Labeling of equipment

Poor Labeling of Equipment and Components Example 1.7  [c.26]

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is appHed only to equipment. It is used to determine how equipment could fad, the effect of the fadure, and the likelihood of fadure. There are three steps in an FMEA (4) (/) define the purpose, objectives, and scope. Large processes are broken down into smaller systems such as feed or cooling. At first, the fadures are oidy considered to affect the system. In a more general study, the effects on a plant-wide basis can be considered. (2) Define the problem and boundary conditions. This includes identifying the system to be studied, estabUshing the physical boundaries, and labeling the equipment with a unique identifier for use in the EMEA procedure, (f)  [c.472]

Other considerations for fault tree constmction are (/) assume that faults propagate through normally operating equipment. Never assume that a fault is stopped by the miraculous failure of another piece of equipment. (2) Gates are coimected through labeled fault events. The output from one gate is never coimected directly into another.  [c.473]

Under the requirements of the Environmental Proteetion (Disposal of Polyehlorinated Biphenyls and other Dangerous Substanees) (England and Wales) Regulations, SI 2000/1043, equipment eontaining PCBs is now required to be identified, registered with the Environment Ageney, labelled so that the PCB presenee ean be identified, and deeontaminated without endangering health and safety to reduee the level of PCBs in equipment to less than 50 ppm (less than 0.005% in weight). It was, however, regarded as aeeeptable to aehieve a level between 50 and 500 ppm and to dispose of equipment by 31 Deeember 2000 unless the exemptions set out under the Environmental Proteetion (Disposal of Polyehlorinated Biphenyls and oilier Dangerous Substanees) Regulations, apply.  [c.533]

The selection of equipment enclosures involves consideration of environmental conditions as well as the possibility of exposure to flammable gases and vapors. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) provides a list of designations for enclosures that is adequate to specify many enclosure requirements. As an example, enclosures designated as NEMA 7 are explosion-proof, suitable for Class I areas for the gas groups labeled. NEMA 7 enclosures may be labeled for only one group (such as Group D) or for several groups (such as Groups B, C, and D). NEMA 1 enclosures are designed to perform little other purpose than to prevent accidental personnel contact with enclosed energized components, but are suitable for most unclassified areas. NEMA 4X enclosures, watertight and constructed of corrosion-resistant material, are often preferred for outdoor non-explosion-proof applications in areas subjected to harsh environmental conditions or high pressure hose washdown.  [c.545]

Another method of predicting and reducing human error in the CPI is through the use of ergonomics checklists. These can be used by an engineer to ascertain whether various factors which influence performance of a task meet particular ergonomic criteria and codes of good practice. Items within the checklist can include the design and layout of the control panel, the labeling and location of equipment, the usability of the operating procedures, aspects of training and team communications as well as other PIFs which have been examined in Chapter 3. By applying the checklist several times on different aspects of a CPI task, the engineer can identify work conditions that can induce human error and subsequently specify error reduction strategies. Checklists can be used either retrospectively to audit an existing system or proactively to design a new system.  [c.197]

Clothes. Laboratories should be equipped with a sufficient number of fireproof blankets, so that a blanket is available at any point of the laboratory at a few seconds notice. Each blanket should be kept in a clearly labelled box, the lid of which is closed by its own weight and not by any mechanical fastening, which might delay removal of the blanket. The box itself should be kept in some open and unencumbered position in the laboratory.  [c.528]

Clothes. Laboratories should be equipped with a sufficient number of fireproof blankets, so that a blanket is available at any point of the laboratory at a few seconds notice. Each blanket should be kept in a clearly labelled box, the lid of which is closed by its own weight and not by any mechanical fastening, which might delay removal of the blanket. The box itself should be kept in some open and unencumbered position in the laboratory.  [c.529]

Hot-Transfer Inks. Hot-transfer printing is similar to the decalcomania process in that the printing is first done on a temporary substrate, but heat is used as the transfer mechanism rather than water solubiHty. One type of hot-transfer ink is made with heat-fusible resins and waxes to be transferred to cloth. These inks should penetrate into the cloth and not be affected by subsequent washing of the fabric. In the packaging industry, labels are printed on a web of special coated paper by conventional printing such as gravure. This web is then fed to automatic labeling equipment. The relationship between the paper web and the ink is such that the ink is immediately released by heat and transferred to the surface of the package, such as a plastic botde, to which it then adheres as a permanent label.  [c.253]

