and ethanol). Thus f7 = (10-20)/A = -10/A and = (30-20)/A = 10/A.  [c.75]

Practically speaking, however, solids may possess sufficient plasticity to flow, at least slowly, such that the methods of capillarity may be applied. An early experiment on thin copper wires provided a measure of the surface tension of copper near its melting point of 1370 dyn/cm [1]. The sintering process, driven by a reduction of surface energy through minimization of surface area, occurs because of bulk and surface mobility in metals and other solids. Surface scratches on silver heal [2], and copper or silver spheres fuse with flat surfaces of the same metal [3] below the melting point. The distance from the melting point is variable small ice spheres develop a connecting neck if touching at -10°C, and a detailed study of the kinetics of the process is needed to determine the relative importance of surface and bulk diffusion [4, 5]. Some systems are sensitive to other conditions sintering rates for MgO increase with ambient humidity [6]. Sintering is, of course, very important in the field of catalysis, where consolidation of small supported metal particles reduces surface area and the number of active sites. The rate law may be of the form  [c.257]

It was mentioned during the discussion on sintering (Section VII-1 A) that some bulk flow can occur with solids near their melting point solids may act like viscous liquids, in that their strain rate is proportional to the applied stress. As shown in Fig. VII-10, the strain rate (fractional elongation per unit time) versus stress (applied load per unit area) for 1-mil gold wires near 1000°C is nearly linear at small loads [119]. The negative strain rate at zero load is considered to be due to the surface tension of the metal and, therefore, the stress such as to give zero strain rate must just balance the surface tensional force along the circumference of the wire. Copper near its melting point has a surface tension of 1370 dyn/cm, while gold at 1000°C has values of 1300-1700 by this technique [1, 119]. Wire heated for long times at low stresses develops interesting waists and bulges analogous to the instability in liquid columns described in Section II-3. Solid paraffin has a surface tension of about 50 dyn/cm at 50°C, compared to that of about 25 dyn/cm for the liquid state [120].  [c.278]

In order to determine the matrix thresholds, we present an expression of the coefficients dispersion that is related to the flattening of the cloud of the points around the central axis of inertia. The aim is to measure the distance to the G barycentre in block 3. So, we define this measure Square of Mean Distance to the center of Gravity as follow  [c.235]

This chapter is an attempt to present the important results of studies of the synthesis, reactivity, and physicochemical properties of this series of compounds. The subject was surveyed by Bulka (3) in 1963 and by Klayman and Gunther (4) in 1973. Unlike the oxazoles and thiazoles. there are few convenient preparative routes to the selenazoles. Furthermore, the selenium intermediates are difficult to synthesize and are often extremely toxic selenoamides tend to decompose rapidly depositing metallic selenium. This inconvenience can be alleviated by choice of suitable reaction conditions. Finally, the use of selenium compounds in preparative reactions is often complicated by the fragility of the cycle and the deposition of metallic selenium.  [c.219]

Diazophenols, ie, o-hydroxyaryldiazonium salts, couple to 1-naphthol in weaMy basic solution primarily in the para position, but as the hydroxyl ion concentration is increased, formation of the ortho isomer is favored and is frequentiy the sole product. Pyridine and pyridine derivatives, urea, and acetate, etc, used as buffers can also catalyze azo coupling reactions (28). l-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid [116-63-2] (1,2,4-acid) and 1-naphthol yield the important Eriochrome Black A [3564-14-5] (18a, R = H) (Cl Mordant Black 3 Cl 14640) which is reportedly (20) a mixture of ortho and para isomers.  [c.428]

For this reason, multidimensional gas chromatography (GC) has been introduced as a means of increasing the separating efficiency. This was ah cady explored in the late 1950s on chlorinated hydrocarbons with two packed columns and designated as two-stage chromatography (1, 2). A fully integrated system for the complete analysis of all of the constituents of a refinery off-gas by using four different columns was presented in 1961 by Bloch (3). Since then the number and type of multidimensional systems for the analysis of petroleum fractions has steadily increased, but most of  [c.378]

For this reason, multidimensional gas chromatography (GC) has been introduced as a means of increasing the separating efficiency. This was ah cady explored in the late 1950s on chlorinated hydrocarbons with two packed columns and designated as two-stage chromatography (1, 2). A fully integrated system for the complete analysis of all of the constituents of a refinery off-gas by using four different columns was presented in 1961 by Bloch (3). Since then the number and type of multidimensional systems for the analysis of petroleum fractions has steadily increased, but most of  [c.379]

TRIFOU can model any isotropic material encountered in eddy current inspections such as ferromagnetic steel and aluminium. TRIFOU can model any type of probe with one or several coils, including those containing ferrite cores and shields. For the thin-skin regime modelling, basic rules are needed for accurate results. The ratio between the mapped mesh step and the penetration depth in the test block has to be small enough to ensure good precision in the results. But too many elements increase the calculation time and the memory space needed, so that a compromise has to be made. For the following calculations the ratio between mesh step and penetration depth is greater than 3. This hypothesis is to be validated.  [c.141]

