Types of OELs

Figure 15.9 A typical outdoor type oil-filled 11 kV control transformer Figure 15.9 A typical outdoor type oil-filled 11 kV control transformer
Bearing type Oil lubricated Magnetic  [c.78]

The oldest kind of gas plants are absorption/lean oil plants, where a kerosene type oil is circulated through the plant as shown in Figure 9-1. The lean oil is used to ab.sorb light hydrocarbon components from the gas. The light components are separated from the rich oil and the lean oil is recycled.  [c.244]

Bearing Thermometer(s) Dial Type. Oil Pressure Gauge(s) Total  [c.676]

Engine type Oil quality Conditions  [c.852]

While preventive maintenance is concerned with regularly testing, and reconditioning equipment to prevent failures in service and premature deterioration, it follows that predictive maintenance procedures are concerned with the ability to predict when the equipment will fail and then developing schedules to implement timely repairs. Predictive maintenance does not imply that with the use of these techniques, failure modes in equipment can be prevented rather, it suggests that the occurrence of failure can be predicted and thus planned for. An appropriate example would be the inspection and change of a major compressor face-type oil seal where random heat checking (FM) has been observed over the years.  [c.1044]

REAL XF[c.322]


An emulsifying agent generally produces such an emulsion that the liquid in which it is most soluble forms the external phase. Thus the alkali metal soaps and hydrophilic colloids produce O/W emulsions, oil-soluble resins the W/O type (see emulsion).  [c.156]

An important application of this type of analysis is in the determination of the calculated cetane index. The procedure is as follows the cetane number is measured using the standard CFR engine method for a large number of gas oil samples covering a wide range of chemical compositions. It was shown that this measured number is a linear combination of chemical family concentrations as determined by the D 2425 method. An example of the correlation obtained is given in Figure 3.3.  [c.52]

This fuel is used for the diesel engines in passenger cars and in utility vehicles ranging from light delivery vans to heavy trucks carrying 38 tons. Such diversity of application can complicate the search for quality criteria, but in each situation, it will be the most demanding type of application, very often as it would be, the private automobile that determines the fuel specifications. Note that other types of non-highway diesel engines —fishing boats, construction equipment, farm tractors, and large ships— use motor fuels distinctly different from diesel fuel such as marine diesel, home-heating oil, and heavy fuel oil. Certain characteristics specified or recommended for these products take into account that they are ultimately going to be used for a diesel-type of combustion.  [c.212]

The classification defines the viscosity grades for which the characteristics correspond either to winter climatic conditions (grades aW where W designates Winter ), or to summer conditions (b-type grades). Thus, an oil designated by a type aWb number Is a multigrade oil, capable of maintaining its defined viscosity qualities in winter as in summer. The six W grades are defined by a maximum cold viscosity (from -30°C to -5°C according to the grade, measured by rotating viscometer, CCS", for Cold  [c.276]

The conventional mineral bases result from the refining of vacuum distillation cuts and deasphalted atmospheric residues. According to the crude oil origin and the type of refining they undergo, the structures of these bases can be essentially paraffinic, isoparaffinic, or naphthenic. The conventional scheme for lubricating oil production involves the following steps selection of distillates having appropriate viscosities, elimination of aromatics by solvent extraction in order to improve their VI (viscosity index), extraction of high freezing point paraffins by dewaxing and finally light hydrogen purification treatment (see Figure 10.13).  [c.277]

The properties sought for these products depend on the type of application it is useful to distinguish motor oil from industrial lubricants.  [c.281]

This is the essential characteristic for every lubricant. The kinematic viscosity is most often measured by recording the time needed for the oil to flow down a calibrated capillary tube. The viscosity varies with the pressure but the influence of temperature is much greater it decreases rapidly with an increase in temperature and there is abundant literature concerning the equations and graphs relating these two parameters. One can cite in particular the ASTM D 341 standard.  [c.282]

The viscosity is determined by measuring the time it takes for a crude to flow through a capillary tube of a given length at a precise temperature. This is called the kinematic viscosity, expressed in mm /s. It is defined by the standards, NF T 60-100 or ASTM D 445. Viscosity can also be determined by measuring the time it takes for the oil to flow through a calibrated orifice standard ASTM D 88. It is expressed in Saybolt seconds (SSU).  [c.318]

