Average Cycle Number

Average Cycle Number  [c.436]

Table 8.9 shows that while the number of attractors increases exponentially, the average cycle length increases rather slowly as a function of N. Random Boolean nets with connectivity one are also generally only moderately stable with respect to minimal perturbations.  [c.432]

Table 8.9 shows that while the number of cycles rows only linearly with N, the average cycle length increases exponentially as Moreover, it can easily  [c.434]

Counting scales display the number of parts on the scale as well as the total weight. They estabUsh the average piece weight (APW) of the parts to be counted, which can be stored in memory along with the part number and an associated tare weight. In the case of cycle counting operations, for example, a bin of parts is placed on the scale and the APW and container weight is recalled by keying in the part number the scale then calculates the net weight of the parts and divides by the APW to arrive at the parts count. This information can be displayed and stored in memory for automatic uploading to the main computer for correction of inventory records. Counting scales can also be used with bar code scanners to eliminate the need for keying part numbers. It is common practice to store all APW and tare weights on a main computer from which it is downloaded to the scale daily, as an indication of what needs to be cycle counted that day.  [c.335]

On Figure 6.3.1 the first line tells the date and duration of the experiment. In the third line the number of cycles is five. This indicates that feed and product streams were analyzed five times before an evaluation was made. The concentrations, and all other numbers are the average of the five repeated analyses with the standard deviation given for each average value. The RATE as 1/M means for each component the reaction rate in lb-moles per 1000 lbs of catalyst.  [c.126]

For a given combination of filter design and dust, the effluent particle concentration from a cartridge collector is nearly constant, whereas the overall efficiency is more likely to vary with particulate loading. For this reason, cartridge collectors can be considered to be constant outlet devices rather than constant efficiency devices. Constant effluent concentration is achieved because at any given time, part of the filter media is being cleaned. As a result of the cleaning mechanisms used in cartridge collectors, the collection efficiency is constantly changing. Each cleaning cycle removes at least some of the filter cake and loosens particles that remain on the filter. When filtration resumes, the filtering capability has been reduced because the lost filter cake and loose particles are pushed through the filter by the flow of gas. As particles are captured, the efficiency increases until the next cleaning cycle. Average collection efficiencies for cartridge collectors are usually determined from tests that cover a number of cleaning cycles at a constant inlet loading. As with baghouses, this equipment is applicable for point source control.  [c.412]

Water quality is described as a type of average condition over a number of tidal cycles  [c.360]

The cyclic steady state behavior, characteristic of a SMB operation, is shown in Fig. 9-3 for the case of 2-2-2-2 configuration in terms of the concentration of the two enantiomers in extract. Figure 9-4 shows the evolution of the internal concentration profiles for the more retained component after cyclic steady state is reached, during a switch time interval. Figure 9-5 shows the influence of the degree of subdivision of the bed in the transient concentration of extract, and makes the comparison with the TMB approach. The behavior of the SMB is predicted in three ways the transient evolution of concentration profiles the average concentration evaluated at each switch time interval, and the instantaneous concentration evaluated at half-time between two successive switchings. These figures show the transient evolution during the first five cycles. Although the switch time interval depends on the degree of subdivision of the bed, the duration of a full cycle will be 24 min for all SMB cases. It is clear that differences between SMB and TMB predictions are attenuated with the increase of the number of subdivisions. Figure 9-6 compares the steady state  [c.228]

To keep the shoulders together, the shoulder load must be high enough to create a compressive stress at the shoulder face capable of offsetting the bending that occurs due to drill collar buckling. This backup load is generated by a makeup torque. Field observations indicate that an average stress of 62,500 psi in pin or box, whichever is weaker (cross-sectional area), should be created by the makeup torque to prevent shoulder separation in most drilling conditions. It should be pointed out that the makeup torque creates the tensile stress in the pin and, consequently, the number of cycles for fatigue failure of the pin is decreased. Therefore, too high a makeup torque has a detrimental effect on the drill collar service life.  [c.731]

Average Number of Length-a Cycles  [c.436]

Afp[a] = the average number of points belonging to length-a cycles, so that the average number of a-cycles is given by N a) = A/"p[a]/a, Thus,  [c.436]

