Oxine


Hydroxyquinoline (oxine), (a) HOAc-OAc buffer. (a) Ag, Al, Bi, Cd. Co. Cr, Cu,  [c.1145]

Mg(oxine)2 dissolve precipitate and use procedure for Al(8-hydroxyquinoline)3. Mg/8 = 3.0381  [c.1163]

Direct. Some radionucHdes are packaged in solution for direct sampling (qv) via a septum and injection into the patient. GalHum-67 is a marker of inflammation, infection, and various tumor types. Its half-life is 78.3 h and it is suppHed as the gallium citrate salt. Indium-111 chloride is suppHed for the labeling of white blood ceUs. The In chloride is mixed with oxine (9-hydroxyquinoline) to form a lipophilic, cationic In oxine complex, which enters the white blood ceU. The complex dissociates within the ceU, and the cationic In " ion is trapped within the ceU, owing to its charge.  [c.483]

Copper 8-quinolinolate [10380-28-6] (copper oxinate), the copper compound of 8-hydroxyquinoline, is employed as an industrial preservative for a variety of purposes, including the protection of wood and textiles against fungus-caused rotting, and interior paints for food plants. It has 25 times greater antifungal activity than oxine (199). More recent concern that hydroxyquinolines are carcinogenic has resulted in reduced interest in this group.  [c.131]

S-hydroxyquinoline, oxine, C9H7ON. Light brown needles, m.p. 15-16 C. Forms insoluble complexes with metals. The solubilities of the derivatives vary with pH, etc. and hence oxine is widely used in analysis. Used for estimating Mg, Al, Zn and many other metals. Many oxinates are extracted and the metal is estimated spectrophotometrically. Derivatives, e.g. 2-meIhyl tend to be specific, for, e.g.. Copper derivatives are used as fungicides.  [c.212]

Hydroxyquinoline ( oxine ). The technique adopted in this preparation is based upon the fact that, in general, the reactants glycerol, amine, nitro compound and sulphuric acid can be mixed with temperature control, and then maintained at any convenient temperature below 120° without any appreciable chemical reaction taking place. A pre-mix of the amine, glycerol and sulphuric acid, maintained at a temperature which keeps it fluid (60-90°), is added in portions to a reaction vessel containiug the nitro compound and warmed with stirring to 140-170° at which temperature the Skraup reaction takes place.  [c.830]

In a 3-litre three-necked flask, fitted with a thermometer, stiiTer and reflux condenser, place 72 -5 g. of o-nitrophenol and 10 g. of crystallised ferrous sulphate, and heat to 100-120°. Add the hquid amine - glycerol-sulphuric acid pre-mix in about 10 portions over 2 hours allow the reaction to proceed at 135-150° before adding the subsequent portions. Reflux the mixture for a further 4 hours, during which time the temperature drops to about 130°. Neutrahse the cooled reaction mixture with sodium hydroxide (250 g. in 50 per cent, solution) with rapid stirring and addition of ice so that the temperature does not rise above 40°. The pH of the resulting solution is about 7, and the 8-hydroxyquinohne together with tarry by-products precipitate. Filter the precipitate at the pump, dry at 50-60°, and then distil imder reduced pressure from a Claisen flask with fractionating side arm. A little wate r passes over first and this is followed by 8-hydroxyquinoline at I00-lI0°/5 mm. It crystallises on cooling to a white soUd, m.p. 74r-75°. The yield of oxine is 140 g.  [c.830]

Indo-oxine, 5,8-quinolinequinone-8-hydroxy-5-quinoyl-5-imide (indicator) dissolve 0.05 g in 100 mL alcohol pH range red 6.0-8.0 blue. Cf. Berg and Becker, Z. Anal. Chem. 119 81 (1940).  [c.1192]

Copper quinolinolate (oxine copper) is the chelate of divalent copper and 8-hydroxyquinoline and shares most of its market with copper naphthenate, which is a complex copper salt of mixed naphthenic acids. The principal uses are in wood treatments and some military textiles, where the green color is not objectionable. Copper naphthenate has an odor but is cheaper than oxine. Both copper naphthenate and 2inc naphthenate have performed well in environment tests, with exposure to soil above-ground, as well as concrete (33).  [c.98]

Of the gravimetric procedures, precipitation with tannin from a slightly acidic oxalate solution is probably the best known. The hot oxalate extract of a potassium pyrosulfate fusion is adjusted with ammonia to pH 3.7—4.0 using Bromothymol Blue. Dropwise addition of a 2 wt % solution of tannin precipitates the lemon-yeUow complex of tantalum. Several grams of ammonium chloride are added to prevent peptization, and the solution is digested and filtered. Further addition of tannin and ammonia to the clear filtrate precipitates the vermilion-colored complex of niobium. Many other organic precipitants have been used, including Cupferron, A/-benzoyl-A/-phenyIhydroxylamine, 8-quinolinol (Oxine), phenylarsonic acid, pyrogaHol, and others.  [c.25]

