Voting Rules

The proton chemical shifts of the protons directly attached to the basic three carbon skeleton are found between 5.0 and 6.8 ppm. The J(H,H) between these protons is about -5 Hz. The shift region is similar to the region for similarly substituted alkenes, although the spread in shifts is smaller and the allene proton resonances are slightly upfield from the alkene resonances. We could not establish a reliable additivity rule for the allene proton shifts as we could for the shifts (vide infra) and therefore we found the proton shifts much less valuable for the structural analysis of the allene moiety than the NMR data on the basic three-carbon system.  [c.253]

The input could be from a PC (personal computer), as in word processing, but could equally well be from an instrument the output could be to a video screen, a printer, or to the same or another instrument (Figure 42.9). All these functions are organized by the central processor in so-called real time, i.e., virtually immediately.  [c.308]

The bulk stmcture of the catalyticaHy active phase is not completely known and is under debate in the Hterature (125,131—133). The central point of controversy is whether (Valone or in combination with other phases is the most catalyticaHy active for the conversion of butane to maleic anhydride. The heart of this issue concerns the role of stmctural disorder in the bulk and how it arises in the catalyst (125,134,135). Most researchers agree that the catalysts with the highest activity and selectivity ate composed mainly of (Vthat exhibits a clustered or distorted platelet morphology (125). It is also generaHy acknowledged that during operation of the catalyst, the bulk oxidation state of the vanadium in the catalyst remains very close to the +4 valence state (125).  [c.454]

Modulus. UnidirectionaHy reinforced continuous fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composites show a linear increase in the longitudinal Young s modulus as a function of the fiber volume fraction. Figure 11 shows an example of modulus increase as a function of fiber volume fraction for an alumina fiber-reinforced aluminum—lithium alloy matrix (15). The increase in the longitudinal Young s modulus is in agreement with the rule of mixtures value, whereas the modulus increase in a direction transverse to the fibers is very low. Particle reinforcement also results in an increase in the modulus of the composite the increase, however, is much less than that predicted by the rule of mixtures. This is understandable inasmuch as the rule of mixtures is vaUd only for continuous fiber reinforcement. Figure 12 shows increase in Young s modulus in an aluminum composite with a SiC reinforcement volume fraction for different forms of reinforcement, eg, continuous fiber, whisker, or particle (16). There is a loss of reinforcement efficiency in going from continuous fiber to particle. Metal-matrix particulate composites such as SiC particle-reinforced aluminum can offer a 50—100% increase in modulus over that of unreinforced aluminum, ie, the modulus equivalent to that of titanium but density about 33% less. Also, unlike the fiber-reinforced composites, the stiffness enhancement in particulate composites is reasonably isotropic.  [c.199]

The reactor is equipped with a set of cross-shaped control rods. These are inserted into the core from the bottom. The position can be controlled automatically or manually for both start-up and power adjustments during operation. The reactor is started from cold conditions by moving the control rods to change the reactivity and by varying the flow of water in the recirculation loops. The role of the rods in relation to the negative steam void coefficient of reactivity is as follows. If the flow is increased, steam is swept out more rapidly, reducing the void fraction and thus giving a positive reactivity, which causes a power increase. This creates more steam and a negative reactivity. The reactor stabilizes at a higher power level.  [c.219]

Of course, the above appHes when staying within a given tread design and at equivalent tread stiffness. Tire designs that allow water to be channeled out of the tread mbber/road contact area are significantly superior to those that do not, even when more contact area is available. Tread element stiffness plays an important role in traction capabiUties as softer treads have less column stiffness and reduce tread void areas, ie, there is more mbber on the road but this is offset if water channeling is significantly reduced.  [c.251]

Equation 153 is vaUd only for pure species / in the ideal gas state. For a real fluid, an analogous equation is as follows  [c.494]

Weathering. Weathering is an important property in plastic products (see Plastics Testing). The weathering performance of plastics is evaluated either in real-time weathering such as in Florida or Arizona (1, 3, or 5 yr) or in accelerated tests such as xenon arc test chambers or QUV test chambers (100—5000 h exposure) (3). Ultraviolet light may affect performance of the polymer and both uv and visible light have an effect on color stabiUty or weatherabihty of colorants (4). Colorants need to be evaluated in the resin in which they ate incorporated for a particular appHcation before the colorants can be judged acceptable. Weathering performance can vary widely from resin to resin and color type, thus correlations and predictions are only vaUd within the constrained set of testing conditions that have been developed.  [c.457]