Figures 3,20, 3,21 and 3,22 show how the number of cyclic states (Nc), the average cycle length Crmave) and total fraction of states on cycles fc) changes as Figures 3,20, 3,21 and 3,22 show how the number of cyclic states (Nc), the average cycle length Crmave) and total fraction of states on cycles fc) changes as
Although there is no doubt that greenhouse gas concentrations and the radiative forcing are increasing, there is no unequivocal evidence that this forcing is actually causing a net warming of the earth. Analyses of global temperature trends since the 1860s show that the global temperature has increased about 0.5—0.7°C (51,52), but this number decreases to M).5° C when corrections for heat-island effects are considered (53). This is in reasonable agreement with modeling results which predict a temperature increase of - 1° C (54). However, most of the temperature increase occurred prior to the increases in CO2 (55). A detailed analysis of global temperature and CO2 concentration time-series from 1958 to 1988, the period of atmospheric CO2 measurements, shows an excellent positive correlation, but CO2 changes lag temperature change by an average of 5 months (56). Thus, although there is strong evidence linking temperature and CO2 changes, the cause and effect has not been demonstrated, and it is not clear which is the cause and which is the effect. The lack of a definitive relationship may also be obscured by changes in other factors that affect the earth s heat budget such as increased atmospheric aerosols or cloud cover and natural climatic cycles. Global circulation models (GCMs) predict that the average global temperature will increase from 2.0 to 5.5°C as CO2 concentrations double from those of preindustrialized levels (57,58). The temperature increases are not expected to be uniformly distributed. The uncertainties in these models are large because many of the important feedback processes involving oceans and clouds are not adequately understood to properly incorporate them into the model system (see Atmospheric modeling).  [c.379]

The RISC versus CISC conundmm has led to the much abused and ultimately extremely confusiag term MIPS (millions of iastmctions per second). Measures of performance that can be more directiy related to a computer s abiUty to perform usehil work should always be preferred over machine MIPS. The throughput of a computer is a function of the number of iastmctions to be executed, the average number of iastmctions that can be executed per clock cycle, and the time per clock cycle.  [c.92]

Nitrogen is the most abundant uncombincd element accessible to man. It compri.ses 78.1% by volume of the atmosphere (i.c. 78.3 atom% or 7- i..5 wt%) and is produced industrially from this source on the multimegatonne scale annually. In combined form it is essential to all forms of life, and constitutes, on average, about l. i% by weight of proteins. The industrial fixation of nitrogen for agricultural fertilizers and other chemical products is now carried out on a vast scale in many countries, and the number of moles of anhydrous ammonia manufactured exceeds that of any other compound. Indeed, of the top fifteen high-volume industrial chemicals produced in the USA, five contain nitrogen (Fig. 11.1)." This has imprtrtant con.sequences, predominantly beneficial but occasionally detrimental, since of all man s recent interventions in the cycles of nature the industrial fixation of nitrogen is by far the most extensive. These aspects will be discussed further in later sections.  [c.406]

The requirements for products other than major home appliances vai y depending upon the product. Maliutacturcrs of tluorcsccnt lamp ballasts must disclose an encircled E on ballasts and on luminaires containing ballasts, as well as on packaging for both. The E signifies compliance with DOE s energy conseiwation standards for those products. Manufacturers of showerheads, faucets, toilets, and urinals must disclose, on the products and their packaging and labeling, the water usage of their products in terms of gallons and liters per flush, per minute, or per cycle. Manufacturers of certain incandescent bulbs, spot and flood bulbs, and screw-base compact lluorescent bulbs must disclose, on packaging, the light output m lumens, energy used in watts, voltage, average life, and number of bulbs. They also must explain how purchasers can select the most energy-efficient bulb for their needs. Manufacturers of certain tube-type fluorescent bulbs must disclose on  [c.382]

Let P a a ) be the probability of transition from state a to state a. In general, the set of transition probabilities will define a system that is not describ-able by an equilibrium statistical mechanics. Instead, it might give rise to limit cycles or even chaotic behavior. Fortunately, there exists a simple condition called detailed balance such that, if satisfied, guarantees that the evolution will lead to the desired thermal equilibrium. Detailed balance requires that the average number of transitions from a to a equal the number of transitions from a to a  [c.328]

Since we will be dealing with finite graphs, we can analyze the behavior of random Boolean nets in the familiar fashion of looking at their attractor (or cycle) state structure. Specifically, we choose to look at (1) the number of attractor state cycles, (2) the average cyclic state length, (3) the sizes of the basins of attraction, (4) the stability of attractors with respect to minimal perturbations, and (4) the changes in the attractor states and basins of attraction induced by mutations in the lattice structure and/or the set of Boolean rules.  [c.430]

Although number of distinct attracdors is < N/e, the average length of an attractor increases exponentially with N. The exponential rate of growth is relatively small for small connectivities, and increases to N/2 for n N. Generally speaking, N, k>5) nets show complex behavior but have relatively few distinct cycles. The stability of the cycles with respect to minimal perturbations is also generally low.  [c.434]

See pages that mention the term Average Cycle Number : [c.2485]    [c.211]    [c.405]    [c.1337]    [c.31]    [c.405]   
See chapters in:

Cellular automata  -> Average Cycle Number