Gas in Place


The typical compressibility of gas is 500 10 psi, compared to oil at 10 10 psr, and water at 3 10 psi When a volume of gas is produced (8V) from a gas-in-place volume (V), the fractional change in pressure (8P) is therefore small. Because of the high compressibility of gas it is therefore uncommon to attempt to support the reservoir pressure by injection of water, and the reservoir is simply depleted or blown down .  [c.197]

The definitions above are an abbreviated version of those used in a veiy complex and financially significant exercise with the ultimate goal of estimating resei ves and generating production forecasts in the petroleum industry. Deterministic estimates are derived largely from pore volume calculations to determine volumes of either oil nr gas in-place (OIP, GIP). This volume when multiplied by a recovery factor gives a recoverable quantity of oil or natural gas liquids—commonly oil in standard barrels or natural gas in standard cubic feet at surface conditions. Many prefer to use barrels of oil equivalency (BOE) or total hydrocarbons tor the sum of natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGL), and oil. For comparison purposes 6,000 cubic feet of gas is considered to be equivalent to one standard barrel on a British thermal unit (Btu) basis (42 U.S. gallons).  [c.1010]

That proportion of the initial gas in place which can be recovered under actual technical and economic conditions.  [c.11]

Gas in place remaining at the reporting date  [c.12]

A method of estimating initial gas in place using the relation between pressure decline and produced gas volume.  [c.14]

A method of estimating original gas in place using the results of drilling (structural assessment, effective thickness, porosity, gas saturation, pressure, temperature, gas characteristics, and the boundaries of the accumulation). These data may be supplemented by geological or geophysical data on the shape of the reservoir.  [c.14]

When a hot utility needs to be at a high temperature and/or provide high heat fluxes, radiant heat transfer is used from combustion of fuel in a furnace. Furnace designs vary according to the function of the furnace, heating duty, type of fuel, and method of introducing combustion air. Sometimes the function is to purely provide heat sometimes the furnace is also a reactor and provides heat of reaction. However, process furnaces have a number of features in common. In the chamber where combustion takes place, the heat is transferred mainly by radiation to tubes around the walls of the chamber, through which passes the fluid to be heated. After the flue gas leaves the combustion chamber, most furnace designs extract further heat from the flue gas in a convection section before the flue gas is vented to the atmosphere.  [c.188]

There are, however, technological means available to burn incompletely desulfurized fuels at the same time minimizing SO2 emissions. In the auto-desulfurizing AUDE boiler developed by IFF, the effluent is treated in place by an absorbent based on lime and limestone calcium sulfate is obtained. This system enables a gas desulfurization of 80% it requires nevertheless a relatively large amount of solid material, on the order of 200 kg per ton of fuel.  [c.256]

Hydrocarbons are of a lower density than formation water. Thus, if no mechanism is in place to stop their upward migration they will eventually seep to the surface. On seabed surveys in some offshore areas we can detect crater like features ( pock marks ) which also bear witness to the escape of oil and gas to the surface. It is assumed that throughout the geologic past vast quantities of hydrocarbons have been lost in this manner from sedimentary basins.  [c.14]

Imagine that a reservoir is at a depth of 2500 m. We could attempt to drill one straight hole all the way down to that depth. That attempt would end either with the hole collapsing around the drill bit, the loss of drilling fluid into formations with low pressure, or in the worst case with the uncontrolled flow of gas or oil from the reservoir into unprotected shallow formations or to the surface (blowout). Hence, from time to time, the borehole needs to be stabilised and the drilling progress safeguarded. This is done by lining the well with steel pipe (casing) which is cemented in place. In this manner the well is drilled like a telescope (Fig. 3.21) to the planned total depth (TD). The diameters of the telescope joints will start usually with a 23" (conductor), then 18 5/8 (surface casing), 13 3/8 (intermediate casing above reservoir), 9 5/8" (production casing across reservoir section) and possibly 7" liner over a deeper reservoir section. A liner is a casing string which is clamped with a packer into the bottom part of the previous casing it does not extend all the way to the surface, and thus saves cost.  [c.53]

Reservoirs containing low compressibility oil, having small amounts of dissolved gas, will suffer from large pressure drops after only limited production. If the expansion of oil is the only method of supporting the reservoir pressure then abandonment conditions (when the reservoir pressure is no longer sufficient to produce economic quantities of oil to the surface) will be reached after production of probably less than 5% of the oil initially in place. Oil compressibility can be read from correlations.  [c.109]

The relationship between reservoir fluid pressure and depth may be used to define the interface between fluids (e.g. gas - oil or oil - water interface) or to confirm the observations made directly by wireline logs. This is helpful in determining the volumes of fluids in place, and in distinguishing between areas of a field which are in different pressure regimes or contain different fluid contacts. If different pressure regimes are encountered within a field, this is indicative of areas which are isolated from each other either by sealing faults or by lack of reservoir continuity. In either case, the development of the field will have to reflect this lack of communication, often calling for dedicated wells in each separate fault block. This is important to understand during development planning, as later realisation is likely to lead to a sub-optimal development (either loss of recovery or increase in cost).  [c.116]

