Just What is Information

Sampled data can be used for training inspectors. Using a simulator as a local server, trainees can experience real world inspections by moving simulated probes and viewing the signals on the client screen. This is not possible without spatial information. The simulation is simply the displaying the eddy-current signal on the client display that would have occurred by positioning the probe at a certain position on the test-piece. The probe is then manipulated with a mouse or on a digitizing table in the server. Many clients could view the results of one server, be it a simulator or a real eddy-current instrument, probe and test-piece. Training need not be restricted to just what is available at head office or at the training centre.  [c.1019]

The infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum can, perhaps, yield the most information concerning the structure of organic molecules. The masses of the atoms, and the forces holding them together, are of such magnitude that the usual vibration of organic molecules interact with electromagnetic energy so as to absorb and radiate in the infrared region. Overtones and combinations of these vibrational frequencies may appear in the visible region and in the near-infrared (0-8-2(1), but most of the fundamental vibrations occur in the interval from 2 to 25(i. It is this region of fundamental frequencies that is generally of greatest value in the study of organic molecules. Problems of identity, purity, gross structural features, as well as many finer points of structural detail, can be solved through the use of infrared spectroscopy, often faster than by any other analytical method. For a molecule of high complexity and molecular weight and of unknown constitution, it is usually better to break it down to simpler parts just as is done when a structure is elucidated chemically by degradative methods. The infrared spectrum provides a physical constant which is more valuable than the melting point for characterising organic compounds. A mixed melting point can take as much time as is needed to obtain an infrared spectrum, yet it yields only a single fact whilst the spectrum may provide a great deal of information.  [c.1136]

On a laboratory scale and in smaller (<1.5 m ) fermentors the air can be enriched with oxygen and stirrer speeds (up to 600 rpm) can largely offset oxygen deprivation. Oxygen enrichment and high speed agitation (>100 rpm) is prohibitive from both safety and cost perspectives on a large scale. Because of mechanical simplicity and the abiUty to provide reasonable aeration and good mixing, air-lift fermentors and their draft-tubeless counterparts, ie, the bubble-columns, are increa singly being used at the largest end of the scale. Steam stetilizable probes provide real time information with respect to the oxygen tension in the fermentor. The more expensive, but more rehable, polarographic-type probe is preferred over the galvanic type. The probe output is usually referred to as the dissolved oxygen or simply DO. Although the DO reading is an important indicator of both culture growth and productivity, care is needed to make sure that the reading is an indication of what is really happening in the bulk phase of the fermentation broth rather than just a localized phenomenon. More so than pH probes, DO probes are prone to fouling and can give erroneous readings in various media that contain oil or sihcone-based antifoams. Better control capabiUties and understanding of the overall process have led to many sophisticated computerized process control schemes linking carbon and energy feeds to fermentation process variables. These schemes link feed rates to changes in DO, off-gas composition, heat evolution, and pH. In general, computerized process control (qv) is another area of fermentation processes that is receiving much attention (18,19) because of the cost savings that can be obtained from both a decrease in labor and improvements gained from finer control over the process. Of all the facets of fermentation design, engineering, and process control, the provision of sufficient oxygen to a culture remains a rich area for improvement.  [c.181]

