Imides


Amidines are best made in two stages a nitrile reacts with dry HCl and anhydrous alcohols to give an imidic ester (imino-ether) which yields an amidine with NH3.  [c.27]

To avoid these problems, refiners commonly use additives called detergents" (Hall et al., 1976), (Bert et al., 1983). These are in reality surfactants made from molecules having hydrocarbon chains long enough to ensure their solubility in the fuel and a polar group that enables them to be absorbed on the walls and prevent deposits from sticking. The most effective chemical structures are succinimides, imides, and fatty acid amines. The required dosages are between 500 and 1000 ppm of active material.  [c.243]

Steiner U B, Cased W R, Suter U W, Rehahn M and Schmitz L 1993 Ultrathin layers of low and high-molecular-weight imides on gold and copper Langmuir 6 3245-54  [c.2641]

Ammonium salts, amides, imides and nitriles.  [c.317]

Ammonium salt of any acid Acid amides Acid nitriles Imides of dibasic acids  [c.329]

Section i6. Ammonium salts, amides, imides, and nitriles, (c/. Tables XI, XII, pp. 543 545)  [c.359]

C) IMIDES. R( NH. Succinimide, phthalimide.  [c.359]

C) Imides. Both colourless solids succinimide is readily soluble, and  [c.359]

Give off ammonia freely when treated with aqueous NaOH solution in the cold (distinction from amides, imides and nitriles).  [c.359]

B) GENERAL REACTIONS FOR AMIDES, IMIDES AND NITRILES.  [c.360]

If the amide is an N-(mono- or di)-substituted amide, or the imide an N-substituted imide, the above alkaline hydrolysis will give a solution  [c.361]

Dihydrate anhydrous, m.p. 190. Monohydrate anhydrous, m.p. 153 . Imide, m.p. 125 . Imide. m.p. 93  [c.541]

Di-substituted deriv. f Imide (saccharin) has m.p 224.  [c.546]

The reaction is applicable to the preparation of amines from amides of aliphatic aromatic, aryl-aliphatic and heterocyclic acids. A further example is given in Section IV,170 in connexion with the preparation of anthranilic acid from phthal-imide. It may be mentioned that for aliphatic monoamides containing more than eight carbon atoms aqueous alkaline hypohalite gives poor yields of the amines. Good results are obtained by treatment of the amide (C > 8) in methanol with sodium methoxide and bromine, followed by hydrolysis of the resulting N-alkyl methyl carbamate  [c.413]

Imides. Imides are generally water-soluble, consequently they are much more readily hydrolysed in an alkaline medium, e.g., by refluxing with 10 per cent, sodium hydroxide solution  [c.1075]

In organic chemistry the term refers to compounds containing the NH2 ion or the > NH group. These are prepared by the action of heat on amides or by metathetica reactions in liquid ammonia. The heavy metal imides are explosive.  [c.214]

Amides (except urea and thiourea), imides and nitriles, after the above alkaline hydrolysis, give derivatives similarly to those from the alkaline solution obtained from ammonium salts (p. 360). (A) If the original compound is aromatic, acidification of the cold solution deposits the crystalline acid. (B) The cold solution, when carefully neutralised (p. 332) and treated with benzylthiuronium chloride, deposits the thiuromum salt.  [c.361]

Almost insoluble in cold water. Higher alcohols (including benzyl alcohol), higher phenols (e.g., naphthols), metaformaldehyde, paraldehyde, aromatic aldehydes, higher ketones (including acetophenone), aromatic acids, most esters, ethers, oxamide and domatic amides, sulphonamides, aromatic imides, aromatic nitriles, aromatic acid anhydrides, aromatic acid chlorides, sulphonyl chlorides, starch, aromatic amines, anilides, tyrosine, cystine, nitrocompounds, uric acid, halogeno-hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons.  [c.404]

Amine B.P. M.P. Aceta- mide Benz- amlde Benzene- SUlphOD- amlde p-Tolu- enesul- phoD- amlde Benzal Derivative Picrate 3-Nitro- phthal- imide 2 4-Dinitro-phenyl Derivative Formyl Derivative Phenyl thio- urea  [c.657]

Saccharin (imide of o-sulphobenzoic acid). Upon oxidising o toluene-sulphonamide with potassium permanganate in alkaline solution, the sodium salt of o-sulphonamidobenzoic acid is formed, which upon acidifying with concentrated hydrochloric acid or warming passes spontaneously into the cyclic imide of o-sulphobenzoic acid or saccharin  [c.821]

When acetone is condensed with ethyl cyanoacetate in the presence of a solution of anhydrous ammonia in absolute alcohol at —5°, the ammonium salt of the dicyano-imlde (I) is precipitated. Upon dissolving this salt in water and adding excess of concentrated hydrochloric acid, the crystalline dicyano-imide (II) is obtained. Hydrolysis of the last-named with strong sulphuric acid affords p p dimethylglutaric acid (III).  [c.876]

