Analytic Approach


Zhou Y and Stell G 1993 Analytic approach to molecular liquids V. Symmetric dissociative dipolar dumb-bells with the bonding length o/3 = L = al2 and related systems J. Chem. Phys. 98 5777  [c.553]

E.J.Corey was the originator of this analytical approach to synthesis and you might hke to read some of the articles in which he first explains it. Here is a selection J. Amer. Chem. Soc.. 1964, 478 1972, 94, 440 1974, 9 6516 1975, 97, 6116 1976, 98, 189 Pure  [c.125]

Having noted that each field of chemistry brings a unique perspective to the study of chemistry, we now ask a second deceptively simple question. What is the analytical perspective Many analytical chemists describe this perspective as an analytical approach to solving problems. Although there are probably as many descriptions of the analytical approach as there are analytical chemists, it is convenient for our purposes to treat it as a five-step process  [c.5]

Figure 1.3 shows an outline of the analytical approach along with some important considerations at each step. Three general features of this approach deserve attention. First, steps 1 and 5 provide opportunities for analytical chemists to collaborate with individuals outside the realm of analytical chemistry. In fact, many problems on which analytical chemists work originate in other fields. Second, the analytical approach is not linear, but incorporates a feedback loop consisting of steps 2, 3, and 4, in which the outcome of one step may cause a reevaluation of the other two steps. Finally, the solution to one problem often suggests a new problem.  [c.5]

Analytical chemistry begins with a problem, examples of which include evaluating the amount of dust and soil ingested by children as an indicator of environmental exposure to particulate based pollutants, resolving contradictory evidence regarding the toxicity of perfluoro polymers during combustion, or developing rapid and sensitive detectors for chemical warfare agents.At this point the analytical approach involves a collaboration between the analytical chemist and the individuals responsible for the problem. Together they decide what information is needed. It is also necessary for the analytical chemist to understand how the problem relates to broader research goals. The type of information needed and the problem s context are essential to designing an appropriate experimental procedure.  [c.5]

These examples are taken from a series of articles, entitled the Analytical Approach, which has appeared as a regular feature in the journal Analytical Chemistry since 1974.  [c.5]

The most visible part of the analytical approach occurs in the laboratory. As part of the validation process, appropriate chemical or physical standards are used to calibrate any equipment being used and any solutions whose concentrations must be known. The selected samples are then analyzed and the raw data recorded.  [c.6]

As an exercise, let s adapt this model of the analytical approach to a real problem. For our example, we will use the determination of the sources of airborne pollutant particles. A description of the problem can be found in the following article  [c.7]

Is there evidence that steps 2, 3, and 4 of the analytical approach are repeated more than once  [c.7]

According to our model, the analytical approach begins with a problem. The motivation for this research was to develop a method for monitoring the transport of solid aerosol particulates following their release from a high-temperature combustion source. Because these particulates contain significant concentrations of toxic heavy metals and carcinogenic organic compounds, they represent a significant environmental hazard.  [c.7]

Finally, the development of this procedure did not occur in a single, linear pass through the analytical approach. As research progressed, problems were encountered and modifications made, representing a cycle through steps 2, 3, and 4 of the analytical approach.  [c.8]

Others have pointed out, with justification, that the analytical approach outlined here is not unique to analytical chemistry, but is common to any aspect of science involving analysis. Here, again, it helps to distinguish between a chemical analysis and analytical chemistry. For other analytically oriented scientists, such as physical chemists and physical organic chemists, the primary emphasis is on the problem, with the results of an analysis supporting larger research goals involving fundamental studies of chemical or physical processes. The essence of analytical chemistry, however, is in the second, third, and fourth steps of the analytical approach. Besides supporting broader research goals by developing and validating analytical methods, these methods also define the type and quality of information available to other research scientists. In some cases, the success of an analytical method may even suggest new research problems.  [c.8]

