Kyoto protocol

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol of 1997, United Nations 1997, N.Y.  [c.57]

The oxidation of carbon through burning produces a significant amount of heat through an exothermic reaction, a chemical reaction that releases energy. However, since most of the energy gained from burning coal results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO,), this principal greenhouse emission is higher for coal than for other fossil fuels, namely oil and natural gas, in which other elements are oxidized in addition to carbon. Because the burning of coal produces so much carbon dioxide, its use will be severely affected by compliance with the Kyoto Protocol, discussed in a following section.  [c.251]


Looking at the allocation of energy production among sources, the Kyoto Protocol is meant to increase preference for those energy sources that do not produce carbon dioxide and, secondarily, for those that produce much less than others. There will be a particular disincentive to use coal, since this source produces the most COj per energy produced.  [c.256]

Current U.S. coal consumption is just under 1 billion short tons per year—second highest in the world—after China, which produces some 50 percent more. By 2010, the projected U.S. baseline energy case (in the absence of any attempt to meet Kyoto Protocol limits) would raise this level to 1.25 billion tons, in rough numbers. Coal currently accounts for about one-third of all United States carbon dioxide emissions. If the same patterns of energy source use were to hold in 2010—and if one wished to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions by 30 percent, while making no reductions in usage of other fossil fuels— this would mean reducing coal emissions by 90 percent. Such a scenario is clearly highly unlikely, even if one were to take much longer than 2010 to accomplish this goal.  [c.256]

The remaining possibility for the United States, under the Kyoto Protocol, would be to compensate  [c.256]

Implementation of the 1998 Kyoto Protocol, which is designed to reduce global carbon emissions, will have dramatic effects on fossil fuel usage worldwide. The Kyoto Protocol mostly affects delivered prices for coal and conversion of plants to natural gas, nuclear and/or renewable resources. However, as pointed out by the International Energy Agency, increased natural gas consumption in the United States may likely have the effect of increased reliance  [c.507]

December 11. The Kyoto Protocol is adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.  [c.1250]

The first asymmetric Mn(salen)-catalyzed epoxidation of silyl enol ethers was carried out by Reddy and Thornton in 1992. Results from the epoxidation of various silyl enol ethers gave the corresponding keto-alcohols in up to 62% ee Subsequently, Adam and Katsuki " independently optimized the protocol for these substrates yielding products in excellent enantioselectivity.  [c.39]

In 1997, a treaty was developed to limit the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Under the auspices of the United Nations Secretariat, the Third Conference of the Parties, held in Kyoto, Japan, produced the Kyoto Protocol (Table 1). This protocol calls for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by various countries, though developing countries, predicted to become the dominant producers of greenhouse gases in the twenty-first centui y, were not hound to greenhouse gas reductions. Several countries, such as Australia, Iceland, and Norw ay, were allowed to increase their levels of greenhouse gas emissions under the treaty. The major reductions in emissions were to come from Europe, where Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania agreed to an 8 percent reduction in emissions relative to  [c.249]

The Kyoto Protocol covers reductions in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and three fluorocarbons hydro fluorocarbons, perfluorocarhons, and sulfur hexafluoride. The protocol also included ineclianisms for considering greenhouse gas reductions stemming from changes in land use, and enshrined the principle of international emissions trading, though not the mechanism or specifics, which were left for later Conferences of the Parties to resolve. Finally, the Kyoto Protocol created a clean development mechanism by which developing countries could develop advance credits for taking actions that would limit the release of greenhouse gases in the future.  [c.249]

Protocol. In 1997, prior to President Clinton s acceptance of the Kyoto Protocol, U.S. Senate Resolution 98, the Byrd-Hcgcl resolution, which was passed by a vote of ninety-five to zero, imposes specific requirements that must be met before the Kyoto Protocol can be ratified. The resolution calls for a specific timeline and commitments by developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and evidence that adoption of the Kyoto Protocol would not result in serious harm to the U.S. economy. In addition, the Fifth Conference of the Parties (1999) failed to resolve numerous outstanding issues held over from the previous conference, and put off critical decision making until the Sixth Conference of the Parties in The Ffague, Netherlands, in November 2000.  [c.250]

Weyant, J. P., and Hill, J. N. (1999). "Introduction and Oveiview. In The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol A Multi-Model Evaluation. The Energy Journal (special issue).  [c.251]

Howes, R. and Famberg, A. eds. (1991). The Energy Sourcebook. New York American Institute of Physics. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (1997). Kyoto Protocol. New York United Nations.  [c.257]

Consider, for example, one possible scenario that could follow from the Kyoto Protocol on carbon reduction. Developing countries claim, as a matter of right, that the United States should bear a greater responsibility to reduce carbon emissions. Failing to do so would violate their rights to equal opportunity and fairness. One means by which the United States could meet the Kyoto targets would involve significantly scaling back its energy-intensive agriculture and militai y sectors. However, because the United States is a major exporter of food products and because its military protects many democracies throughout the world, these options might well threaten the basic rights to food, health, and security for many people in the developing world. In turn, that could be avoided it the United States scaled back its industrial rather than agricultural or military sectors. But this would threaten the freedom, property rights, and economic security of many U.S. citizens. Deontologists are challenged to provide a decision procedure for resolving conflicts between such rights as equal opportunity, fairness, food, health, security, property, and freedom. According to critics, no plausible procedure is forthcoming from the deontologi-cal perspective.  [c.491]

Ketoacylation of amines has been performed by means of a variety of reagents. The use of P-keto esters requires the application of high temperatures and long reaction times in order to achieve chemoselective reaction on the ester group under thermodynamic conditions. The use of mixed tin(II) amides as nucleophiles in that reaction has also been reported although the generality of that protocol as a 3-ketoacvlation method has not been established. Diketene is a good acetoacetylating reagent, but its volatility, low stability, and high toxicity, as well as the fact that its derivatives are not easily available, have promoted the search for alternatives. More recently, it has been shown that 3-keto thioesters react with amines in the presence of silver trifluoroacetate under exceptionally mild conditions. This modified protocol has been applied in a synthesis of 3-ketoanilides under relatively mild conditions." The products are then cyclized to the respective quinoline targets under the standard acidic conditions.  [c.438]

See pages that mention the term Kyoto protocol : [c.217]    [c.249]    [c.256]    [c.506]    [c.583]    [c.587]   
A life of magic chemistry (2001) -- [ c.217 ]

Macmillan encyclopedia of energy Volumes 1,2,3 (2001) -- [ c.0 , c.249 ]