The origin of the fugacity concept resides in Eq. (4-72), an equation vahd only for pure species i in the ideal gas state. For a real fluid, an analogous equation is written  [c.519]

In some cases it is possible to simply turn out the lights or wait until it is dark and directly observe the type, frequency and location of static discharges. This process can be facilitated using remote observation via a video camera with high sensitivity to low light levels. Where the discharges are faint and remote from the observation point, as might be the case with brush discharges inside equipment, the sensitivity can be increased using an image intensifier, or night vision device, which typically gives light amplification of 5000 to 50,000 times and can be attached directly to a video camera [12]. Where real time observation is not needed, another technique involves the use of high speed film and a camera on open shutter [121]. Both techniques have been used to record bulking bmsh discharges during filling of powder silos [12,121].  [c.66]

The early story of experimentally determined phase diagrams and of their understanding in terms of Gibbs free energies and of the Phase Rule was set out in Chapter 3, Section 3.1.2. In that same chapter, Hume-Rothery s rationalisation of certain features of phase diagrams in terms of atomic size ratios and electron/atom ratios was outlined (Section Hume-Rothery did use his theories to predict limited features of phase diagrams, solubility limits in particular, but it was a long time before experimentally derived values of free energies of phases began to be used for the prediction of phase diagrams. Some tentative early efforts in that direction were published by a Dutchman, van Laar (1908), but thereafter there was a void for half a century. The challenge was taken up by another Dutchman, Meijering (1957) who seems to have been the first to attempt the calculation of a complete ternary phase diagram (Ni-Cr-Cu) from measured thermochemical quantities from which, in turn, free energies could be estimated. Meijering s work was particularly important in that he recognised that for his calculation to have any claims to accuracy he needed to estimate a value for the free energy (as a function of temperature) of face-centred cubic chromium, a notional crystal structure which was not directly accessible to experiment. This was probably the first calculation of the lattice stability of a potential (as distinct from an actual) phase.  [c.482]

All RBMK reactors have positive void coefficients which means that increasing the boiling rate increases the steam fraction in the core which increases reactivity causing more steam void which causes more reactivity and so on. Competing factors provide stability, but startup, shutdown and maneuvering below about 600 MWt are unstable, hence, there is a rule prohibiting extended operation below 700 Mwt.  [c.224]

The initial performance test for all local ventilation systems is a smoke test, which provides easy airflow visualization between the source and the hood, it helps to identify, with little effort, the main features of airflow patterns. Such a test, recorded by a video camera, allows performance comparisons to be made before and after improvements. Real contaminant or tracer gas measurements are necessary in the case of more detailed testing.  [c.1014]

It is of course also possible to arrange so that the measurements are made at every point with a fixed instrument and the data transferred to a computer equipped with suitable software to produce the grid map, all in real time. If the graph is also superimposed on a video picture from the measured area, the result will be a video, visualizing the. spatial distribution in real time.  [c.1116]

The reflection tomograms (c) show the axial hole in the Plexiglas specimen, but also a real discontinuity in the A/5i -alloy. The internal discontinuity is located 6 mm from the edge, 50° from the axial hole and its dimension is about 1-2 mm. This may be an inclusion or a porosity (void). Multiple reflections from the measurement were ignored in the calculation of the Plexiglas tomogram (left). This is seen as a bright circle.  [c.206]

These Systems were built for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for use in high level waste tank sampling operations performed by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Project. A total of four, highly specialized Systems, designated as XRI-001 through XRI-004 by WHC are referred to on-site as the x-ray hot-dog carts. The systems are used to remotely image the inner contents of specially designed, 26-inch length, one and one-half inch diameter, stainless steel core sample tubes and the high level radioactive waste contents following the remote sample segments removal from underground waste storage tanks. A real time radiographic view (x-ray) of the sampler and it s contents are displayed on live video monitors, is video taped, and selected freeze-frame image views can be immediately printed in the field. These images allow the field operations personnel to directly monitor sample recovery volume and the waste s physical characteristics, e g., sludge, solid or liquid. This data provides a technical basis which allows the engineers to adjust the drilling/sampling platform operating parameters to optimize sample recovery efforts. Electrical power for x-ray systems (and all the associated sampling equipment) is provided by separate, portable diesel generators.  [c.610]

The relation between the dusty gas model and the physical structure of a real porous medium is rather obscure. Since the dusty gas model does not even contain any explicit representation of the void fraction, it certainly cannot be adjusted to reflect features of the pore size distributions of different porous media. For example, porous catalysts often show a strongly bimodal pore size distribution, and their flux relations might be expected to reflect this, but the dusty gas model can respond only to changes in the  [c.24]