Read a recent article from the column Analytical Approach, published in Analytical Chemistry, or an article assigned by your instructor, and write an essay summarizing the nature of the problem and how it was solved. As a guide, refer back to Figure 1.3 for one model of the analytical approach.  [c.9]

Subsection of the analytical approach to problem solving (see Eigure 1.3), of relevance to the selection of a method and the design of an analytical procedure.  [c.37]

An important feature of the analytical approach, which we have neglected thus far, is the presence of a "feedback loop involving steps 2, 3, and 4. As a result, the outcome of one step may lead to a reevaluation of the other two steps. For example, after standardizing a spectrophotometric method for the analysis of iron we may find that its sensitivity does not meet the original design criteria. Considering this information we might choose to select a different method, to change the original design criteria, or to improve the sensitivity.  [c.705]

The "feedback loop in the analytical approach is maintained by a quality assurance program (Figure 15.1), whose objective is to control systematic and random sources of error.The underlying assumption of a quality assurance program is that results obtained when an analytical system is in statistical control are free of bias and are characterized by well-defined confidence intervals. When used properly, a quality assurance program identifies the practices necessary to bring a system into statistical control, allows us to determine if the system remains in statistical control, and suggests a course of corrective action when the system has fallen out of statistical control.  [c.705]

This example demonstrates the most challenging problem of flavor chemistry, ie, each flavor problem may require its own analytical approach however, a sensory analysis is always required. The remaining unknown odorants demand the most sensitive and selective techniques, and methods of concentration and isolation that preserve the sensory properties of complex and often dehcate flavors. Furthermore, some of the subtle odors in one system will be first identified in very different systems, like o-amino acetophenone in weasels and fox grapes.  [c.6]

In range theory the range distribution is regarded as a transport problem describing the slowing down of energetic ions in matter. Two general methods for obtaining range quantities, one using simulations and the other employing analytical methods, have been developed. The analytic approach used to obtain range quantities is commonly referred to as LSS theory for the pioneering authors (8). Although not precisely accurate, the LSS approach allows calculations of range values with an accuracy of about 20%, which is quite acceptable for most purposes. A more exacted transport calculation is available using the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) (9,10). AH the methods discussed in this section assume that the target is amorphous and ignore crystal orientation effects.  [c.393]

To discuss the analytical approach to estimating ion ranges, the concept of reduced energy must first be introduced. The reduced energy S is given by equation 3  [c.393]

The defects generated in ion—soHd interactions influence the kinetic processes that occur both inside and outside the cascade volume. At times long after the cascade lifetime (t > 10 s), the remaining vacancy—interstitial pairs can contribute to atomic diffusion processes. This process, commonly called radiation enhanced diffusion (RED), can be described by rate equations and an analytical approach (27). Within the cascade itself, under conditions of high defect densities, local energy depositions exceed 1 eV/atom and local kinetic processes can be described on the basis of ahquid-like diffusion formalism (28,29).  [c.395]

Fig. 2. Chemometrics tools and the analytical approach. Fig. 2. Chemometrics tools and the analytical approach.
Having noted that each field of chemistry brings a unique perspective to the study of chemistry, we now ask a second deceptively simple question. What is the analytical perspective Many analytical chemists describe this perspective as an analytical approach to solving problems. Although there are probably as many descriptions of the analytical approach as there are analytical chemists, it is convenient for our purposes to treat it as a five-step process  [c.5]

Figure 1.3 shows an outline of the analytical approach along with some important considerations at each step. Three general features of this approach deserve attention. First, steps 1 and 5 provide opportunities for analytical chemists to collaborate with individuals outside the realm of analytical chemistry. In fact, many problems on which analytical chemists work originate in other fields. Second, the analytical approach is not linear, but incorporates a feedback loop consisting of steps 2, 3, and 4, in which the outcome of one step may cause a reevaluation of the other two steps. Finally, the solution to one problem often suggests a new problem.  [c.5]

