Oppenhauer oxidation


The U.S. GAO has also reviewed pesticide standards and regulations among member countries of the expanded European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (Table 5) (72). A high degree of uniformity exists among the surveyed nations, including the United States, with regard to the kinds of test data required to register food-use pesticides. However, similar data requirements do not necessarily mean that countries receive the same information about a pesticide product or evaluate it in a similar manner. For example, there is a divergence of scientific opinion concerning what regulatory approach is most appropriate for dealing with substances that show some oncogenic effects (tumors) only at very high, near-lethal doses as compared to those that cause cancer through a genotoxic mechanism (63). Also, most other countries do not require  [c.149]

Craftsmen (and operators) ought to be taught, as part of their safety training, that compressed gases should not be used to clear chokes. There is a lot of energy in a compressed gas, and it can accelerate a plug to great speed, putting it into orbit if there is an open end or breaking a pipeline if the plug hits a bend (see Section 17.2).  [c.44]

We are used to seeing sell-by or use-by dates on food. Some chemicals also have, or ought to have, use-by dates on them. The best known are ethers on standing, they form peroxides, which can explode if subjected to shock. Ethers should not be kept for more than limited periods—six months in the case of dimethyl and other low-molecular-weight ethers. This has been known for many years, and Bretherick [11] gives references to a number of explosions that occurred because ethers were kept for too long. A particularly tragic accident befell a research chemist. He tried to open a bottle of isopropyl ether by holding it against his stomach and twisting the cap. The bottle exploded, injuring him so severely that he died two hours later [12]. Nevertheless, according to a recent report from the U.S. Department of Energy [13], 21 containers of dimethyl ether more than 21 months old were found in one of its laboratories.  [c.388]

Plutonium has no commercial (open-market) value at the time of this writing (1995), because approximately 100 metric tons is to become available as surplus from weapons being retired by the United States and the former Soviet Union. A 1989 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) study (25) concluded that the only economic advantage of using plutonium as a reactor fuel was when already separated (with all costs paid) plutonium was mixed with enriched uranium as a mixed oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. The savings would be 30% for natural uranium at 80/kg and negligible for natural uranium at 50/kg. In fact, plutonium metal may be an economic HabiUty. In a 1994 study it was estimated that converting excess weapons Pu metal into PUO2 and blending it into MOX reactor fuel would increase the cost by approximately 10,000/kg of Pu over the equivalent amount of low enriched uranium (26). Another 1994 study estimated that mixing plutonium into MOX fuel, calculated on the basis of chemical processing and fabrication of the MOX fuel in comparison with enriched UO2 fuel, would save 5000/kg of Pu (27). The uncertainty of this latter number is greater than 100%, however, because of the uncertainty in the input cost parameters. Whatever the cost, blending of excess weapons plutonium into reactor fuel continues to be advocated (28) because its intense radioactivity after irradiation into spent fuel effectively eliminates the risk of diversion or theft.  [c.193]

Schwefel-natrium, -natron, n. sodium sulfide, -nickel, m. nickel sulfide, -niederschlag, m. precipitate of sulfur, precipitated sulfur, -ofen, m. sulfur burner, -oxyd, n. (any) sulfur oxide, -phosphor, m. (any) phosphorus sulfide, -probe, /. sulfur sample [c.401]


See pages that mention the term Oppenhauer oxidation : [c.287]    [c.179]    [c.306]    [c.213]    [c.53]    [c.94]    [c.423]    [c.353]   
Textbook on organic chemistry (1974) -- [ c.886 , c.888 ]