The macroscopic sweep efficiency s the fraction of the total reservoir which is swept by water (or by gas in the case of gas cap drive). This will depend upon the reservoir quality and continuity, and the rate at which the displacement takes place. At higher rates, displacement will take place even more preferentially in the high permeability layers, and the macroscopic displacement efficiency will be reduced.  [c.201]

For example, the expansion of a gas requires the release of a pm holding a piston in place or the opening of a stopcock, while a chemical reaction can be initiated by mixing the reactants or by adding a catalyst. One often finds statements that at equilibrium in an isolated system (constant U, V, n), the entropy is maximized . Wliat does this mean  [c.337]

As extensions of the Kramers dieory [47] are essentially a topic of condensed-phase reaction dynamics, only a few remarks are in place here. These concern the barrier shape and the dimensionality in the high-damping regime. The curvature at the parabolic barrier top obviously detennines the magnitude of the friction coefficient at which the rate constant starts to decrease below the upper limit defined by the high-pressure limit for relatively sharp barriers this turnover will occur at comparatively high solvent density corresponding almost to liquid phase densities, whereas reactions involving flat barriers will show this phenomenon in the moderately dense gas, maybe even in the unimolecular fall-off regime before they reach  [c.850]

A Hempel gas-burette (Fig. -yb, p. 426) may be used in place of the tubes A and H for this purpose it is manipulated precisely as described on p. 427.  [c.460]

The original adjustment of the generator for production of air-free carbon dioxide may be tested in a similar manner by attaching the generator A through Ae Z-tube B and angle tube F to the nitrometer without the combustion tube being in place and allowing the gas to run until micro-bubbles are obtained, Aus showing that air-free carbon dioxide is being produced. It sometimes proves unusually difficult to get to the stage of producing micro-bubbles this is very often due to the potash in the nitrometer becoming exhausted. As a first tep, this should be changed before further search is made for any leak or other source of the trouble.  [c.489]

A Hempel gas-burette (Fig. 76, p. 426) may be used in place of the tubes A and H for this purpose it is manipulated precisely as described on p. 427.  [c.460]

The original adjustment of the generator for production of air-free carbon dioxide may be tested in a similar manner by attaching the generator A through the Z-tube B and angle-tube F to the nitrometer without the combustion tube being in place and allowing the gas to run until micro-bubbles are obtained, thus showing that air-free carbon dioxide is being produced. It sometimes proves unusually difficult to get to the stage of producing micro-bubbles this is very often due to the potash in the nitrometer becoming exhausted. As a first step, this should be changed before further search is made for any leak or other source of the trouble.  [c.489]

The column headed 1 gives the volume of the gas (in milliliters) dissolved in 1 mL of water when the pressure of the gas plus that of the water vapor is 760 mm.  [c.362]

The column headed q gives the weight of gas (in grams) dissolved in 100 g of water when the pressure of the gas plus that of the water vapor is 760 mm.  [c.362]

Thermal desorption is used to release volatile analytes from solids. A portion of the solid is placed in a glass-lined, stainless steel tube and held in place with plugs of glass wool. After purging with carrier gas to remove O2 (which could lead to oxidation reactions when heating the sample), the sample is heated. Volatile analytes are swept from the tube by the carrier gas and carried to the GC. To maintain efficiency the solutes often are concentrated at the top of the column by cooling the column inlet below room temperature, a process known as cryogenic focusing.  [c.568]

A Z-spray. source gets around this problem. Accordingly, a first skimmer orifice is moved from a line-of-sight position to one at right angles to the initial spray direction (Figure 10.4). Now, as the ions form in the background gas, they follow the gas flow toward the vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. Some vapor solvent is also drawn down into the skimmer orifice. More solvent diffuses from the gas stream, which then bends again through a second skimmer (the extraction cone). Mostly ions and background gas molecules (plus some residual solvent molecules) pass through the second skimmer and on to the mass analyzer. There is a drying gas flowing around the entrance to the skimmer to remove more solvent from any residual droplets (Figure 10.4).  [c.68]

In operation, the magnetic section of the hybrid is used to select ions of a particular m/z value. Por example, if a mixture of two substances gives two molecular ions, Mj and Mj, the magnetic sector is used to select one or the other. The selected ions collide with gas in the collision cell (Pigure 21.1), and some of them decompose to yield fragment ions, say P, Pj, and P3. Thus, a stream of ions M, (some of which have not been decomposed) plus P, Pj, and F, leave the collision cell (Pigure 21.3). If this beam went straight to the single-point ion collector, there would be no separation into the individual m/z values, and it would not be possible to measure their m/z values. However, by pulsing the pusher electrode placed just after the collision cell, a section of the beam is sent orthogonally down the TOP analyzer tube, which does separate them according to m/z value, which is related to the length of time they take to reach the multipoint microchannel plate collector (Pigure 21.1). Therefore, molecular ions and fragment ions are obtained in this MS/MS mode.  [c.160]