The U.S. Eood and Dmg Administration (EDA) adopted a legally binding standard, which took the form of a performance standard for laser products (56,57). The standard provides a classification scheme for lasers similar to the ANSI classification. AH lasers sold after August 2, 1976 must comply with its provisions. The standard requires incorporation of safety-related labeling and protective equipment according to the class of the laser. The primary impact of the EDA standard is on laser manufacturers and scientific supply firms.  [c.12]

The maintenance manager oversees important issues during the design and constmction phase. Some areas requiring special attention include checking the design from an operational point of view checking machinery and equipment for operation and maintenance checking that all equipment is safely installed and can be maintained checking the marking of supply lines (air, water, gases, chemicals, etc) identifying the electrical circuitry and checking panel labels reviewing manufacturers suggestions for spare parts and tools reviewing test results, ie, strength of materials, pipeline integrity, etc reviewing balance reports for HVAC work, ie, air, water, electric load, etc reviewing fire sprinkler alarm and water test participating in housekeeping and sanitary support during constmction and checking utiUties, including electric power, water, drainage, air supply, that will supply new areas without overloading the individual systems.  [c.442]

Whereas QC is responsible for monitoring production, the responsibihty of QA encompasses the entire product cycle from development to customer satisfaction (see Fig. 1). This role varies from auditing raw material supphers to evaluating in-process sampling, equipment cahbrations, and statistical process control. QA also evaluates the packaging environment and labeling procedures, as well as warehousing and shipping operations. This quahty oversight activity plays a large role in preventing nonconforming product from ever reaching the customer.  [c.368]

Processing. Sugarcane processing to raw cane sugar is outlined in Figure 4, with equipment and concentrations labeled. Because cane deterioration is a direct function of time delay between harvest and milling, cane is stored in as small amounts and as short a time as possible in the mill yard. Factories mn around the clock in most countries, closing for weekends in areas with long seasons or strong labor unions, but cane deUvery is usually limited to daylight hours. AH factories stop for cleaning of evaporators (unless a spare set is available) and other equipment, every 8—20 days.  [c.16]

Handling containers and pipelines also requires that special precautions be observed. An emptied container retains vapor and product residue. Thus all labeled safeguards must be observed until the container is cleaned, reconditioned, or destroyed. Dmms, if not self-venting, should be periodically vented to prevent accumulations of hydrogen. To avoid hydrogen explosions when welding, any vessel that has contained sulfuric acid must be thoroughly purged and tested for explosive conditions before welding commences. In dismantling lines and equipment, it should always be assumed that a spray of acid may occur, and suitable precautions should be taken. Iron or other soHd sulfates may plug lines or retain pockets of acid. Tightening flange bolts on pipes filled with acid is dangerous because of the possibiUty of mechanical failures.  [c.193]

Identification of the equipment. Many accidents have occurred because maintenance workers opened up the wrong equipment. Equipment which is under repair should be numbered or labeled unambiguously. Temporaiy labels should be used if there are no permanent ones. Pointing out the correc t equipment is not sufficient. The pump you repaired last week is leaking again is a recipe for an accident.  [c.2269]

Disposal of explosive waste and the repair or dismantling of contaminated plant need extreme care. Table 7.14 provides guidance on techniques for disposal of the more commonly encountered explosives by experts at proper disposal sites. Collection of the waste should be in well labelled, distinctive, specially designed containers. Cleaning and decontamination of plant comprises removal of gross contamination under wet or solvent conditions using tools made of soft material, final cleaning with solvent or chemical reagent, and finally proving of the equipment by heating to temperatures exceeding those for decomposition of the contaminant. Repair work should be the subject of a permit-to-work system (Chapter 13) it should be assumed that explosives may have penetrated threads, joints and other crevices and bolts, flanges etc. These should be thoroughly decontaminated prior to dismantling. Operatives should be suitably trained and protected.  [c.241]

In the labeling market, hot melts provide the capability to bond non-porous films to plastic cans and bottles. Hot melt usage has grown with the prevalence of such plastic to plastic laminations. The choice of hot melts depends on the equipment, the substrates, whether the bottles are filled or unfilled, and any post-labeling processing (e.g. pasteurization, or heat shrinkage of the film).  [c.747]

