Myristic acid

The film pressure of a myristic acid film at 20°C is 10 dyn/cm at an area of 23 A per molecule the limiting area at high pressures can be taken as 20 A per molecule. Calculate what the film pressure should be, using Eq. IV-36 with / = 1, and what the activity coefficient of water in the interfacial solution is in terms of that model.  [c.157]

Laurie acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Arachidic acid  [c.1073]

Myristic acid = tetradecanoic acid.  [c.335]

The most volatile product (myristic acid) is a small fraction of the feed, whereas the least volatile product (oleic—stearic acids) is most of the feed, and the palmitic—oleic acid split has a good relative volatility. The palmitic—oleic acid split therefore is selected by heuristic (4) for the third column. This would also be the separation suggested by heuristic (5). After splitting myristic and palmitic acid, the final distillation sequence is pictured in Figure 1. Detailed simulations of the separation flow sheet confirm that the capital cost of this design is about 7% less than the straightforward direct sequence.  [c.445]

Pressure, kPa Caproic acid Caprylic acid Cap tic acid Laurie acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid  [c.92]

The only convenient source of trimyristin is nutmegs, and ether is the most suitable solvent for its extraction. It has also been prepared from glycerol and myristic acid.  [c.102]

Materials which during processing exude from the polymer composition to the interface between the molten polymer and the metal surfaces of the processing equipment with which they are in contact. The resultant thin film layer then helps to prevent the plastics composition from sticking to the machinery and thus in the normal way facilitates processing. Such materials, known commonly as external lubricants, have a low compatibility with the polymer and in addition often possess polar groups to enhance their affinity to metals. The choice of lubricant will depend not only on the type of polymer but also on processing temperatures involved. With PVC typical external lubricants are stearic acid and its calcium, lead, cadmium and barium salts, myristic acid, hydrocarbons such as paraffin wax and low molecular weight polythene and certain esters such as ethyl palmitate.  [c.133]

Detection and result The chromatogram was freed from mobile phase and immersed in the reagent solution for 1 s. Arachidic acid (hRf 15-20), stearic acid hR( 30 — 35), palmitic acid hRf 50—55), myristic acid (hRf 60 — 65) and lauric acid (hRf 70 — 75) appeared as pink zones on a reddish background.  [c.402]

Fig. 1 Fluorescence scan of a fatty acid mixture with 500 ng substance per chromatogram zone. Arachidic acid (I), stearic acid (2), palmitic acid (3), myristic acid (4), lauric acid (5). Fig. 1 Fluorescence scan of a fatty acid mixture with 500 ng substance per chromatogram zone. Arachidic acid (I), stearic acid (2), palmitic acid (3), myristic acid (4), lauric acid (5).
Laurie acid Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Arachidic acid  [c.1073]

Write properly balanced chemical equations for the oxidation to COg and water of (a) myristic acid, (b) stearic acid, (c) a-linolenic acid, and (d) arachidonic acid.  [c.800]

Four columns are needed to produce the desired products. Considering the Sharp Distillation Sequencing heuristics, heuristic (/) does not apply, as there is more than one product in this mixture. Fatty acids are moderately corrosive, but none is particularly more so than the others, so heuristic (2) does not apply. The most volatile product, the caproic and capryflc mixture, is a small (10 mol %) fraction of the feed, so heuristic (3) does not apply. The least volatile product, the oleic—stearic acids, is 27% of the feed, but is not nearly as large as the capric—lauric acid product, so heuristic (4) does not apply. The spht between lauric and myristic acids is closest to equimolar (55 45) and is easy. Therefore, by heuristic (5) it should be performed first. The boiling point list implies that the distillate of the first column contains caproic, capryflc, capric, and lauric acids. This stream requires only one further separation, which by heuristic (/) is between the caproic—capryflc acids and capric—lauric acids.  [c.445]

By increasing the molar proportion of the monocarboxylic acid, the yield of (II) is improved. Thus electrolysis of a mixture of decanoic acid (n-decoic acid capric acid) (V) (2 mols) and methyl hydrogen adipate (VI) (1 mol) in anhydrous methanol in the presence of a little sodium methoxide gives, after hydrolysis of the esters formed, n-octadecane (VII), tetradecanoic or myristic acid (VIH) and sebacic acid (IX)  [c.938]