Libraries and iaformation centers are rapidly moving from purchase and ownership of print and on-line resources to rapid access to these resources a change ia philosophy from "just ia case" to "just ia time." Libraries are making hard decisions about what to purchase and what to exclude because of the magnitude and cost of a complete collection of available information. These factors have forced severe cutbacks ia what is actually bought as well as iacreases ia cooperative purchasiag and loan agreements between Hbraries on the local, regional, national, and even international levels. Increased computer power and technology have made geographic boundaries and limitations obsolete (4). Documents, such as journal articles, can be obtained quickly from other hbraries and commercial document deUvery vendors (5). Paper copy remains the preferred format for deUvery of such documents. Documents can be dehvered by regularly scheduled mad, by overnight deUvery, or by facsimile transmission. Pax is the method of choice if extremely short deUvery time is required it is relatively iaexpensive, ie, generally the cost of a phone cad, paper, and suppHes, when compared to courier and overnight dehvery options. Documents created ia an electronic format not only can be easdy edited or updated but also can be transmitted rapidly via electronic mad to multiple users. Electronically created files can be loaded onto diskettes for dehvery of information if an electronic mad system is not avadable. Another method of transfer of documents is via modem, which eliminates the physical transfer of diskettes, adows transmission of word-processed, non-ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) documents with no loss of format, adows transmission of non-English language documents with non-Roman alphabets, and permits rapid, unattended transmission. Speeds ia excess of 14,400 bps are currentiy avadable.  [c.112]

An intriguing possibility thus presents itself. If some kind of a primordial information, and not higher-level constructs such as mass, energy, spin, and so forth, is indeed the real substance out of which all stuff is made - leaving aside for the moment, the question of form of that information - is it not natural to suppose that a discrete space-time structure, our heretofore pre-defined and static dynamical mediator, is itself built out of the same substance i.e. to suppose that space-time is not just a backdrop for information processing, there only to define what is local and what is not and where to and where from information is allowed to flow, but is itself a construct of primordial information This supposition is not entirely without precedent.  [c.688]

Real-world molecular descriptors are highly inter-correlated. This means that most of the relevant information content of a descriptor k can be successfully reconstructed om some other descriptor I, which is highly say, >75%) correlated with k. Among other drawbacks, this phenomenon makes it even more difficult to decide which particular descriptors of the highly inter-correlated pairs, or even sets, have to be picked up. Similarly to PCA, orthogonaHzation yields new variables, which are orthogonal to each another pair-wise, i.e., the correlation coefficients are zero each time. However, unlike PCA, the new variables are by no means latent, at least in the sense that they have a dear interpretation. Each ortho-gonalized variable delivers only that part of the original counterpart which has no analog in other descriptors. What this means is that each new descriptor contributes independently to the model. Therefore, the higher the individual correlation coefficient of this variable with a response, the higher is the significance of the variable to the model Just as in PCA, one can and must) quit with the first few ortho-gonalized variables, as they explain the bulk of the response. Again, we emphasize that the orthogonalized variables bear a clear meaning and can be interpreted in a straightforward and simple way.  [c.219]

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are information processing imits which process information in a way that is motivated by the functionality of the biological nervous system. Just as the brain consists of neurons which are connected with one another, an ANN comprises interrelated artificial neurons. The neurons work together to solve a given problem.  [c.452]

Comparable efforts are needed to master the flood of information and accumulated knowledge in chemistry today. While until 1960 the number of natural and laboratory-produced compounds had almost linearly increased to roughly one million in about 150 years, its growth expanded exponentially from then on, reaching 18 million in 2000. This is just one aspect of the revolution in chemistry brought about by the rapid advancement of computer technology since 1965. Methods of physics, mathematics and information science entered chemistry to an unprecedented extent, which furnished laboratories with powerful new instrumental techniques. Also, a broad variety of model-based or quantum-mechanical computations became feasible, which were thought impossible a few decades ago. For example, the computer modeling of water transport through membranes mediated by aqua-porins yields the time dependence of the spatial position of typically 10 atoms on a picosecond scale up to 10 ns Grubmuller et al., MPl Gottingen). Such huge data arrays can be searched for and accessed via computer networks and then evaluated in a different context ( data mining"). Furthermore, new chemical techniques, such as combinatorial synthesis, have high data output. Overall it can be stated that, particularly for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, researchers  [c.655]

As of the year 1998, small quantities of sassafras oil are still being sold on retail shelves without any scrutiny. Usually in 1-4oz sizes. Anything larger is usually sold only through distributors and manufacturers. And as of 1998, the DEA has informed most of these distributors that they (the DEA) want lists kept or sales reported of most, if not all, sassafras oil purchases. Mind you it is not illegal to buy the oil. It s just that you will be put on a list if you do. The operative term here is Watched Substance . Solution have someone else buy it for you.  [c.31]