The first automated equipment for labeling used a cartridge of pre-cut labels fed one-by-one from a stack. These cartridge-fed machines are still the most common, particularly for applying labels to bottles that are already filled. There are two adhesives applicators, usually both running the same adhesive, but not always. The first applicator puts adhesive onto the bottle. The adhesive must cut off cleanly and then grab and pull out the label from the stack. The second applicator puts adhesive on the trailing edge of the label. Adhesive viscosities are typically in the range of 900-1500 cP. Most of the labels used on these machines are paper, and thus relatively easy to adhere. In addition, paper labels permit running at higher application temperatures (130-170°C). Many machine adjustments are possible which provides some formulation latitude.  [c.747]

Personnel and equipment need to be decontaminated in the CRZ. However, the CRZ might be a small area immediately adjacent to the remediation area, which workers are aware of, and is also marked appropriately. Although the CRZ is less formal and likely does not have many decontamination stations, efforts should be made to make sure that personnel and equipment are appropriately cleaned. Many times, due to the logistics of a smaller job, disposal of wastes becomes difficult. If purge water is drummed and left on the site, it is imperative that it is identified, labeled properly, recorded in the site log, and disposed of in the proper manner (in accordance with applicable, local, state, federal, or other regulations).  [c.67]

Before other operations begin, all materials used in the decontamination of workers and equipment should be disposed of properly. Materials used for decontamination are regarded as hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste until adequately evaluated and an accurate determination is made. Buckets, brushes, clothing, tools, and other contaminated equipment are collected and labeled appropriately. Yellow plastic wrapping material should be used for packaging radioactively contaminated material. Yellow plastic sheets or bags should not be used for nonradiological purposes. Care should be taken to avoid placing  [c.159]

All devices subject to calibration should display an identification label which, either directly or through traceable records, indicates the authority responsible for calibrating the device and the date when the calibration is due. Don t state the actual calibration date because this would be dependent on users having knowledge of the calibration frequency. The standard requires that measuring equipment show its calibration status to any potential user. Measuring instruments too small for calibration status labels showing the due date may be given other types of approved identification. It is not mandatory that users identify the due date solely from the instrument itself but they must be able to determine that the instrument has been calibrated. Serial numbers alone do not do this unless placed within a specially designed label that indicates that the item has been calibrated or you can fix special labels that show a circular calendar marked to show the due date. If you do use serial numbers on special labels then they need to be traceable to calibration records that indicate the calibration due date.  [c.416]

Segregation may also be necessary in the packaging of products not only to prevent visible damage but electrical damage, as with electrostatic-sensitive devices. Segregation may be the only way of providing adequate product identity, as is the case with fasteners. While a well-equipped laboratory can determine the difference between products and materials the consumer needs a simple practical method of identification and labeled packets are often a reliable and economic alternative.  [c.484]

Labels (see Chapter 4) are a sort of protective equipment. They vanish with remarkable speed, and regular checks should be made to make sure they are still there.  [c.277]

As shown in this figure, the format is divided into three main columns labeled Equipment Description, Service Description, and Failure Description. The Equipment Description column may be further divided to show the necessary equipment description levels that make up the taxonomy number. Each column represents one additional hierarchical level and number in the CCPS Taxonomy. Similarly, the Service and Failure Descriptions are divided as needed to fully establish the data cells. An entry or group of entries in a column apply all the way down the column until an additional entry or a horizontal line is reached.  [c.25]

The first set of case studies illustrates errors due to the inadequate design of the human-machine interface (HMI). The HMI is the boundary across which information is transmitted between the process and the plant worker. In the context of process control, the HMI may consist of analog displays such as chart records and dials, or modem video display unit (VDU) based control systems. Besides display elements, the HMI also includes controls such as buttons and switches, or devices such as trackballs in the case of computer controlled systems. The concept of the HMI can also be extended to include all means of conveying information to the worker, including the labeling of control equipment components and chemical containers. Further discussion regarding the HMI is provided in Chapter 2. This section contains examples of deficiencies in the display of process information, in various forms of labeling, and the use of inappropriate instrumentation scales.  [c.24]

NMR spectra from a chosen nucleus will generally show all resonances from all such nuclei present in solution. Therefore, if at all possible, samples should be chemically pure, to reduce crowding in the spectra, and extraneous compounds such as buffers should ideally not contain tire nuclei under study. When chromatographic separations are frequently and routinely essential, then on-line equipment that combines liquid cln-omatography with NMR is available [2]. Some separation into subspectra is also possible within a fixed sample, using specialized equipment, when the components have different diffusion rates. The teclmique is called difhision ordered spectroscopy, or DOSY [3]. If the spectral crowding arises simply from the complexity of the molecule under study, as in proteins, then one can resort to selective isotopic labelling for example, via gene manipulation. A wide range of experiments is available that are selective for chosen pairs of isotopes, and hence yield greatly simplified spectra.  [c.1439]