Analytical chemistry begins with a problem, examples of which include evaluating the amount of dust and soil ingested by children as an indicator of environmental exposure to particulate based pollutants, resolving contradictory evidence regarding the toxicity of perfluoro polymers during combustion, or developing rapid and sensitive detectors for chemical warfare agents." At this point the analytical approach involves a collaboration between the analytical chemist and the individuals responsible for the problem. Together they decide what information is needed. It is also necessary for the analytical chemist to understand how the problem relates to broader research goals. The type of information needed and the problem s context are essential to designing an appropriate experimental procedure.  [c.5]

These examples are taken from a series of articles, entitled the Analytical Approach, which has appeared as a regular feature in the journal Analytical Chemistry since 1974.  [c.5]

The most visible part of the analytical approach occurs in the laboratory. As part of the validation process, appropriate chemical or physical standards are used to calibrate any equipment being used and any solutions whose concentrations must be known. The selected samples are then analyzed and the raw data recorded.  [c.6]

As an exercise, let s adapt this model of the analytical approach to a real problem. For our example, we will use the determination of the sources of airborne pollutant particles. A description of the problem can be found in the following article  [c.7]

Is there evidence that steps 2, 3, and 4 of the analytical approach are repeated more than once  [c.7]

According to our model, the analytical approach begins with a problem. The motivation for this research was to develop a method for monitoring the transport of solid aerosol particulates following their release from a high-temperature combustion source. Because these particulates contain significant concentrations of toxic heavy metals and carcinogenic organic compounds, they represent a significant environmental hazard.  [c.7]

Finally, the development of this procedure did not occur in a single, linear pass through the analytical approach. As research progressed, problems were encountered and modifications made, representing a cycle through steps 2, 3, and 4 of the analytical approach.  [c.8]

Others have pointed out, with justification, that the analytical approach outlined here is not unique to analytical chemistry, but is common to any aspect of science involving analysis. Here, again, it helps to distinguish between a chemical analysis and analytical chemistry. For other analytically oriented scientists, such as physical chemists and physical organic chemists, the primary emphasis is on the problem, with the results of an analysis supporting larger research goals involving fundamental studies of chemical or physical processes. The essence of analytical chemistry, however, is in the second, third, and fourth steps of the analytical approach. Besides supporting broader research goals by developing and validating analytical methods, these methods also define the type and quality of information available to other research scientists. In some cases, the success of an analytical method may even suggest new research problems.  [c.8]

Read a recent article from the column Analytical Approach, published in Analytical Chemistry, or an article assigned by your instructor, and write an essay summarizing the nature of the problem and how it was solved. As a guide, refer back to Figure 1.3 for one model of the analytical approach.  [c.9]

Subsection of the analytical approach to problem solving (see Eigure 1.3), of relevance to the selection of a method and the design of an analytical procedure.  [c.37]

An important feature of the analytical approach, which we have neglected thus far, is the presence of a "feedback loop involving steps 2, 3, and 4. As a result, the outcome of one step may lead to a reevaluation of the other two steps. For example, after standardizing a spectrophotometric method for the analysis of iron we may find that its sensitivity does not meet the original design criteria. Considering this information we might choose to select a different method, to change the original design criteria, or to improve the sensitivity.  [c.705]

The "feedback loop in the analytical approach is maintained by a quality assurance program (Figure 15.1), whose objective is to control systematic and random sources of error.The underlying assumption of a quality assurance program is that results obtained when an analytical system is in statistical control are free of bias and are characterized by well-defined confidence intervals. When used properly, a quality assurance program identifies the practices necessary to bring a system into statistical control, allows us to determine if the system remains in statistical control, and suggests a course of corrective action when the system has fallen out of statistical control.  [c.705]

Schematic diagram of the analytical approach to problem solving, showing the role of the quality assurance program. Schematic diagram of the analytical approach to problem solving, showing the role of the quality assurance program.
One of the major uses of molecular simulation is to provide useful theoretical interpretation of experimental data. Before the advent of simulation this had to be done by directly comparing experiment with analytical (mathematical) models. The analytical approach has the advantage of simplicity, in that the models are derived from first principles with only a few, if any, adjustable parameters. However, the chemical complexity of biological systems often precludes the direct application of meaningful analytical models or leads to the situation where more than one model can be invoked to explain the same experimental data.  [c.237]