Potential maps can be used to compare electron distributions m different molecules providing all of the maps assign the same color to the same potential that is the maps all use the same color-potential scale A normal potential map for methane (CH4) is shown on the left (by normal we mean that the map displays the most negative potential as red and the most positive potential as blue) This map tells us that carbon carries a partial neg ative charge and the hydrogens carry partial positive charges But just like before the map does not tell us the magnitude of these charges One way to get at this information is to reassign the colors using the color-potential scale that was previously used to make water s potential map (see preceding discussion) This gives a new map that looks more or less green everywhere This fact along with the total absence of red and blue tells us that the potentials and the atomic charges m methane are much smaller than those m water (The most positive potential on methane s map is only 50 kJ/mol)  [c.1268]

The normal fragment ions in a mass spectrum potentially contain a wealth of information. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, if the fragments (pieces) can be reassembled correctly, the original molecular structure (jigsaw picture) can be deduced (completed). Whereas in a jigsaw the relative positions of the pieces can be inferred from the way they interlock with neighboring pieces (shapes), in a conventional mass spectrum, connectivities between normal fragment ions are not obvious and may be impossible to discover for large molecules. The molecular jigsaw has to be completed without seeing the shapes of pieces and with knowing only their masses. Because the metastable ions appear differently from normal ions in a mass spectrometer and yet form a link between precursor and product ions, a metastable spectrum (scan) provides the required connectivities between the normal ions. It is unfortunate that the low abundance of metastable ions makes them difficult to observe.  [c.228]

Chapter 32, Origin and Uses of Metastable Ions, should be read in conjunction with this chapter. Briefly, normal ions are those that are formed in the ion source and are sufficiently stable to reach an ion collector without fragmenting further. Many ions formed in an ion source under electron ionization conditions have enough internal energy to decompose rapidly to give more-stable fragments. Once these stable states have been achieved, there is little excess of energy in the ions, and there is no further fragmentation before they reach an ion collector. These are the so-called normal ions (Figure 34.1a). However, some ions have just enough internal energy left over from their formation to fragment after leaving the ion source and before reaching the ion collector these are the metastable ions. For example, as illustrated in Figure 34.1a, some ions m, dissociate in the ion source to give fragment ions mj and a neutral species n, . All of these ions are extracted from the ion source by an electric potential (V) of a few thousand volts and are accelerated to a high velocity each ion has kinetic energy equal to zeV. After being deflected in electric and magnetic sectors, the ions m, mj arrive at a collector to give a mass spectrum. Although in this instance it is obvious that m2 must arise from m, in more complex fragmentations this information is missing. Since one of the attributes of a mass spectrum is the possibility of obtaining a chemical structure for the compound under investigation, the lack of connections between ions removes a vital step in knowing how the ions relate to each other. It is rather like trying to reassemble a clock knowing the masses of the bits and pieces but not how they relate to each other.  [c.237]

Yeast Artificial Chromosomes for Insertion of Passenger DNA Molecules Larger than 10 bp. The sizes of the passenger DNA molecules inserted into cosmid and phage vectors are limited by the requirement for packaging of the recombinant DNA into the phage head. In addition, recombinant plasmids in E. coli ate often unstable if these are larger than 50—100 kb. A system for constmcting Hbraries from complex DNAs has been developed (10) that overcomes many of these limitations. Reasoning that individual eukaryotic chromosomes are extremely large (> 10 -10 bp in most organisms). DNA molecules, a vector that provides the sequences necessary for faithful repHcation and segregation of an individual yeast chromosome to the recombinant was constmcted. Passenger DNA inserted into these vectors is repHcated by yeast as an extra, linear chromosome in the nucleus. In addition to a cloning site and sequences allowing the preparation of the vector from E. coli, these yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) vectors (Fig. 5) contain sequences required for chromosomal propagation CEN, the sequence that provides the information for segregation of the artificial chromosome through mitosis and meiosis ARS, an autonomous repHcation sequence, ie, an origin of DNA repHcation TEL, sequences directing the formation of telomeres, the ends of the chromosome. In YAC cloning experiments, large fragments of chromosomal DNA are prepared by partial digestion with a restriction enzyme and size fractionation. Then the passenger DNA is ligated into the vector and the ligation mixture is transformed into yeast. The YACs ate repHcated as linear molecules, just as are the resident chromosomes of yeast. Screening for desired sequences is done by standard protocols, as described above.  [c.233]