The experimental verification of this method has been done by constructing the holographic images of two flat-bottom holes with the diameter of 3 mm, a 4 mm separation between the holes centers, placed 0.5 mm subsurface in the aluminum alloy block. A 20x20 mm aperture has been scanned with a precision of 0.3 mm in transducer positioning. The real and imaginary components of the installation signal on two independent channels have been sampled and stored in 256 points, the quantization being done on 12 bits. Prior to the reconstruction of the discontinuity image, the original signals were filtered by means of a Walsh-Hadamard filter.  [c.378]

Fig 3 Comparison of the images of weld BAM 5, taken with a) the film scanner coloured IP s with black (50 pm) LS85 (Lumisys) and with b) the IP scanner (25 pm) BAS 5000. . . . ,  [c.471]

The detector systems have been optimised for this source of radiation. In case of fan- beam tomography (2D-CT) a block of 128 individual scintillation detectors is used. The scintillating material is CdW04. The crystals have an entrance face of 5 mm x 5 mm and a length of 50 mm. This is sufficient to reach a detecting efficiency of 80 % in case of photons of 9 MeV. The effective size of the detector is determined by means of tungsten diaphragms of 150 mm in depths. This tungsten block consists of several planes which provide sUt sizes of 0.3 mm x 0.3 mm, 0.8 mm x 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm, and 3 mm x 3 mm, respectively.  [c.585]

In principle, the pictures with the indications to be valuated where stored. The regions of interest where cut out and rearranged in a new picture for further processing as shown for example in Fig. 3. You see a part of the reference block No. 1 with indications from 3 wetting procedures (horizontal) of 6 detection media (vertical).  [c.672]

Following the draft european standard [4] for type testing, quality of the detection media shall be verified on 2 reference blocks as shown in Fig. 2. On the reference block No. 1, created by Mr. Dickhaut [7], (Nr. 3 of the MTU) the indications shall be valuated by comparison with the indications of a detection medium with known quality. On reference block No. 2 (AFNOR-C A-C) the lenght of the indications shall be determined as a measure for the quality.  [c.672]

McBain reports the following microtome data for a phenol solution. A solution of 5 g of phenol in 1000 g of water was skimmed the area skimmed was 310 cm and a 3.2-g sample was obtained. An interferometer measurement showed a difference of 1.2 divisions between the bulk and the scooped-up solution, where one division corresponded to 2.1 X 10 g phenol per gram of water concentration difference. Also, for 0.05, 0.127, and 0.268M solutions of phenol at 20°C, the respective surface tensions were 67.7, 60.1, and 51.6 dyn/cm. Calculate the surface excess Fj from (a) the microtome data, (b) for the same concentration but using the surface tension data, and (c) for a horizontally oriented monolayer of phenol (making a reasonable assumption as to its cross-sectional area).  [c.94]

A more elaborate treatment of ester hydrolysis was attempted by Davies and Rideal [308] in the case of the alkaline hydrolysis of monolayers of monocetyl-succinate ions. The point in mind was that since the interface was charged, the local concentration of hydroxide ions would not be the same as in the bulk substrate. The surface region was treated as a bulk phase 10 A thick and, using the Donnan equation, actual concentrations of ester and hydroxide ions were calculated, along with an estimate of their activity coefficients. Similarly, the Donnan effect of added sodium chloride on the hydrolysis rates was measured and compared with the theoretical estimate. The computed concentrations in the surface region were rather high (1-3 M), and since the region is definitely not isotropic because of orientation effects, this type of approach would seem to be semiempirical in nature. On the other hand, there was quite evidently an electrostatic exclusion of hydroxide ions from the charged monocetyl-succinate film, which could be predicted approximately by the Donnan relationship.  [c.154]

Small metal clusters are also of interest because of their importance in catalysis. Despite the fact that small clusters should consist of mostly surface atoms, measurement of the photon ionization threshold for Hg clusters suggest that a transition from van der Waals to metallic properties occurs in the range of 20-70 atoms per cluster [88] and near-bulk magnetic properties are expected for Ni, Pd, and Pt clusters of only 13 atoms [89] Theoretical calculations on Sin and other semiconductors predict that the stmcture reflects the bulk lattice for 1000 atoms but the bulk electronic wave functions are not obtained [90]. Bartell and co-workers [91] study beams of molecular clusters with electron dirfraction and molecular dynamics simulations and find new phases not observed in the bulk. Bulk models appear to be valid for their clusters of several thousand atoms (see Section IX-3).  [c.270]

See pages that mention the term Blake 3 : [c.219]    [c.243]    [c.162]    [c.321]    [c.440]    [c.398]    [c.516]    [c.506]    [c.865]    [c.153]    [c.796]    [c.120]    [c.73]    [c.95]    [c.163]    [c.123]    [c.885]    [c.907]    [c.133]    [c.176]    [c.246]    [c.247]   
Sourse beds of petroleum (1942) -- [ c.40 , c.335 , c.362 , c.409 ]