Chlorine monoxide, CI2O. M.p. — 116°C, b.p. 4 C, yellow-red gas (CI2 plus HgO), dissolves in water to give some HOCl. Dissociates to CI2 plus O2.  [c.93]

Sulphur tetrafluoride, SF4, m.p. — 12PC, b.p. —40 C. Reactive gas (SCI2 plus NaF in MeCN). Used as fluorinaling agent (e.g. >C = 0 gives >CF2).  [c.379]

The subscript i refers to the initial pressure, and the subscript ab refers to the abandonment pressure the pressure at which the reservoir can no longer produce gas to the surface. If the abandonment conditions can be predicted, then an estimate of the recovery factor can be made from the plot. Gp is the cumulative gas produced, and G is the gas initially In place (GIIP). This is an example of the use of PVT properties and reservoir pressure data being used in a material balance calculation as a predictive tool.  [c.198]

Unwanted fluids are those fluids with no commercial value, such as water, and noncommercial amounts of gas in an oil field development. In layered reservoirs with contrasting permeabilities in the layers, the unwanted fluids are often produced firstly from the most permeable layers, in which the displacement is fastest. This reduces the actual oil production, and depletes the reservoir pressure. Layers which are shown by the PLT orTDT tools to be producing unwanted fluids may be shut-off by recompleting the wells. The following diagrams show how layers which start to produce unwanted fluids may be shut off. An underlying water zone may be isolated by setting a bridge plug above the water bearing zone this may be done without removing the tubing by running an inflatable through-tubing bridge plug . An overlying gas producing layer may be shut off by squeezing cement across the perforations or by isolating the layer with a casing patch called a scab liner, an operation in which the tubing would firstly have to be removed. This would be termed a workover oi the well.  [c.337]

A relatively recent development has been that of techniques allowing measurements on individual aerosol particles. The classic method is that used by Millikan in 1909 in his famous oil droplet experiment. A single charged droplet could be held in position by means of an electrostatic field. Contemporary equipment is highly sophisticated, with detector/feedback devices that will automatically hold a droplet in place (see Ref. 249). There is usually insufficient restoring force, however, to permit gas flow past the particle. An important development has been the electrodynamic balance, whereby ac fields provide both radial and axial restoring forces [249, 250]. In the case of liquid droplets, stabilization can be obtained if there is a gradient in the pressure of the vapor [251]. Photophoretic forces, due to anisotropic heating by absorbed light, can provide levitation (see Ref. 252).  [c.526]

Consider two ideal-gas subsystems a and (3 coupled by a movable diatliemiic wall (piston) as shown in figure A2.1.5. The wall is held in place at a fixed position / by a stop (pin) that can be removed then the wall is free to move to a new position / . The total system (a -t P) is adiabatically enclosed, indeed isolated q = w = 0), so the total energy, volume and number of moles are fixed.  [c.337]

One of the classic experiments on gases was the measurement by Joule and Thomson (1853) of the change m temperature when a gas flows tln-ough a porous plug (tln-ottling valve) from a pressure p Xoa pressure (figure A2.1.8). The total system is jacketed in such a way that the process is adiabatic q = 0), and the pressures are constant (other than an infinitesimal bp) in the two parts. The work done on the gas in the right-hand region to bring it through is left-hand region is -p dV (because dV is  [c.357]

Thermodynamic properties can be calculated using the radial distribution function, if pairwise additivity of the forces is assumed. These properties are usually given as an ideal gas part plus a real gas part. For example, to calculate the energy of a real gas, we consider the spherical shell of volume 47rr Sr that contains pg[r) Sr particles. If the pair potential at a distance r has a value i,(r) then the energy of interaction between the particles in the shell and the central particle is 47rr pg(r)T (r) Sr. The total potential energy of the real gas is obtained by integrating this between 0 and oo and multiplying the result  [c.325]