Deciphering the genetic information within species or individuals has important appHcations for human and animal sciences. The tremendous size (six biUion base pairs) of the average genome makes the determination of the sequence of nucleotides within an individual neady impossible. Indeed, hundreds of scientists are involved in determining the sequence of nucleotides from just one human genome. Therefore, nucleotide sequencing of the genome of multiple iadividuals from various species is not practical. Other methods have been developed to locate the genetic information associated with superior productivity in farm animals. Two possibiUties exist. Ekst, although relatively few genes controlling quantitative traits have been discovered or completely understood, multiple alleles are found for some of these genes. Therefore, alleles associated with superior production can be identified and animals having the superior allele selected. Unfortunately the vast majority of genes that control production have not yet been discovered. Therefore, a second method of genetic selection can be performed without knowledge of the specific genes that control quantitative traits. Eor this method, genetic markers, polymorphic gene sequences with unknown function, located close to QTL, are used to select superior farm animals. The use of these methods, ie, either using markers located within known QTL or using those markers located near undiscovered QTL to find superior animals is known as marker assisted selection (54,55).  [c.243]

UV-VIS Just as with arylammes (Section 22 20) it is informative to look at the UV VIS behavior of phenols m terms of how the OH group affects the benzene chromophore  [c.1015]

PDF417 is a multirow, continuous symbology capable of encoding large quantities of information. It s just what its name suggests—a Portable Data File.  [c.1971]

Thompson and Goldstein [89] improve on the calculations of Stolorz et al. by including the secondary structure of the entire window rather than just a central position and then sum over all secondary strucmre segment types with a particular secondary structure at the central position to achieve a prediction for this position. They also use information from multiple sequence alignments of proteins to improve secondary structure prediction. They use Bayes rule to fonnulate expressions for the probability of secondary structures, given a multiple alignment. Their work describes what is essentially a sophisticated prior distribution for 6 i(X), where X is a matrix of residue counts in a multiple alignment in a window about a central position. The PDB data are used to form this prior, which is used as the predictive distribution. No posterior is calculated with posterior = prior X likelihood.  [c.339]

Health Hazards Information - Recommended Personal Protective Equipment Wide-brimmed hat and close-fitting safety goggles equipped with rubber side shields long sleeved cotton shirt or jacket with buttoned collar and buttoned sleeves rubber or rubber-coated canvas gloves. (Shirt sleeves should be buttoned over the gloves so that any spilled material will run down the outside). Rubber safety-toe shoes or boots and cotton overalls. (Trouser cuffs should be worn outside of boots). Rubber apron Symptoms Following Exposure Causes severe burns of eyes, skin, and mucous membranes General Treatment for Exposure (Act quickly ) EYES flush with water for at least 15 min. SKIN flush with water, than rinse with dilute vinegar (acetic acid). INGESTION give water and milk. Do not induce vomiting. Call physician immediately, even if injury seems minor Toxicity by Inhalation (Threshold Limit Value) Not pertinent Toxicity by Ingestion oral rat LDjq = 365 mg/kg Late Toxicity None Vepor (Gas) Irritant Characteristics Not pertinent Liquid or Solid Irritant Characteristics This chemical is a sever skin irritant. Can cause second- and third-degree chemical burns on short contact and is very injurious to the eyes. Odor Threshold Not pertinent.  [c.81]

