Wrong material used


Usually reactions are carried out without mishaps, but sometimes chemical reactions get out of control because of problems such as using the wrong raw material, using raw materials containing trace impurities, changed operating conditions, unanticipated time delays, equipment failure, or wrong materials of construction.  [c.2311]

Incorrect information can result if the probe is made of the wrong material and is not heat treated in the same way as the process equipment (as well as because of other problems). The probe must be as close as possible to the material from which the equipment of interest is made. Existence of a critical condition, such as weldments or galvanic couples or occluded cells in the eqmpment of concern, makes the fabrication, placement, and maintenance of the probes and monitoring system or critical importance, if accurate and useful data are to be obtained.  [c.2442]

Trade name used to Use clear and unambiguous labeling scheme identify chemical leads, Ensure verification of chemical identity by to confusion about second operator or supervisor identity of chemical species. Potential for bar-coding using wrong material Use dedicated staging areas and/or operator, Bench scale testing prior to use exposure. CCPS G-f5 CCPS G-29  [c.133]

Innovation in engineering often means the clever use of a new material - new to a particular application, but not necessarily (although sometimes) new in the sense of recently developed. Plastic paper clips and ceramic turbine-blades both represent attempts to do better with polymers and ceramics what had previously been done well with metals. And engineering disasters are frequently caused by the misuse of materials. When the plastic tea-spoon buckles as you stir your tea, and when a fleet of aircraft is grounded because cracks have appeared in the tailplane, it is because the engineer who designed them used the wrong materials or did not understand the properties of those used. So it is vital that the professional engineer should know how to select materials which best fit the demands of the design - economic and aesthetic demands, as well as demands of strength and durability. The designer must understand the properties of materials, and their limitations.  [c.1]

The hose was made of reinforced rubber, the wrong material. A stainless steel hose should have been used.  [c.150]

Hoses have failed while tank trucks or cars were being filled or emptied for all the reasons listed in Section 7.1.6, in particular because damaged hoses or hoses made from the wrong material were used. However,  [c.263]

Many incidents have occurred because the wrong material of construction was used. This has usually been the result of errors by maintenance or construction personnel or suppliers, who did not use or did not supply the materials specified. Few failures have been the result of errors by materials specialists who incorrectly specified the materials to be used.  [c.299]

Many different grades Minimize number of different grades of and concentrations of material the same material, unambiguous labeling scheme used. Potential for using wrong grade of ope tor training material and/or opera- Ensure verification of chemical identity by tor exposure. second operator or supervisor Use bar-coding Use dedicated staging areas Bench scale testing prior to use Develop procedure for dealing with deviations from normal CCPS G-15 CCPS G-22 CCPS G-29 CCPS G-32  [c.133]

All hoses should be inspected and tested regularly and marked to show that they have been approved for use. A good practice is to change the color of the label every 6 or 12 months. This incident is a good illustration of the way both operators and managers become so used to the hazards of process materials that they fail to establish and maintain proper precautions. How often had the wrong  [c.151]

Mislabeling/inconsis- Provide a clear and unambiguous labeling tent labeling of materi- scheme als. Potential for using. operator training wrong material. Use certificate of analysis where hazardous materials are involved Test each lot of chemicals prior to use in production (functional or acceptance test) Develop procedure for dealing with deviations from normal CCPS G-15  [c.133]

Most towers contain trays or packing required to perform the separation of feed into products. The various internals provide the means of taking material from the column or introducing feeds. Most column problems are a result of improper selection of feed distributors, or using the wrong type of internal in a column to make a transition from one type of tray to another (single pass to double pass). Flooding problems at the transition 2one are caused by not providing enough vertical space for gravity flow of Hquid between the internals. It is good design practice to provide a manway for access at each important internal. It is also good practice to provide a manway about every 10 trays to minimise the number of trays a person needs to pass through to access all parts of the tower. Manways should be - 60 — cm dia where possible. Small-diameter towers may not be big enough to allow such large manways. Sufficient vertical distance should be provided between the trays at the manway to allow access, eg, - 1 m minimum if the internal occupies significant space.  [c.75]

The future for appHcation of insect-resist agents by dyebath, ca 1997, is uncertain. There are other approaches to protection of manufactured wool goods that are being investigated. (/) One is clean-up methods for dyehouse effluents (138), but Hquor volumes and costs may be high and it is technically difficult to scavenge the last traces of pesticide. Disposal of the pesticide accumulated on the absorbent or flocculation materials also needs to be considered. (2) Another area under investigation involves new appHcation methods, where Httie or no aqueous effluent is produced. WRONZ and some commercial equipment developers have examined, with varying levels of success, methods of treating manufactured carpets with spray, spray/vacuum, foam, and dry carrier treatments, but there may be difficulties in achieving uniformity of appHcation down to the base of the pile, and steaming may be required to achieving good penetration of the fiber to obtain optimum fastness (139,140). Other low volume appHcators apply insect-resist agent at the yam stage have shown good results (141,142), but it is necessary to obtain conditions suitable to allowing the active agent to penetrate the fiber. Where small Hquor volumes are used, cleanup or incineration of the Hquors may become feasible. 3) A diverse range of nonpesticidal approaches has also been studied (143). Attempts to find triggers for behaviors such as egg-laying and recognition of food were inconclusive, and of a range of metaboHc inhibitors tested, only colored quinones, eg, plumbagin and juglone, showed interesting activity.  [c.350]

