Methylxanthines have a few valid therapeutic uses, including treatment of asthma and rehef of dyspnea (see Antiasthmatic agents). The CNS stimulatory effects are also utilized for the treatment of the prolonged apnea that may be observed ia premature iafants. Theophylline may be combiaed with doxapram (13) for this use (20). The methylxanthine most widely used therapeutically is theophylline, although caffeiae may also be used. For parenteral adrninistration, a salt of theophylline is employed. There are several salts available, including theophylline ethylenediamine (aminophylline [317-34-OJ) and oxtriphylline (choline theophyUinate). Other synthetic xanthines that are usediaclude dyphylline [479-18-5] and enprofylline [41078-02-8] (21). Caffeiae is obtained ia pure form from tea waste, from the manufacture of caffeiae coffee, and by total synthesis (22,23).  [c.464]

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Pharmaceutical manufacturing encyclopedia Edition 2  -> Dyphylline