UV-VIS Just as with arylanines (Section 22.20), it is informative to look at the UV-VIS behavior of phenols in terms of how the OH group affects the benzene chromophore.  [c.1015]

Arranged in this way, this same collection of 151 letters possesses enormous information content—the profound words of a great scientist. Just as it would have required significant effort to rearrange these 151 letters in this way, so large amounts of energy are required to construct and maintain living organisms. Energy input is required to produce information-rich, organized structures such as proteins and nucleic acids. Information content can be thought of as negative entropy. In 1945 Erwin Schrodinger took time out from his studies of quantum mechanics to publish a delightful book entitled What is Life" In it, Schrodinger coined the term negentropy to describe the negative entropy changes that  [c.60]

Consider Q Z(Q) A, V, P,P,Co, where I Q,) represents some irreducible information of the set fl. Examine everything that must be specified in order to define a system - both explicit (like the system s parts and their interactions) and implicit (like the existence of a space-time in which to embed it) -interpret it as being articulated modulo a particular language and accessibility to a given set of observations about the world, and then ask to what extent is what I have thus defined independent of all of the assumptions I have made (or have been constrained to make) to do so Just as conventional, relativistic physics teaches us that the real physics is what is independent of a particular inertial reference frame, so too our maximally relativistic physics teaches us that the real physics is what is independent of a particular self-consistent way (i.e. language) of describing it. The catch is that one is forced to use an arbitrary language C to articulate what is presumably independent of all languages.  [c.705]

It was recognized early in the history of diffraction studies that just as x-rays and high-energy electrons (say, 50 keV) gave information about the bulk periodicity of a crystsd, low-energy electrons (around 1(K) eV) whose penetrating power is only a few atomic diameters should provide information about the surface structure of the solid. The first reported experiment of Davisson and Germer in 1927 [69] was hampered by difficulties in generating a monoener-getic beam of electrons and detecting its scattering without ultra-high-vacuum techniques. Even at a pressure of 10 torr, a surface becomes covered with a monolayer of adsorbed gas in about 1 sec to study clean surfaces, pressures down to 10 are needed.  [c.302]

Several other features of the figure merit attention. The two hydroxymethyl resonances, H-6a at 3.79 ppm and H-6b at 3.68 ppm, are separated in shift because of the chiral centres present, especially the nearby one at C-5. (One should note that a chiral centre will always break the synunetry of a molecule, just as an otherwise synmietrical coffee mug loses its symmetry whilst grasped by a right hand.) H-5 is thus distinctive in showing tlu-ee coupling coimections, and could be assigned by this alone, in the absence of other information. Also, the (H-6a to H-6b) cross-peak gives the general impression of a tilt parallel to the diagonal, whereas some of the other cross-peaks show the opposite tilt. This appearance of a tilt in the more complex cross-peaks is the deliberate consequence of completing the COSY pulse sequence with a 45° rather than a 90° pulse. It actually arises from selective changes of intensity in the component peaks of the off-diagonal multiplet. The parallel  [c.1459]

Several essential basic properties of phases in optics are contained in [28,41,121]. It was noted in [28], with reference to the complex analytic signal (an electromagnetic field with positive frequency components), that the position of zeros (from which the phase can be detemiined) and the intensity represent two sets of information that are intetwined by the analytic property of the wave. In Section III, we shall again encounter this finding, in the context of complex matter (Schrodinger) waves. Experimentally, observations in wave guide structures of the positions of amplitude zeros (which are just the phase singularities ) were made in [122]. An alternative way for the determination of phase is from location of maxima in interference fringes ([28], Section VII.C.2).  [c.102]