An excellent synthesis of myristic acid is thus achieved from readily accessible starting materials. An alternative synthesis of myristic acid utilises hexanoic acid (M-caproic acid n-hexoic acid) (X) (2 mols) and methyl hydrogen sebacate (XI) (1 mol) the products, after hydrolysis, are Ji-decane (XII), myristic acid (XIII) and hexadecane-1 16-dlcarboxylic acid (XIV)  [c.938]

Myristic acid from hexanoic acid and methyl hydrogen sebacate). Dissolve 23 -2 g. of redistilled hexanoic acid (re caproic acid), b.p. 204-6-205-5°/760 mm., and 21-6 g. of methyl hydrogen sebacate in 200 ml. of absolute methanol to which 0 13 g. of sodium has been added. Electrolyse at 2 0 amps., whilst maintaining the temperature between 30° and 40°, until the pH is about 8 0 (ca. 6 hours). Neutralise the contents of the electrolysis cell with a little acetic acid and distil off the methyl alcohol on a water bath. Dissolve the residue in 200 ml. of ether, wash with three 50 ml. portions of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, once with water, dry with anhydrous magnesium sulphate, and distil with the aid of a fractionating column (see under Methyl hydrogen adipate). Collect the re-decane at 60°/10 mm. (3 0 g.), the methyl myristate at 158-160°/ 10 mm. (12 5g.) and dimethyl hexadecane-1 16-dicarboxylate at 215-230°/ 7 mm. (1 -5 g.)  [c.940]

Reflux a mixture of 7 3 g. of methyl myristate with a solution of 4 8 g. of sodium hydroxide in 200 ml. of 90 per cent, methanol for 2 hours, distil off the methanol on a water bath, dissolve the residue in 400 ml. of hot water, add 15 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid to the solution at 50° in order to precipitate the organic acid, and cool. Collect the acid by suction filtration, wash it with a little water and dry in a vacuum desiccator. The yield of myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid tetradecoic acid), m.p. 57-58°, is 5 9 g.  [c.940]

Myristic acid from decanoic acid and methyl hydrogen adipate). Dissolve 55-2 g. of pure decanoic acid (capric acid decoic acid), m.p. 31-32 , and 25 -6 g. of methyl hydrogen adipate in 200 ml. of absolute methanol to which 0-25 g. of sodium has been added. Electrolyse at 2 0 amps, at 25-35° until the pH of the electrolyte is 8-2 (ca. 9 hours). Neutralise the contents of the electrolytic cell with acetic acid, distil off the methanol on a water bath, dissolve the residue in about 200 ml. of ether, wash with three 50 ml. portions of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and remove the ether on a water bath. Treat the residue with a solution of 8 0 g. of sodium hydroxide in 200 ml. of 80 per cent, methanol, reflux for 2 hours, and distil off the methanol on a water bath. Add about 600 ml. of water to the residue to dissolve the mixture of sodium salts extract the hydrocarbon with four 50 ml. portions of ether, and dry the combined ethereal extracts with anhydrous magnesium sulphate. After removal of the ether, 23 1 g. of almost pure re-octadecane, m.p. 23-24°, remains. Acidify the aqueous solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid (ca. 25 ml.), cool to 0°, filter oflF the mixture of acids, wash well with cold water and dry in a vacuum desiccator. The yield of the mixture of sebacic and myristic acids, m.p. 52-67°, is 26 g. Separate the mixture by extraction with six 50 ml. portions of almost boihng light petroleum, b.p. 40-60°. The residue (5 2g.), m.p. 132°, is sebacic acid. Evaporation of the solvent gives 20 g. of myristic acid, m.p. 52-53° the m.p. is raised slightly upon re[c.941]

Orris. Steam-distillation of the aged (3-yr) peeled, dried, pulverized rhizomes of the decorative garden perennial Ins pallida Lam. yields a waxy, cream-colored mass known as orris butter or orris concmte. Fresh rhizomes are practically odorless. This material melts at body temperature and possesses a woody, fatty-oily, violet-like odor with a sweet, floral, warm, and fmity undertone. The wax, which accounts for 85—90% of the concrete, is myristic acid which, because it can cause problems in perfumery and handling, is usually removed by alkafl washing in an alcohoHc solution. This process yields the highly desirable, from a perfumery standpoint, but very expensive, orris absolute. Although most of the cultivation and curing of the plant material takes place in Italy, the bulk of the processing occurs in France. Most of the absolute is used in fine perfumery, although traces are effective in fmit and mm flavors. The volatiles composition of a commercial orris absolute is shown in Table 48 (92).  [c.335]