Another small asbestos plug is then inserted to confine the lead peroxide (it s very important that the lead peroxide is not tamped down or it will almost completely prevent passage of gas through the tube) followed by a 30 mm. roll of silver gauze, treated in the same way as the first one inserted. This is the main halogen-absorbent, the one already inserted sendng as a trap (at 180 ) to catch any halogen lost by the hot (680°) silver halide first formed. Next about 25-30 mm. of ignited asbestos is added this is known as a " choking plug" as it is this clement of filling that offers the major part of the resistance to the flow of oxygen in the apparatus. The exact dimensions and compression of the choking plug are determined by trial and error. The amount of asbestos is so adjusted that, when the combustion tube is completely packed, the apparatus assembled, the absorption tubes in place, the furnace and thermostatic mortar at their equilibrium temperatures, and also when there is a pressure of 60 mm,/water registered on the pressure gauge and a reduced head of about 20 mm. of water on the Mariotte bottle, the rate of flow of oxygen through the apparatus is about 5 ml. per min. It is essential to have the furnace and mortar on while this adjustment is being made as temperature greatly affects the rate at w hich gas will flow at a given pressure difference (hot tubes generally run noticeably faster than cold).  [c.473]

Acetylcyclohexanone. Method A. Place a mixture of 24-5g. of cyclohexanone (regenerated from the bisulphite compound) and 51 g. (47 -5 ml.) of A.R. acetic anh3 dride in a 500 ml. three-necked flask, fitt with an efficient sealed stirrer, a gas inlet tube reaching to within 1-2 cm. of the surface of the liquid combined with a thermometer immersed in the liquid (compare Fig. II, 7, 12, 6), and (in the third neck) a gas outlet tube leading to an alkah or water trap (Fig. II, 8, 1). Immerse the flask in a bath of Dry Ice - acetone, stir the mixture vigorously and pass commercial boron trifluoride (via an empty wash bottle and then through 95 per cent, sulphuric acid) as fast as possible (10-20 minutes) until the mixture, kept at 0-10°, is saturated (copious evolution of white fumes when the outlet tube is disconnected from the trap). Replace the Dry Ice-acetone bath by an ice bath and pass the gas in at a slower rate to ensure maximum absorption. Stir for 3 -5 hours whilst allowing the ice bath to attain room temperature slowly. Pour the reaction mixture into a solution of 136 g. of hydrated sodium acetate in 250 ml. of water, reflux for 60 minutes (or until the boron fluoride complexes are hydrolysed), cool in ice and extract with three 50 ml. portions of petroleum ether, b.p. 40-60° (1), wash the combined extracts free of acid with sodium bicarbonate solution, dry over anhydrous calcium sulphate, remove the solvent by  [c.864]

One gram of radium produces about 0.0001 ml (stp) of emanation, or radon gas, per day. This is purged from the radium and sealed in minute tubes, which are used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Radium is used in the producing of self-luminous paints, neutron sources, and in medicine for the treatment of disease. Some of the more recently discovered radioisotopes, such as 60Co, are now being used in place of radium. Some of these sources are much more powerful, and others are safer to use. Radium loses about 1% of its activity in 25 years, being transformed into elements of lower atomic weight. Lead is a final product of disintegration. Stored radium should be ventilated to prevent build-up of radon.  [c.156]

Another small asbestos plug is then inserted to confine the lead peroxide (it is very important that the lead peroxide is not tamped down or it will almost completely prevent passage of gas through the tube) followed by a 30 mm. roll of silver gauze, treated in the same way as the first one inserted. This is the main halogen-absorbent, the one already inserted serving as a trap (at 180°) to catch any halogen lost by the hot (680°) silver halide first formed. Kext about 25-30 mm. of ignited asbestos is added this is known as a choking plug " as it is this element of filling that offers the major part of the resistance to the flow of oxygen in the apparatus. The exact dimensions and compression of the choking plug are determined by trial and error. The amount of asbestos is so adjusted that, when the combustion tube is completely packed, the apparatus assembled, the absorption tubes in place, the furnace and thermostatic mortar at their equilibrium temperatures, and also when there is a pressure of 60 mm./water registered on the pressure gauge and a reduced head of about 20 mm. of water on the Mariotte bottle, the rate of flow of oxygen through the apparatus is about 5 ml. per min. It is essential to have the furnace and mortar on while this adjustment is being made as temperature greatly affects the rate at which gas will flow at a given pressure difference (hot tubes generally run noticeably faster than cold).  [c.473]

Place 3 3oz packets of Mildewcide into a 1L flask with an electric heating mantle and cork in the neck connected to a gas bubbler immersed in at least 550mL of distilled water. Heat the paraformaldehyde (what is in the Mildewcide) to between 180-200C (a temp, regulator is absolutely necessary for this step or use a silicone oil bath). The paraformaldehyde will depolymerize making formaldehyde gas in about 91% yield. Alternatively, the gas can be bubbled through the Ammonia solution directly (only for the brave ). If the Formaldehyde solution will not be used immedi-  [c.275]


See pages that mention the term Gas in Place : [c.366]    [c.12]    [c.12]    [c.82]    [c.180]    [c.278]    [c.370]    [c.89]    [c.154]    [c.483]    [c.195]    [c.483]    [c.274]   
See chapters in:

Glossary of Natural Gas Reserves  -> Gas in Place