You have just purchased or stolen the most comprehensive and detailed book on the underground production of ecstasy, metham-phetamine and psychedelic amphetamines ever published. Strike (your host) is an ecstasy and amphetamine chemist from Texas who used to be very frustrated with the lack of common-sense information about the production of amphetamines. Strike remedied this for Strike and now Strike is gonna remedy it for you, too. This book is packed with the latest street methods for making amphetamines - written in plain English with the detail that no other book can offer.  [c.5]

The first educt (A) needed to build up recombinant bacteria which produce foreign proteins is a double-strand DNA which encodes for the desired protein. This cannot be isolated directly from human or animal cells because it is a very small part of a large chromosome and often contains ten times more intervening DNA segments ( introns ) which are not translated in protein synthesis. There are, however, messenger-RNA (mRNA) molecules present in the protein synthesis apparatus that carry just the required structural sequence plus start and stop signals needed for the translation of the nucleic acid code into protein structures. Such mRNAs can, for example, be isolated as electrophoretic spots from human pituitary gland tissue. Reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in certain RNA viruses, is then used to copy the genetic information from the single-strand mRNA into single-strand DNA ( copy DNA , cDNA ). The RNA template is removed, and a second complementary strand of DNA is attached with a DNA polymerase. After breaking the covalent bond between the two complementary strands with a nuclease, a double-strand DNA is obtained, to which short terminal sequences of identical nucleotides, e. g., four cytosines, are attached with the aid ol a terminal transferase to provide the sticky ends for further processing.  [c.242]

Nomenclature in organic chemistry is of two types common (or trivial ) and system atic Some common names existed long before organic chemistry became an organized branch of chemical science Methane ethane propane n butane isobutane n pentane isopentane and neopentane are common names One simply memorizes the name that goes with a compound m just the same way that one matches names with faces So long as there are only a few names and a few compounds the task is manageable But there are millions of organic compounds already known and the list continues to grow A sys tern built on common names is not adequate to the task of communicating structural information Beginning m 1892 chemists developed a set of rules for naming organic compounds based on their structures We call these the lUPAC rules, lUPAC stands for  [c.70]

The collision cell used with the first two types (1, 2) is an RF-only quadrupole or a hexapole. This type of cell adds only a small amount of energy to an ion during its collision with the cell gas. The third type uses a high-energy collision cell that has the advantage of producing fragmentation of amino acid side chains as well as the backbone fragmentation shown in Figure 40.4. This extra fragmentation gives information that permits differentiation of the two isomeric amino acid residues, leucine and isoleucine. Sequence information has been obtained by MS/MS on samples up to 2500 Da, often at low picomole levels, and usually in just a few minutes.  [c.290]

Co is very high, 1131°C, and provides a reasonable margin for the amount of an additional element by which usually decreases. It is also tme, at least for bulk material, that adding Cr to Co can finally make the hep stmcture become unstable and at certain compositions it is also possible that two crystal stmctures (fee and hep) are present. Furthermore it has been shown that even two different phases, one with a high Co-rich composition (ferromagnetic) and the other with a high Cr-rich content (paramagnetic) can be formed (68). Consequently, a dding Cr to Co has two important effects reduction of the and Af. For recording appHcations these values should be optimized. The must not be too close to room temperature, because then the magnetic behavior becomes too sensitive for temperature variations. Af should have a certain value because otherwise the information caimot be read by the head. The physics behind the reduction of Af and are compHcated and not completely known. However, the most usefljl model when Cr is added to Co is to consider that the magnetic moment of Co atoms is reduced by electron transfer to its 3t7band from Cr. It has been shown experimentally that the drastically decreases with the Cr content and becomes paramagnetic just above about 22 wt % at room temperature. This is not expected if Cr only acts as a simple dilutant (69). Also, the transfer of As electrons from Cr to the >d shell of Co may lower the magnetic moment (70). Furthermore, pure Cr is antiferromagnetic at room temperature and a ferromagnetic sublattice coupling also seems to be an acceptable explanation for the relative strong decrease of when compared with other X elements, which form an hep phase with Co (71). Adding Cr to Co also gives an enhanced anisotropy field. Furthermore, with the variation of the Cr content it is possible to adjust  [c.182]