For a new process plant, calculations can be carried out using the heat release and plume flow rate equations outlined in Table 13.16 from a paper by Bender. For the theory to he valid, the hood must he more than two source diameters (or widths for line sources) above the source, and the temperature difference must be less than 110 °C. Experimental results have also been obtained for the case of hood plume eccentricity. These results account for cross drafts which occur within most industrial buildings. The physical and chemical characteristics of the fume and the fume loadings are obtained from published or available data of similar installations or established through laboratory or pilot-plant scale tests. - If exhaust volume requirements must he established accurately, small scale modeling can he used to augment and calibrate the analytical approach.  [c.1269]

Analytical approach applying the three fluid mechanics equations  [c.1277]

Essentially, the analytical approach outlined above for the open circuit gas turbine plants is that used in modem computer codes. However, gas properties, taken from tables such as those of Keenan and Kaye [6], may be stored as data and then used directly in a cycle calculation. Enthalpy changes are then determined directly, rather than by mean specific heats over temperature ranges (and the estimation of n and n ), as outlined above.  [c.43]

In this review article we have tried to show that an analytical approach to the thermodynamics and the kinetics of adsorbates is not restricted to simple systems but can deal with rather complicated situations in a systematic approach, such as multi-site and multi-component systems with or without precursor-mediated adsorption and surface reconstruction, including multi-layers/subsurface species. This approach automatically ensures that such fundamental principles as detailed balance are implemented properly.  [c.476]

For adsorbates out of local equilibrium, an analytic approach to the kinetic lattice gas model is a powerful theoretical tool by which, in addition to numerical results, explicit formulas can be obtained to elucidate the underlying physics. This allows one to extract simplified pictures of and approximations to complicated processes, as shown above with precursor-mediated adsorption as an example. This task of theory is increasingly overlooked with the trend to using cheaper computer power for numerical simulations. Unfortunately, many of the simulations of adsorbate kinetics are based on unnecessarily oversimplified assumptions (for example, constant sticking coefficients, constant prefactors etc.) which rarely are spelled out because the physics has been introduced in terms of a set of computational instructions rather than formulating the theory rigorously, e.g., based on a master equation.  [c.477]

Though the programme may introduce you to some new reactions, its main aim is to euggest an analytical approach to the design of syntheses. You therefore need to have a reasonable grounding in organic chemistry so that you are familiar with most basic organic reactions and can draw out their mechanisms. If you are a third year univeraity student, a graduate, or someone with experience of organic chemistry in practice you will probably be able to work straight through the programme to learn the approach and not need to learn any new material. If you are a second year university student or someone with a limited knowledge of organic reactions you may find you need to learn some reactions as you go along. 1 have given references to these books to help you  [c.1]

J. D. Buffle, Complexation Reactions in Aquatic Systems An Analytical Approach, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, U.K., 1988.  [c.218]

AOAC Method 985.29for TDF. This AO AC method (3), referred to as the method of Prosky and co-workers (4), was cited in the Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990 as the general analytical approach for food labeling of dietary fiber content. The method has undergone several modifications for IDE and for the primary fractions, SDE and IDE.  [c.71]

Weibel, E. R. (1989). Lung morphometry and models in respiratory physiology. In Respiratory Physiology An Analytical Approach (H. K. Chang and. M. Paiva, Eds.), pp. 1--56, Marcel Dek ker. New York.  [c.229]

This analytic approach tends to be most successful when an existing system requires incremental improvement. For example, if a PSM teamdetermined that the company s management of change process does not cover trial batches of new products, they can strengthen the PSM system through an incremental improvement. If, on the other hand, they found that the management of change process in the company was inherently flawed, or nonexistent, another approach would probably be more productive.  [c.130]


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