The bulk blending system has provided competition to the mixed fertilizer cogranulation plants because the complexity and high equipment and labor costs of the latter make only relatively large, high investment plants feasible. Annual output of about 100,000 ton pet plant is about the minimum economically feasible. Marketing of the large output from such a plant involves shipment over relatively large distances and often handling (and profit taking) by an intermediate near the point of use. Such handling often is feasible only in bags, which adds another expense. Finally, cogranulation is quite inflexible on a cost basis in regard to custom formulating to meet varying farmer requirements. Changing formulation in a cogranulation plant is a rather difficult operation and can be done economically only for relatively large production mns. Such a formula change also introduces complications in storage, labeling, and marketing of multiple grades. Figure 20 shows also that growth in the production of fluid mixed fertilizers has about paralleled that of bulk blends, although at a lower level. Fluid fertilizer plants also ate usually small local units having many of the same advantages as bulk blend plants.  [c.237]

Glass Benejiciation. Glass bottles and jars are cmshed to the desired particle size. The material is screened for the removal of organic, eg, paper and plastic, labels, as weU as closures, eg, caps and Uds, not removed in earlier operations. Magnetic and nonferrous metal-detection devices remove these contaminants. Optical sorting equipment has not yet been adopted as of 1996 on an industrywide scale, on account of high capital and operating costs. The primary focus for avoiding contamination is precmshing activities.  [c.570]

Rubber and Plastics. Release agents are widely used ia the mbber and plastic iadustry to achieve release of polymers and release from polymers. They are useful ia many polymer-processing appHcatioas, such as extmsioa, caleaderiag, mol ding, and embossiag, to prevent the polymer from sticking and building up on process equipment and thereby eliminating the accumulation of rejects. In subsequent machining, packagiag, and labeling operations, abherents allow faster, more continuous Handling. Release from polymer appHcations varies from the familiar examples of fluorocarbon-treated cookware to the use of shrink films of polytetrafluoroethylene [9002-84-0] or polyethylene [9002-88-4] over rollers used in the ink, printing, polymer processing, and coating industries. A significant aspect of this type of appHcation is antideposition coatings to reduce accumulation of pollutants and other undesirable matter. Examples include nonthrombogenic surfaces in biomedical areas, and low soiling materials for solarenergy collection devices.  [c.101]

Radioactivity associated with Re can be detected only by using sophisticated laboratory equipment because of the low energy of the emitted P-particles. This radioactivity poses no health or safety ha2atds. Samples of the metal and its compounds ate not labeled as radioactive, and typical precautions associated with radioactive materials ate not taken during use and handling of the element or its compounds.  [c.160]

The acid may be shipped in tank cars, tank tmcks, iso-tainers or dmms via common carrier (40). The shipping ha2ard class is Corrosive Material, the DOT labels and placards required are Corrosive and Poison. The UN number is 1754. When iron content and color are not of concern, the acid may be stored and shipped in steel equipment. The iron content is generally 25—50 ppm and the color is pale yellow to amber.  [c.87]

With these technologies, hteraUy anything in the operation of a packaging or material handling system can be sensed and then via computer, using most often commercially available software, incredible levels of calculations can be performed. These can be used to control the process producing the data and can present operators, engineers, and managers with data and calculations describing virtually any facet of the packaging or material handling systems operation. Closely aldn to these is the advent of robots which can cany out many human tasks. Robots are controlled by computers, under the direction of software which rehes on sensors and computers. A further outgrowth of this technical revolution occurs in the management and control of inventories—whether they be in the raw material stage, in processing, or in a finished goods sales warehouse. Automatic storage and retrieval equipment under the direction of a special-purpose computer allows unbehevable degrees of identifying 1 items in the inventory Where they are, their age, and which inventoiy to choose to optimize the profit plan of the corporation which owns them. Underlying the control of tnis sophisticated inventoiy-management system is an emerfflng technology known as bar coding. This is a logical outgrowth of the development of the personal computer and the software for its operation. The placing of lasers into printing devices has created the ability to produce labels with bar codes. Production of labels has become a real-time packaging-hne-type operation rather than an operation in which the labels have to be ordered and inventoried, as was the case before the dramatic technical revolution just described.  [c.1911]