In business transactions the parties should have a clear understanding of exactly what constitutes trade secret information and consider how the information will be used and who will retain ownership rights. If the transaction is a pure and simple sale, concerns over ownership may be meritless. However, such concerns might be weU-founded, if further research or commercial development involves similar information. It may also be necessary to consider whether the seUer should be allowed to compete against the buyer in ventures involving the same or related information. These are just some of the issues which arise with the sale of the trade secrets.  [c.40]

INPADOC and EPIDOS Register. If WPI is the preeminent multipurpose file, INPADOC is the preeminent bibhographic file. Its family information is more complete than that of any other database, although it has less intellectual family data than WPI. The legal status data, whether in a combined file as in DIALOG or a separate file as in ORB IT s LEGSTAT, is the most extensive available, and will most likely extend to additional countries soon. The subject searching capabiUty of the database is sharply limited to only original tide words (many in a variety of languages) and IPCs, but in appropriate circumstances INPADOC can stiU be used effectively for subject searching. Eor example, if an organization has recentiy obtained a patent in a given area of technology, and the patent pubhcation is so new that it has not yet reached the WPI database, an INPADOC search can be quite fmitful. This is especially so with a file such as ORB IT s INPANEW or STN s INPAMONITOR, which include just a few weeks worth of the most recent information, and process rapidly as a result.  [c.61]

Several auxiUary files complement the various basic U.S. patent databases. USCLASS on ORBIT coordinates updated patent classes and patent numbers going back to the beginning of the U.S. patent system. CLAIMS/Reference on DIALOG (File 124) and IFIREF on STN iaclude the text of the U.S. classification system, along with the IFI indexing vocabulary CLAIMS-CLASS on ORBIT has just the classification text, not the indexing vocabulary. CLAIMS-Registry shows the fragmentation of compounds specifically iadexed ia the IFI system, and a generic search of this file produces a search Hst of specific compounds to augment a generic fragment search. The Patent Status File from Derwent s Rapid Patent subsidiary is available ia print and on the ORBIT system, and collects a wide range of post-issuance events ia the life of U.S. patents, including corrections and reassignments. LITALERT, from the same source, provides information on U.S. patent Htigation.  [c.62]

This industry restmcturing, coupled with removal of price controls and a large deHverabiHty—demand inbalance, the so-called gas bubble, led to low gas prices during the late 1980s and early 1990s and resulted in the formation of a spot market for natural gas, a gas futures market, and a need for more sophisticated gas technology. The common carrier status of natural gas pipelines allows many small producers to enter the pipelines, if pipeline capacity is available, and make deHveries on a short-term (spot) basis. Flow computers at entry and exit points along the pipeline provide an instantaneous and accurate account of the gas that enters or leaves the pipeline. The flow computers tie into a large computer at pipeline headquarters to record an accurate account of gas from producers entering the pipeline as weU as gas exiting to a gas user or distributor. In addition, FERC Order 636 mandated the estabHshment of an electronic bulletin board (EBB) for the gas industry, by which anyone with a personal computer can obtain the latest information needed to purchase gas and transport it by pipeline, such as suppHers prices, available pipeline capacity, etc (1). The EBB will also carry information about capacity release in pipeline operations and permit trading of capacity release options so that elements of pipeline capacity will become a commodity, just as the natural gas itself The objective is to optimize the efficiency of the national gas pipeline grid (2).  [c.45]

See pages that mention the term Just What is Information : [c.721]    [c.215]    [c.326]    [c.689]    [c.889]    [c.501]    [c.187]    [c.288]    [c.506]    [c.528]    [c.550]    [c.660]    [c.713]    [c.1115]    [c.80]    [c.313]    [c.284]   
See chapters in:

Cellular automata  -> Just What is Information