Facility-Specific Approach

Facility-Specific Approach  [c.97]

Where individual facilities have strong programs in specific aspects of PSM, a facility-specific approach may involve identifying "best practice" programs and facilitating cross-communication among locations.  [c.98]

Leadership and direction for PSM roll-out depend on the implementation strategy you have selected (Chapter 5). For example, if your plan calls for a facility-specific approach, it makes sense to ask the facility manager to be responsible for managing the installation, with the PSM team acting as a resource base and monitor. On the other hand, a centralized (or companywide) approach indicates corporate or divisional management under this plan, the company PSM champion or designate oversees installation, with input and support from local personnel. In a hybrid situation, local and corporate managers might co-direct the effort, or, as an alternative, decide among themselves who should take the lead.  [c.161]

Facility or division-specific approach. A facility or division-specific approach can provide very rapid integration and allow the systems, programs and elements to be adapted to meet local needs. However, the differences between locations will limit the value of sharing experience and knowledge. You are most likely to adopt a facility-specific approach if there are significant differences in  [c.75]

A facility-specific implementation strategy relies on local expertise and calls for a num r of local PSM teams to work in parallel. One benefit of this approach is that it can provide for very rapid implementation of PSM. In addition, facility-specific programs can be adapted to local requirements, such  [c.97]

Whether you have chosen a facility-specific, a companywide, or a h) rid approach, it may be helpful to consider your priorities in terms of both facilities and PSM elements. The goal here is to help determine what needs doing, in what order, and with what level of effort.  [c.101]

As part of developing the PSM implementation plan (Chapter 5), you and the team identified benefits unique to the approach you selected, using them to help win management s approval. For example, your plan may focus on priority elements because the assessment you conducted suggests that this method will yield the greatest overall improvement in safety performance. And, as part of the pilot test described in this chapter, you focused on facility-specific benefits to enlist the support of local management and staff.  [c.162]

Based on the in-house engineering capabilities, management philosophy, and the complexity of the project, there are a number of ways a company may wish to approach these activities. In some cases, a turnkey approach where an engineering firm is retained to design and construct the required facilities is preferred. In other cases, the design, specification, preparation and construction management activities are performed by the company, and the equipment and construction activities are purchased. However, it is not uncommon for construction of facilities to begin prior to the completion of the design. Most companies have mechanisms for the routine review of a project at various phases of completion. These project review  [c.187]

A great deal of our discussions have focused on municipal treatment applications, particularly in this chapter. However, most if not all of the principles throughout the book are readily applicable to industrial water treatment applications. Try to approach each water treatment assignment from a first principles standpoint, and then develop design-specific cases with as much information on the chemistry, physical and thermodynamic properties of the wastewater stream and sludge to be handled. In all assignments, be sensitive to the cost issues. Engineering projects are not complete unless we have evaluated the project economics. Some cost factors for different technologies have been included in our discussions, but no real effort has been made for detailed comparisons between technologies. This really has to be performed on a case specific basis. What we can do before closing this volume is review some of the generalized project cost estimating parameters that are applicable to assessing the investments that may be needed in upgrading and/or installing wastewater treatment facilities and various solid-liquid separation equipment.  [c.582]

When it is a contractual requirement it is likely that your customer will require design information to be transmitted electronically to their location. There are many types of computer-aided design equipment and therefore potential for incompatibility. If your existing equipment is incompatible with that of the customer, it could be very costly to replace and therefore necessary that you enter a dialog with your customer on an approach that is mutually acceptable. You obviously do not want to spend money on upgrading your equipment if it is not essential. The standard does not specifically require that these resources be used under controlled conditions - i.e. that there be documented procedures covering their use, application, maintenance, modification, and improvement - but clearly it would be sensible to employ such controls in order to guard against substandard output produced as a result of inferior facilities. If the facilities are used to establish and verify product characteristics the need for them to be controlled is covered by clause 4.11.  [c.202]

By reducing a carbonyl group one can introduce either one deuterium on the carbon bearing oxygen by alcohol formation (parts A, B and C), or two deuteriums if complete reduction of the ketone to the corresponding methylene group is effected (parts A, C and D). Another important aspect of the former labeling technique is the facile conversion of the resulting deuterated alcohols into olefins, opening the way for the preparation of site-specifically labeled unsaturated compounds. Furthermore, the use of carbonyl compounds in which the activated hydrogens are exchanged prior to reduction (see sections Il-B and II-C), greatly extends the scope of labeled products which can be prepared via these reductive methods. The approach indicated below for the preparation of the site-specifically labeled A - -dienes (54, 57 and 59) provides a good illustration of the application of these reactions. Usually the labeled olefins prepared in this manner have the same high isotopic purity as the alcohol intermediates since there is no loss of deuterium during the dehydration step.  [c.160]