Orris. Orris is produced from rhi2omes of Ins pallida and Ins germanica. The plants are found and cultivated mosdy ia Italy, but also ia Morocco and China. It is used ia perfumery as an absolute, a steam-distilled essential oil, and a concrete. The last material, which is a low melting soHd (due to a high content of myristic acid) and therefore erroneously called a concrete, is by far the most used. Orris has a violet-like odor useful ia fine perfumes, luxury soaps, and fragrances for powders and other cosmetic products. Its most important odor contributors are the irones, of which the most important isomer  [c.79]

Adsorption processes have recently been described to separate fatty acids into high purity products. Laurie acid was separated from myristic acid using crystalline siUca as the adsorbent and was desorbed using a ketone such as acetone or methyl ethyl ketone (22). Another system, using cross-linked polystyrene as the adsorbent, separated a mixture of palmitic and stearic acids (23). Separation of saturated fatty acid, such as palmitic/stearic acid from an unsaturated fatty oleic acid, using a molecular sieve plus crystalline clay as the adsorbent, has been described (24). The desorbent was acetone. The separation of oleic acid from linoleic acid has been described using as an adsorbent either cross-linked polystyrene, or a molecular sieve-siUcate as the adsorbent with a variety of desorbents Hsted (25). Separation of fatty acids from rosin acids can be accompHshed using molecular sieves that have been modified with siheaUte and a phosphoms-modified alumina. The preferred desorbents were methyl ethyl ketone—acetic acid or short-chain acids or esters with less than six carbon atoms (26). The separation of fatty acids from unsaponifiables has been carried out using a molecular sieve, comprising a crystalline siUca with a siUca to alumina ratio of at least 12, as the adsorbent. The desorbent was acetone (27).  [c.91]

Myristic acid occurs as a glyceride in many vegetable fats and oils, in particular in coconut oil,i its isolation from which involves separation from homologs by fractional distillation of the acids or their esters. The trimyristin obtained from nutmegs 2 (p. 100) or from the seeds of Virola venezuelensis forms the most suitable source.  [c.67]

Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) [544-63-8] M 228.4, m 58 , pK 6.3 (50% EtOH), pK si -4.9 (H2O). Purified via the methyl ester (h 153-154 /10mm, n 1.4350), as for capric acid. [Trachtman and Miller y/4m Chem Soc 84 4828 7962.] Also purified by zone melting. Crystd from pet ether and dried in a vacuum desiccator containing shredded wax.  [c.304]

The characteristic fragrance of the violet is also possessed to a considerable extent by dried orris root (iris root), and believing, although apparently en-oneously, that both substances owed their perfume to the same body, Tiemann and Kruger used oil of orris for their experiments, instead of oil of violets, of which it was impossible to obtain a sufficient quantity. The root was extracted with ether, the ether recovered, and the residue steam distilled. The non-volatile portion consists chiefly of resin, irigenin, iridic acid, and myristic acid, whilst the volatile portion consists of mjTistic acid and its methyl ester, oleic acid, oleic anhydride, oleic esters, and the characteristic fragrant body which they termed irone. Irone (q.v.) has the formula CigH. O, and is an oil scarcely soluble in water. The smell of this oil is quite unlike violets when in concenti-ated form, but if diluted, resembles them to some extent. Irone is clearly a methyl ketone of the constitution-—  [c.215]

See pages that mention the term Myristic acid : [c.268]    [c.103]    [c.938]    [c.941]    [c.654]    [c.106]    [c.445]    [c.445]    [c.78]    [c.89]    [c.115]    [c.220]    [c.66]    [c.67]    [c.406]    [c.824]    [c.239]    [c.275]    [c.268]    [c.307]    [c.133]    [c.143]   
See chapters in:

Organic syntheses Acrolein  -> Myristic acid

Textbook on organic chemistry (1974) -- [ c.938 , c.940 , c.941 ]

Organic syntheses Acrolein (0) -- [ c.6 , c.66 ]

Organic syntheses Acid anhydrides (1946) -- [ c.20 , c.69 ]

Thin-layer chromatography Reagents and detection methods (1990) -- [ c.402 , c.406 ]

Organic chemistry (0) -- [ c.1073 ]