Solvent extraction techniques are useful in the quantitative analysis of niobium. The fluoro complexes are amenable to extraction by a wide variety of ketones. Some of the water-insoluble complexes with organic precipitants are extractable by organic solvents and colorimetry is performed on the extract. An example is the extraction of the niobium—oxine complex with chloroform (41). The extraction of the niobium—pyrocatechol violet complex with tridodecylethylammonium bromide and the extraction of niobium—pyrocatechol—sparteine complex with chloroform are examples of extractions of water-soluble complexes. Colorimetry is performed on the extract (42,43). Colorimetry may also be performed directly on the water-soluble complex, eg, using ascorbic acid and 5-nitrosahcyhc acid (44,45).  [c.25]

The procedures used to synthesize metal radionucHde complexes vary depending on the chemical reactivity of the radionucHde in its available form. Some radionucHdes are available as metal haHde solutions and can be formed by reaction with the Hgand(s) directiy. An example of the direct complexation approach is the synthesis of In(III)(oxine)2. In(III)-chloride and 8-hydroxyquinoline react by adjusting the pH to 7. Owing to the dilute concentration of the In—chloride solution, the hydroxyquinoline is added in large excess to achieve a reasonable reaction rate. In contrast, pertechnetate must be reduced to form complexes. Typically this is achieved by addition of the Hgand(s) and a reducing agent, such as tin(II) chloride. Both the ligand and the reducing agent are added in large molar excess. If the rate of pertechnetate reduction is significantly more rapid than the rate of complexation, reduced technetium species accumulate in the solution. These reduced species are not stable in aqueous solution, undergoing hydrolysis and disproportionation to form pertechnetate and Tc02 (Tc-coUoid), insoluble, coUoidal, Tc(IV)-oxide. The formation of this by-product can be prevented by including in the reaction mixture another ligand that forms complexes more rapidly. The reduced technetium species are then complexed by the additional ligand, termed a transfer ligand  [c.479]

Solubilization. Causing the constituents of a phase that is normally insoluble to dissolve in the medium is termed solubiHzation. Chelation solubiHzation depends on the formation of a chelate having groups that confer solubiHty in the medium and a stabiHty sufficient to sequester the metal ion to a concentration (pM) that can exist in the presence of the associated counterions. Usually solubiHzation into an aqueous phase is thought of in connection with chelation. The donor atoms involved in the chelation may be sufficiendy hydrophilic to produce a soluble species, as in stmctures (10) and (12). If the organic group is large, more hydrophilic groups may be required for water solubiHty. Oxine is a weU-known precipitant, but its sulfonated derivative, shown in stmcture (9) (Fig. 1), is a solubiHzer in water. A neutral chelation complex, such as stmcture (8), may be solubiHzed in organic media. The macrocycHc chelates have solubiHty in both aqueous and organic media as a result of their ionic nature and the largely organic character of the complex.  [c.392]

Precipitation ndExtraction. The processes of extraction and precipitation comprise transferring the metal into another phase. If the ligand charges neutralize those of the metal ion, the complex becomes a neutral molecule. As the size of the hydrophobic part of the ligands increases, the neutral chelates become less soluble in water and precipitate when enough chelate is present to exceed the solubihty. Some ligands precipitate certain metals essentially quantitatively. These materials are used for analytical methods and for recovery of metals from ores or from waste streams. Oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline) is a weU-known precipitating agent. Selective and successive precipitations are used in the separation and recovery of the rare-earth elements. Passivation of metals by many organic corrosion inhibitors may involve the formation of an insoluble chelate film with the oxide on the surface or with the metal itself (39) (see Corrosion and corrosion inhibitors).  [c.393]

Chelating Agents. 8-Hydroxyquinoline [148-24-3] (8-quinohnol, oxine) might be thought to function as a phenol, but of the 7 isomeric hydroxyquinolines only oxine exhibits significant antimicrobial activity, and is the only one to have the capacity to chelate metals. If the hydroxyl group is blocked so that the compound is unable to chelate, as in the methyl ether, the antimicrobial activity is destroyed. The relationship between chelation and activity of oxine has been investigated (188—190). Oxine itself is inactive, and exerts activity by virtue of the metal chelates produced in its reaction with metal ions in the medium (see Chelating agents) (Fig. 5). Used by itself or as the sulfate [134-31-6] (Chinosol) or benzoate in antiseptics, the effect is bacteriostatic and fungistatic rather than microbiocidal. Inhibitory action is more pronounced upon gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria the growth-preventing concentrations for staphylococci being 10 ppm for streptococci 20 ppm for Salmonella typhosa and for E. coli 100 ppm (191,192). However, a 1% solution requires at least 10 hours to kill staphylococci and 30 hours for E. coli baciUi. The oxine benzoate [86-75-9] was the most active antifungal agent in a series of 24 derivatives of quinoline tested. A 2.5% preparation of this compound was successful in treating dermatophytosis (193,194). Iron and cupric salts were found to prolong the antibacterial effect of oxine on teeth (195).  [c.131]