Thermography or thermal imaging is the technique of detecting spatial and time variations of radiated heat energy and transforming them to a visible display. The equipment, called the sensor, consists of an (in) camera connected to a television and video tape recorder. The heart of the in camera (1) is an array of innfmared detectors sensitive from visible to at least 5 p.m and preferably to 14 p.m wavelength (see Photodetectors). The detector array and a set of optics provide for two-dimensional spatial resolution of the thermal scene. The high speed response of the sensor results in "real time" television displays. Since thermal radiation is a function of emissivity and temperature a caUbrated thermographic sensor can remotely measure the surface temperature of objects. When the camera is coupled to a spectrometer or narrow band filters the sensor is capable of spectral discrimination. Thus thermography can become both spatial radiometry and spectral imaging. The major trades-off in sensor design are typically among spatial resolution, spectral resolution, field of view, frame time and scene-temperature sensitivity.  [c.290]

Food additives may improve nutritional composition, enhance flavor or eating quality, or prolong storage stability in food or beverage products. Very often, the role of the food additive is essential to the safety, effective distribution, and nutritional quality of the food supply. Nevertheless, the term food additive has a negative coimotation to many consumers, and the use of food additives is often regarded with mistmst. Much of the critical scmtiny of food additives was engendered by the Delaney Clause, a portion of the 1958 VoodA.dditives A.mendment to the US. Food, Drug and Cosmetic A.ct of 1938, which bans the use in food of chemicals shown to produce cancer in humans or animals, at any level. Enforcement of the Delaney Clause led to a review of the safety of all additives, and the banning of some. Thus the addition of artificial, ie, uimatural, substances to foods and beverages is regarded by many consumers as uimecessary and unsafe, and the consumption of natural foods and beverages, those without artificial additives, has moved to the mainstream.  [c.435]

The micromagnetic stmeture is directly related to the microstmeture and chemical inhomogenities in the layer. The materials used and the deposition technology as well as the parameters play an important role. Thin-fiLm growth, nucleation processes in relation to the deposition parameters, are very important for understanding the thin film microstmeture. The relationships between sfd and recording properties are not necessarily vaUd for media with perpendicular anisotropy as the demagnetizing field can be more important than sfd.  [c.172]

When evaluating fluidized handling several factors must be considered. (/) The powder must have low cohesive strength, otherwise channels are likely to form which prevent uniform fluidization. In addition, it is helpful if the powder has low permeabihty so as to limit the amount of gas needed for fluidization as well as allow retention of the gas when it is turned off. (2) The bulk density of the powder as it exits the bin will be low and nonuniform, thus it may not be possible to fit the required mass of material into a downstream container, eg, a tmck or rail car. If the powder is being fed into a process and close control of flow rate is important, the nonuniformity of bulk density may create significant control problems. (J) The cost of energy required to fluidize the bin may be significant, particularly if dry air must be used because the powder is hygroscopic. (4) Particle segregation may be made worse. Simply putting an air pad or an air sHde into a bin is likely to segregate a powder, causing a vertical striation pattern with fine, light particles on top and dense, large particles on the bottom. (5) The amount of bin volume necessary to be fluidized must be evaluated. If possible, the entire contents should be fluidized, but this may be neither practical not necessary, particularly if the bin is relatively large. If only a portion of a bin is fluidized, the potential for stagnant material supporting a rathole maybe a concern. Void space must be provided for the material to expand. (6) What to do with the fluidizing air when there is no powder discharge taking place must be considered. If the powder becomes cohesive when it is deaerated, refluidization is difficult. Intermittent fluidization during periods of no discharge may be necessary.  [c.561]

There are several important points relating to these curves. (/) The start of transformation occurs at increa singly short times down to about 550°C, during which interval peadite forms. The peadite has a finer spacing as formation temperature decreases, becoming thus harder and stronger. During the penod from beginning to end of transformation, colonies of peadite form and grow slowly until all the austenite is consumed. (2) Below 550°C to just over 200°C, the start of transformation takes longer and longer and the product of transformation is bainite. The hardness increases as the transformation temperature decreases. (J) At the Af temperature, martensite begins to form more or less instantaneously. The fraction that forms depends on the undercooling below Af, as shown schematically by the indications of 50 and 90% transformation of austenite. For this steel, Mjis below room temperature so some untransformed austenite is present. Martensite, usually acicular, is harder and stronger than any of the other constituents but is much too bnttie in this steel to put in service without further treatment (tempering). (4) This curve is vaUd only for eutectoid steel having a specific austenite grain size. Other compositions and grain sizes have different TTT curves. Curves are collected in vanous reference books (32—34). (5) The effect of austenite grain size is real but relatively small. The effects of alloying elements can be very large (Fig. 18) and provide a practical tool to enable desired stmctures to be produced in large sections where heat flow is a factor.  [c.387]