Dissolve 64 g. ( g. mol) of the findy-powdered dicyano-imide in 160 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid in a 1-litre round-bottomed flask gentle warming may be necessary and a clear reddish-brown solution is obtained. Keep the solution overnight and then add 150 ml. of water slowly and with frequent shaking. Attach a reflux condenser to the flask and heat very gently at first owing to the attendant frothing," which subsides after 2-3 hours. Heat the mixture under reflux for a total period of 18-24 hours and shake well at intervals of 3 hours. The acid separates upon cooling collect it on a sintered glass funnel. It may be dried at about 90° the yield of crude acid is nearly quantitative. To remove small quantities of imides which may be present, treat the crude acid with excess of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, filter from any imide, strongly acidify with concentrated hydrochloric acid, saturate the solution with ammonium sulphate, and extract the acid with three or four 200 ml. portions of ether. Dry the ethereal extract with anhydrous sodium or magnesium sulphate and distil off the ether. Recrystallise the residual acid from concentrated hydrochloric acid, and dry at 70°. Pure PP-dimethylglutaric acid, m.p. 101°, is obtained.  [c.877]

METHYL y-BROMOCROTONATE JV-Bromosuccinimide. Dissolve, with the aid of rapid mechanical stirring, 80 g. of pure succinimide (Section V,14) in a mixture of 150 g. of finely crushed ice and a solution of 32 g. of sodium hydroxide in 200 ml. of water contained in a litre beaker and cooled externally by ice. Immediately the imide has dissolved, continue the vigorous stirring and introduce 42 -5 ml. of bromine in one lot from a separatory funnel supported over the beaker it is essential that the bromine be instantly suspended in the solution. After stirring vigorously for 2 minutes, filter at the pump and  [c.926]

Hydrolysis of saccharin (o-sulphobenzoic imide) (Section IV, 209) with dilute hydrochloric acid yields acid ammonium 0 sulphobenzoate, w hich upon  [c.987]

Nitro compounds. Nitromethane Nitrobenzene ni-Dinitrobenzene. Amides and imides. Acetamide re-Caproamide Acetanilide Benz-anilide Phthalimide.  [c.1056]

Preliminary indication of the presence of a phenol ester may be obtained by heating the compound with soda-lime esters of phenols and also aromatic hydroxy-acids usually give the phenol. (Likewise amides, Imides, nitriles, substituted hydrazines, uretheines, etc. eifiord ammonia.)  [c.1064]

The imides, primaiy and secondary nitro compounds, oximes and sulphon amides of Solubility Group III are weakly acidic nitrogen compounds they cannot be titrated satisfactorily with a standard alkaU nor do they exhibit the reactions characteristic of phenols. The neutral nitrogen compounds of Solubility Group VII include tertiary nitro compounds amides (simple and substituted) derivatives of aldehydes and ketones (hydrazones, semlcarb-azones, ete.) nitriles nitroso, azo, hydrazo and other Intermediate reduction products of aromatic nitro compounds. All the above nitrogen compounds, and also the sulphonamides of Solubility Group VII, respond, with few exceptions, to the same classification reactions (reduction and hydrolysis) and hence will be considered together.  [c.1074]

The system of classification adopted is based upon the premise that every definite compound can be expressed by a structural formula. This leads to the four divisions tabulated below. Furthermore, the position of each definite organic compound in the appropriate division is determined by its stem nucleus, which is obtained by replacing in the formula of the compound all atoms or groups attached to carbon by the equivalent number of hydrogen atoms except where such replacement would involve the breaking of a cyclic chain. Moreover, whenever a given formula gives rise to stem nuclei of more than one division, the compound will be found in the same main division as the one of its component stem nuclei which comes last in the systematic arrangement this is sometimes spoken of the principle of latest position in the system. No cyclic chain of atoms may be broken during the formulation of the stem nucleus this principle leads to the inclusion of compounds such as the anhydrides and imides of dibasic acids, sulphimides, lactides and lactones of hydroxy-acids, etc. under heterocyclic compounds.  [c.1115]


See pages that mention the term Imides : [c.119]    [c.214]    [c.233]    [c.321]    [c.335]    [c.404]    [c.192]    [c.404]    [c.405]    [c.406]    [c.407]    [c.702]    [c.703]    [c.876]    [c.877]    [c.988]    [c.1048]    [c.1052]    [c.1083]    [c.1084]   
Textbook on organic chemistry (1974) -- [ c.1075 ]

Carey organic chemistry (0) -- [ c.862 ]

Organic chemistry (0) -- [ c.862 ]