Many compounds capable of chelation have been tested for antimicrobial properties. Those showing positive results include saHcylaldoxime [94-67-7] l-nitroso-2-naphthol [131-91-9] mercaptobenzothiazol [149-30-4], dimethylglyoxime [95-45-4], saHcylaldehyde [90-02-8], cupferron [135-20-6], phenanthroline [66-71-7], isoniazid [54-85-3], thiosemicarbazones, the sulfur analogue of oxine, and numerous antibiotics (qv) including tetracyclines. Whether these compounds function exclusively, partially, or at all by virtue of their abiHty to chelate is open to debate.  [c.131]

Similarly, ferric chloride can be removed from aluminium chloride solutions containing hydrochloric acid by extraction with diethyl ether. Usually, however, it is necessary to extract an undesired metal with an organic solvent in the presence of a suitable complexing agent such as dithizone (diphenylthiocaihazone) or sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate. When the former is used, weakly alkaline solutions of the substance containing the metal impurity are extracted with dithizone in chloroform (at about 25mg/L of chloroform) or ct on tetrachloride until the colour of some fresh dithizone solution remains unchanged after shaking. Dithizone complexes metals more strongly in weakly alkaline solutions. Excess dithizone in the aqueous medium is removed by extracting with the pure solvent (chloroform or carbon tetrachloride), the last traces of which, in turn, are removed by aeration. Tliis method has been used to remove metal impurities from aqueous solutions of ammonium hydrogen citrate, potassium bromide, potassium cyanide, sodium acetate and sodium citrate. The advantage of dithizone for such a purpose lies in the wide range of metals with which it combines under these conditions. 8-Hydroxyquinoline (oxine) can also be used in this way. Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate has been used to remove metals ffom aqueous hydroxylamine hydrochloride (made just alkaline to thymol blue by adding ammonia) from copper and other heavy metals by repeated extraction with chloroform until no more diethyl dithiocarbamate remained in the solution (which was then acidified to thymol blue by adding hydrochloric acid).  [c.55]

Hydroxyquinoline (oxine, 8-quinolinol) [148-24-3] M 145.2, m 71-73 , 75-76 , 76 , b 267 pKj 4.91, pK 9.81. Crystd from hot EtOH, acetone, pet ether (b 60-80 ) or water. Crude oxine can be purified by pptn of copper oxinate, followed by liberation of free oxine with H2S or by steam distn after acidification with H2SO4. Stored in the dark. Forms metal complexes. [Manske et al. Can J Research 27F 359 1949 Phillips Chem Rev 56 271 1956.]  [c.266]

Oxine Blue [3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(8-hydroxy-6-quinilinyl)-l(3/f )-isobenzofuranone]  [c.319]

It has been found that epinephrine solutions having a physiological pH and which are stable for months in storage can be prepared by combining with the epinephrine a small amount of sodium bisulfite, boric acid, and oxine (8-hydroxy-quinoline) hereinafter called 8-quinoli-nol and adjusting the pH with an alkali, such as sodium hydroxide, to the desired pH.  [c.563]

The uniform latices containing reactive groups, styrene-acrylonitrile (S/AN) [122] and styrene-glycidy methacrylate (S/GMA) [123] were also prepared by the coreshell emulsion copolymerization and by the soapless emulsion copolymerization method, respectively. In the preparation of P(S/GMA) copolymer particles, S and GMA were copolymerized in an aqueous medium by using potassium peroxydisulfate as the initiator at 65°C. The average size was changed between 0.22-0.44 fxm by changing the initiator concentration and ionic strength of the medium. The reactive oxine groups of the latex particles were modified later by hydrolysis, ammonolysis reaction with NaaS, or periodic acid oxida-  [c.219]


See pages that mention the term Oxine : [c.293]    [c.1118]    [c.1175]    [c.251]    [c.711]    [c.711]    [c.711]    [c.711]    [c.474]    [c.479]    [c.564]    [c.564]    [c.383]    [c.131]    [c.251]    [c.735]    [c.1024]   
Textbook on organic chemistry (1974) -- [ c.830 ]