It is erueial to eonsider the sampling protoeol, equipment, ealibration, and validation. Tightly sealed sample eontainers of adequate strength, and generally proteeted from heat and light, are required. Extreme eare must be taken with sample identifieation and labelling. Sample eontainers must not beeome eontaminated with the substanee under study or by any major interfering ehemieals. Preeautions must also prevent aeeidental loss of material eolleeted awaiting analysis, e.g. during storage or transport. For example, water samples ean beeome affeeted by evaporation, degassing, ehemieal degradation, photophysieal degradation, preeipitation, or damage of suspended matter.  [c.359]

The ineident eommander may rely on visual observation of plae-ards, labels, and manifests and information gathered during the response. Obtaining air measurements with monitoring equipment for toxie eon-eentrations of vapors, partieulates, explosive potential, and the possibility of radiation exposure is important for determining the nature, degree, and extent of the hazards [2].  [c.175]

The SSAHP developed by the Site G contractor did not indicate that the contractors routinely conducted job- or task-specific hazard analyses. In addition, the SSAHP did not specify that PPE selection for jobs and tasks must be based on the analysis of the health hazards associated with each job. Eurthermore, the SSAHP contained no procedures for objectively determining the effectiveness of decontamination of personnel or equipment. The decontamination program required incineration of all materials that could not be readily decontaminated such materials were placed in labeled disposal containers. The program, however, did  [c.203]

Each binary fork is attached to a branch of the preceding fork and is conditioned by the success or failure represented by that branch. Thus, evei7 fork, represents conditional probability. Each limb of the HRA event tree is described or labeled, in shorthand. Capital letters (A) represent I ailure lower case letters (a) represent success. The same convention applies to Greek letters, which represent non-human error events, such as equipment failures. The letters S and F are exceptions to this rule in that they represent system success and failure respectively, in practice, the limbs may be labeled with a short description of the error lo eliminate the need for a legend. The labeling format is unimportant the critical task in developing HRA event trees is the definition of the events themselves and their translation to the trees.  [c.181]

The standard requires that you ensure that incoming product is not used or processed until verified as conforming, but how do you do this The only way to make certain of this is to install a gate through which only conforming items may pass. You need to register the receipt of items and then pass them to an inspection station equipped to determine conformance with your purchasing requirements. If items would normally pass into storage areas following inspection, as a safeguard you should also make provision for the storeperson to check that all items received have been through inspection, rejecting any that have not. By use of labels attached to items you can make this a painless routine (see Part 2 Chapter 12). If some items are routed directly to the user, you need a means of obtaining written confirmation that the items conform to the prescribed requirements so that at receipt inspection you can provide evidence that  [c.380]

Maintaining equipment integrity throughout its lifetime is achieved by continual inspection, testing, and maintenance equipment therefore should be designed and installed to provide a good work g location for operation and maintenance. This requires considering lighting, shelter, humidity, noise, temperature, access, personnel working position, availability of correct tools, and the like. Clear responsibilities for isolating, verifying, and sign off are necessary. Labeling exactly what must be worked on, and explicit, accurate, imambiguous communications on what must be done are essential. Frequent reviews of work permitting systems are required to ensure that specified procedures continue to be followed.  [c.355]

As technology develops steadily, there follows a corresponding decline of E/GDP, averaging about 1 percent/year. This can be accelerated in the marketplace by new fuels, new technologies, and innovations in existing technology. Government intervention—such as efficiency labels, performance standards for buildings and equipment, tax incentives, utility policy, and vohmtai y agreements with industry—which is usually implemented during periods of rising energy prices—can further accelerate the decline in E/GDP.  [c.371]

To combat the dangers ot global warming by reducing carbon emissions, the Clinton Administration formed the Climate Protection Division (CPD), formerly the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division. This Division has been directed to find nonregulatoiy ways to reduce greenhouse gases through energy-efficiency improvements in all sectors of the economy. In collaboration with DOE, the EPA established the Energy Star Labeling Program as a way to develop voluntary energy-efficiency specifications for products such as office equipment, heating and cooling equipment, residential appliances, and computers. This Program allows manufacturers to prominently place an Energy Star label on qualifying products. The hope is for consumers to learn to recognize the label as the symbol for energy-efficiency, and become accustomed  [c.588]

See pages that mention the term Labeling of equipment : [c.191]    [c.942]    [c.535]    [c.524]    [c.540]    [c.99]    [c.105]   
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What went wrong  -> Labeling of equipment