The primary purpose of this book is to provide the engineer and risk analyst with failure rate data needed to perform a CPQRA. Consequently, the book contains easily accessible data in the CCPS Generic Failure Rate Data Base, information on several available generic data resources, and procedures to develop failure rate data using information from the plant and process being studied. Another purpose is to present an approach that coordinates the collection of raw plant data, their conversion into plant-specific failure data, and their storage using a CPI-oriented taxonomy. This approach will allow future data generated by chemical process facilities to be added to the CCPS Generic Failure Rate Data Base. The book provides specifications for the transfer of data. It is hoped this approach and standardization will stimulate the chemical processing industry to generate and transfer failure rate data to CCPS for industry use. It is also expected that this book and the CCPS Taxonomy will be revised and updated when sufficient new data become available. Finally, this Guidelines is written to help engineers and analysts develop an understanding of the derivation, usefulness, and limitation of failure rate data so they can form better judgments about the use of data.  [c.2]

As previously noted, cility-specific approaches tend not to succeed where the overall current status of PSM is poor. Local staff will not have the necessary knowledge or experience of safety management to develop and implement a program without considerable outside assistance. Even if you have identified significant variations, if your team decides that overail PSM performance is low you should consider a companywide strategy rather than a facility-specific approach.  [c.98]

A related teclmique that also relies on the interference of x-rays for solid characterization is extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) [65, 66]. Because the basis for EXAFS is the interference of outgoing photoelectrons with their scattered waves from nearby atoms, it does not require long-range order to work (as opposed to diffraction techniques), and provides infonnation about the local geometry around specific atomic centres. Unfortunately, EXAFS requires tlie high-mtensity and tunable photon sources typically available only at synclirotron facilities. Further limitations to the development of surface-sensitive EXAFS (SEXAFS) have come from the fact that it requires teclmology entirely different from that of regular EXAFS, involving in many cases ultrahigh-vacuum enviromnents and/or photoelectron detection. One interesting advance in SEXAFS came with the design by Stohr et al of fluorescence detectors for the x-rays absorbed by the surface species of small samples that allows for the characterization of well defined systems such as single crystals under non-vacuum conditions [67]. Figure Bl.22.9 shows the S K-edge x-ray absorption data obtained for a c (2 X 2)S-Ni(100) overlayer using their original experimental set-up. This approach has since been extended to the analysis of lighter atoms (C, O, F) on many different substrates and under atmospheric pressures [68].  [c.1791]

The modified FMEA approach evaluates each piece of equipment (not each device) as an independent unit, assuming worst case conditions of input and output. Separators, flowlines, heaters, compressors, etc., function in the same manner no matter the specific design of the facility. That  [c.398]

In addition to specific deadlines for each task and subtask, you should also consider program milestones, key pcrints in the plan at which you will want to review progress to date and make any necessary adjustments. For example, if you have adopted an element-by-element approach, you could consider completion of each PSM element as a milestone similarly, each facility s program would constitute a milestone, if that is the approach you ve chosen.  [c.112]

A systems approach may substantially reduce the steam needs, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and reduce operating costs of the facility. A systems approach assessing options throughout the steam system that incorporates a variety of measures and technologies is needed (Zeitz, 1997), and can help to find low-cost options. Improved efficiency of steam use reduces steam needs and may reduce the capital layout for expansion, reducing emissions and permitting procedures at the same time. Table 2 summarizes various options to reduce losses in the steam distribution and to improve system operation and the boiler itself. In specific cases, the steam boiler can be replaced almost totally by a heat pump (or mechanical vapor recompression) to generate low-pressure steam. This replaces the fuel use for steam generation by electricity. Emission reductions will depend on the type and efficiency of power generation.  [c.754]

See pages that mention the term Facility-Specific Approach : [c.319]    [c.319]    [c.572]    [c.69]    [c.53]   
See chapters in:

Guidelines for implementing process safety management systems  -> Facility-Specific Approach