Expression, possibly followed by air (or steam) displacement, is the last stage in mechanically dewatering compressible solids. Expression is used to wring out the last remaining liquid before resorting to thermal (irying or solvent (chemical) extraction of the remaining liquids from the solids, f The goal of this stage of dewatering is maximum removal of liquid rather than creation of a solids-free hquid. The operating costs for expression are much lower than those for heat or solvent recovery, and the former is used in preference to the two latter processes. Tiller estimates that for pressures up to 1000 kPa (10 atm) the mechanical energy required for liquid removal is 400 times less than the thermal energy required for evaporation [Tiller, Yeh, and Leu, Separation Science and Technology, 22, pp. 1037-1063 (1987)]. For sludges intended for incineration, expression can often dewater the material sufficiently to eliminate the need for aimliaiy fuel. For example, in wastewater treatment plants, particularly those that include some form of thermal treatment, the degree of dewatering has a greater impact on the energy balance than any other single unit process [Campbell and Plaisier, Advances in Filtration and Separation Technology, 7 (System Approach to Separation and Filtration Process Equipment), pp. 583-586 (1993)].  [c.1744]

The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature for some steels ean be as high as O C, depending on the eomposition of the steel (Ashby and Jones, 1989). However, there is no way of using the data direetly from impaet tests quantitatively in the design proeess. Design speeifieations do usually state a minimum impaet strength, but experienee suggests that this does not neeessarily eliminate brittle failure (Faires, 1965). The Robertson test ean yield more information than either the Charpy or Izod tests beeause the transition temperature is statistieally eorrelated with the temperature at whieh the aetual strueture has been known to fail in a brittle manner (Benham and Warnoek, 1983 Ruiz and Koenigsberger, 1970). The test uses a severely notehed speeimen tested under statie tension, and a plot showing the variation of the nominal stress at fraeture with the test speeimen temperature drawn. The test gives useful results from whieh design ealeulations ean be based however, the test is more expensive and eomplex eompared to other methods. In general, it is dangerous to use a material below its transition temperature beeause most of its eapaeity to absorb energy without rupture has been lost and eareful design and analysis is required.  [c.161]

Much of this outline history comes from Johnson s unpublished autobiography (1996). This, and Rideal s obituary for the Royal Society (Eley 1976) show that in research terms the department was a great success, with excellent staff and a horde of research students. Rideal was one of those research supervisors who throw out an endless stream of bright ideas and indications of relevant literature, and then leaves the student to work out all the details this worked. It did not always work, however the young Charles Snow was one of his collaborators Snow and another young man thought that they had discovered a new vitamin and celebrated the discovery with Rideal in a local pub. As Rideal remarked later (Rideal 1970) It was all wrong unfortunately... C.P. Snow... went off to Sieily, or maybe Sardinia, and thought he was going to die and started to write. He came baek with a book and this book, The Seareh, he presented to me, and that started him on his literary eareer. One never knows what an unsuccessful piece of researeh will lead to. Unfortunately, Snow disliked his mentor and is reputed to have used him as raw material for one of his less sympathetic fictional characters.  [c.43]

Earlier sections have described how people were killed because vessels were not freed from hazardous materials, atmospheres were not tested and were not respirable, no thought was given to methods of rescue, the correct equipment was not used, or rescue was bungled. This section describes an incident in which all these things were wrong.  [c.242]

In wet abrasive conditions, which often occur with heavy-duty industrial flooring, a small quantity of abrasion-resistant material tends to be carried on the wheels of tmcks and produces a grinding paste between the heavy-duty wheel and the surface. Since the abrasion-resistant material in the surface is generally harder than any sand or grit carried into the factory on wheels, the grinding paste tends to become more abrasive as the binder is worn away. Abrasion resistance tests under wet grinding paste conditions, however, do indicate a similar order of resistance, although the binder appears to play a more significant part. In applications where the flooring is flooded with water for long periods, the resin binder plays a more important part, since the strength of the adhesive bond between the particles of abrasion-resistant materials can, if the wrong resin binder system is used, drop markedly under prolonged wet conditions. In formulating resins for heavy-duty floors it would appear that the adhesive properties of the resin binder used to bond the resistant particles firmly together is the more important factor when selecting a resin system. In the selection of systems for highly abrasive service conditions, costs must also be considered and, on this basis, bauxite, calcimined under defined temperature conditions, has often been used as the abrasion-resistant aggregate.  [c.105]

See pages that mention the term Wrong material used : [c.33]    [c.1545]    [c.207]    [c.80]    [c.201]   
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What went wrong  -> Wrong material used