Of the 16 possible geometric isomers of vitamin A, only the aH-trans form has full vitamin A activity and these compounds are commonly named according to the older, nonsystematic nomenclature (Table 2). From a biological standpoiat, ll-i j -retiaal plays a critical role ia vision (vide infra). As eadier described, IS-i j -retiaoic acid is important as a dermatological agent. Recendy, 9-i7j -retiQoic acid has also been shown to be an important biological isomer and has been identified as a novel endogenous hormone ia mammalian tissues (11). The other 13 isomers have no biological or commercial significance. Isolation, characterization, and synthesis of these isomers have been reported (12).  [c.97]

The R-nearest neighbor (KNN) technique (9,14) is a classification method ia which an unknown is classified according to the majority vote of its R-nearest neighbors ia the training set ia //-dimensional space. Should there be a tie, the closer neighbors are given greater weight. Nearness is measured usiag an appropriate distance metric as discussed ia the section on unsupervised learning. The KNN rule has several advantages over the linear learning machine. First, it is a multicategory classifier. Secondly, its performance is not limited by the distribution of data poiats to the degree that LLM is. Bimodal data distributions within a category or even more unusual data stmcture does not hamper the use of KNN. Furthermore, KNN generates unique solutions the classification results do not depend on the order ia which data are fed to the computer.  [c.424]

C), which is rearranged with sulfuric acid to S-caprolactam [105-60-2] (mp, 69°C). The overall efficiency is >97%. In the production of adipic acid, cyclohexanone is oxidized with nitric acid in the presence of catalysts. Cyclohexanone is also used as a solvent and thinner for lacquers, especially those containing nitrocellulose or vinyl chloride polymer and copolymers and as a general solvent for synthetic resins and polymers. Cyclohexanone is an excellent solvent for insecticides and many other similar materials. Cyclohexanone is used as a building block in the synthesis of many organic compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and herbicides. Cyclohexanone is used in the manufacture of magnetic and video tapes (see A4agnetic tape). Cyclohexanone is not restricted under California Rule 66 and has, therefore, found use as a substitute for isophorone [78-59-17 as a solvent for resins and polymers (12) (see Air pollution).  [c.426]

The Ideal Cascade. A cascade of particular interest to design engineers is the ideal cascade a continuously tapered cascade (ie, F is a continuously varying function of x or n) that has the property of minimi2ing the sum of the stage upflows of all the stages required to achieve a given separation task. Because, in general, the total volume of the equipment required and the total power requirement of the cascade are directiy proportional to the sum of the stage upflows, a consideration of the ideal plant requirements often permits a good economic estimate of the unit cost of product to be made without having to resort to the much more painstaking labor of designing a real (as opposed to ideal) cascade to accomplish the separation job. A simple, intuitive approach to the ideal cascade concept in the case of a cascade composed of discrete stages follows. Again, the resulting equations are also vahd for a cascade based on a continuous or differential separation process.  [c.80]

Until Jenike developed the rationale for storage-vessel design, a common criterion was to measure the angle of repose, use this value as the hopper angle, and then fit the bin to whatever space was available. Too often, bins were designed from an architectural or structural-engineering viewpoint rather than from the role they were to play in a process. Economy of space is certainly one vahd criterion in bin design, but others must be considered equally as well. Table 21-14 compares the principal characteristics of mass-flow and funnel-flow bins.  [c.1935]

This correlation function oscillates in real time thus providing no rate constant, as it should be expected for coherent tunneling. This reveals the deficiency of the one-dimensional model, in which the rate constant, strictly speaking, can be obtained only for an unbound initial or final state, i.e., for a gas-phase reaction. In general, the analytical continuation of the imaginary-time correlator is hardly justifiable, especially for long times (P oo). The real-time correlation function, represented by a triple path integral, has been given by Voth et al. [1989a, b].  [c.58]

That coupling agents react with the inorganic substrate is really not in doubt. In the case of alkoxy functional silanes there is convincing evidence that interfacial Si-O-M oxane bonds are formed with Fe, Cr, Al, Pb, Ti, and, of course. Si. Specific, convincing examples of the reaction with Si have been available for over three decades. For example, Johannson et al. [28] studied the physicochemical role of radioactively labeled silane coupling agents by determining their adsorption on E-glass and Aerosil surfaces. 3-(methacryloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane and 3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)proplyltrimethoxysilane were investigated. The results of tracer studies and electron photomicrographic examination of fiber surfaces indicated that the coupling agents form continuous films on E-glass surfaces with covalent bonding occurring at the interface. Failure of the glass-coupling agent interface in the presence of boiling water occurs by attack on the glass substrate itself, vyith relatively large amounts of coupling agent being removed by the mechanical action of the boiling water. The tracer studies also show that copolymerization occurs at the coupling agent/(methyl methacrylate)-styrene resin interface during free radical initiated polymerization, and can be accompanied by monomer solubilization in the partially cured coupling agent films.  [c.416]

The role of the packing material is to provide a large surface area, and must have a geometry that provides large void space when packed in order to allow for good fluid flow characteristics. Raschig rings are a common example, consisting of hollow cylinders having an external diameter equal to the length of the object. Other shapes include fieri saddles, Intalox saddles, Lessing rings, cross- partition rings, spiral-type rings, and drip-point grid tiles. These objects are usually dumped into the column randomly, or if regularly shaped packing is used, stacked in an orderly fashion.  [c.247]

Another simple relationship between the constituent moduli results from the observation that the compliance of the composite material, 1/E, must agree with the compliance of the matrix, 1/E , vheD Xn = 1 with the compliance of the dispersed material when = 1. The resulting rule of mixtures for compliances is  [c.138]

In a formal sense, isoindole can be regarde,d as a IOtt- electron system and, as such, complies vith the Hiickel (4w- -2) rule for aromatic stabilization, with the usual implicit assumption that the crossing bond (8, 9 in 1) represents a relatively small perturbation of the monocyclic, conjugated system. The question in more explicit terms is whether isoindole possesses aromatic stabilization in excess of that exhibited by pyrrole.  [c.114]

Quinolines play an indispensable role in medicinal chemistry. Quinine (1) is one of the oldest medicines used to fight malaria, whereas one of the latest quinoline-containing drugs is montelukast (2, Singulair ), an anti-asthmatic drug. Thus quinoline chemistry has always attracted the attention of medicinal chemists. Moreover, a recent book Palladium in Heterocyclic Chemistry , authored by Jack Li and Gordon Gribble, did not cover palladium in quinoline synthesis. To fill the void, in this chapter, we highlight important preparation methods of the quinoline substrates both as electrophiles and nucleophiles and their synthetic utilities in palladium-mediated reactions. The unique characteristics of quinoline chemistry stem from the stereoelectronic effects that the nitrogen atom has exerted on the quinoline molecule. Quinoline (3) is a rc-electron-deficient heterocycle. Due to the electronegativity of the nitrogen atom, the a and y positions bear a partial positive charge, making these C(2) and C(4) positions prone to nucleophilic attacks. A similar trend occurs in the context of palladium chemistry. Halogens at the a and y positions of quinoline are more susceptible to oxidative addition to palladium(O) in comparison to simple carbocyclic aryl halides. As a consequence, even 2-chloro- and 4-chloro-quinolines undergo palladium-catalyzed reactions under standard conditions, a phenomenon not frequently observed in carbocyclic chloroaryl compounds.  [c.2]

Many urban areas are now using video detection systems to monitor traffic flow. The systems, such as Autoscope, detect changes in video pixels to estimate traffic flow and vehicle speeds on freeways and major arterials. Significant differences in average speeds from one monitor to another indicate the presence of an accident between video monitoring locations. With early detection of an incident, rapid accident response teams (either roving the system or staged in specific locations along the system) can be dispatched immediately. Cellular telephones will also play an increasing role in incident detection programs as the cellular network density increases.  [c.1151]

Other variations of the basic voting rule may involve adding small impurities or perturbations to otherwise very regular initial conditions, or adding some anisotropies to the vote-counting by, for example, changing the sign of some vote entries. The latter variants typically leads to the creation of metamagnetic structures [vich84].  [c.129]

See pages that mention the term Voting Rules : [c.19]    [c.195]    [c.197]    [c.1509]    [c.208]    [c.1117]    [c.378]    [c.210]    [c.266]    [c.397]   
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Cellular automata  -> Voting Rules