This type of study, applied over all the cuts, enables the refinery flow scheme to be defined in order to satisfy a given set of market conditions starting from one or more crude oil feedstocks.  [c.343]

Antirust properties (inhibited mineral oils) NFT 60-151 ISO 7120 ASTM D 665 Spots on a test tube after agitation with oil water  [c.446]

In many oil and gas fields throughout the world hydrocarbons are found in fault bound anticlinal structures. This type of trapping mechanism is called a combination trap.  [c.14]

As the name implies the company basically rents the rig and crew on a per day basis. Usually the oil company also manages the drilling operation and has full control over the drilling process. This type of contract actually encourages the contractor to spend as much time as acceptable on location . With increased cost consciousness, day rate contracts have become less favoured by most oil companies.  [c.62]

Introduction and commercial application The success of oil and gas field development is largely determined by the reservoir its size, complexity, productivity, and the type and quantity of fluids it contains. To optimise a development plan, the characteristics of the reservoir must be well defined. Often the level of information available is significantly less than that required for an accurate description of the reservoir, and estimates of the real situation need to be made. It is often difficult for surface engineers to understand the origin of the uncertainty with which the subsurface engineer must work, and the ranges of possible outcomes provided by the subsurface engineer can be frustrating. This section will describe what controls the uncertainties, and how data is gathered and interpreted to try to form a model of the subsurface reservoir.  [c.75]

Type Dry gas Wet gas Gas Condensate Volatile Oil Black Oil  [c.96]

The four vertical lines on the diagram show the isothermal depletion loci for the main types of hydrocarbon gas (incorporating dry gas and wet gas), gas condensate, volatile oil and black oil. The starting point, or initial conditions of temperature and pressure, relative to the two-phase envelope are different for each fluid type.  [c.102]

Wettability describes the relationship between the contact of two fluids and a solid. The type of contact is characterised by the contact angle (0) between the fluids and the solid, and is measured by convention through the denser fluid. If the contact angle measured through a liquid is less than 90 degrees, the surface is said to be wetting to that fluid. The following diagram shows the difference in contact angles for water wet and oil wet reservoir rock surfaces. The measurement of wettability at reservoir conditions is very difficult, since the property is affected by the drilling and recovery of the samples.  [c.121]

Returning to the experiment with the oil, water and the glass capillaries, the interfacial tension and wettability lead to a pressure differential across the liquid interface and a contact angle with the glass. The pressure in the water phase is greater than the pressure in the oil phase, and the glass is water wet, as determined by the contact angle. The pressure difference between the water phase and the oil phase is called the capillary pressure (P ), and is related to the interfacial tension (o), the radius of the capillary tube (rj) and the contact angle (0), by  [c.122]

Inside the capillary tube, the capillary pressure (P ) is the pressure difference between the oil phase pressure (PJ and the water phase pressure (P ) at the interface between the oil and the water.  [c.122]

Field analogues should be based on reservoir rock type (e.g. tight sandstone, fractured carbonate), fluid type, and environment of deposition. This technique should not be overlooked, especially where little information is available, such as at the exploration stage. Summary charts such as the one shown in Figure 8.19 may be used in conjunction with estimates of macroscopic sweep efficiency (which will depend upon well density and positioning, reservoir homogeneity, offtake rate and fluid type) and microscopic displacement efficiency (which may be estimated if core measurements of residual oil saturation are available).  [c.207]

The principle of operation of the hydraulic reciprocating pump is similar to the beam pump, with a piston-like sub-surface pump action. The energy to drive the pump, however, is delivered through a hydraulic medium, the power fluid, commonly oil or water. The power fluid drives a downhole hydraulic motor which in turn drives the pump. A separate surface pump delivers the hydraulic power. The power fluid system can be of the closed loop or of the open type. In the latter case, the power fluids are mixed with the produced fluid stream. The performance of the hydraulic pump is primarily monitored by measuring the discharge pressures of both surface and sub-surface pumps.  [c.231]

A knock out vessel may on the other hand be followed by a variety of dehydrating systems depending upon the space available and the characteristics of the mixture. On land a continuous dehydration tank such as a wash tank may be employed. In this type of vessel crude oil enters the tank via an inlet spreader and water droplets fall out of the oil as it rises to the top of the tank. Such devices can reduce the water content to less than 2%.  [c.247]

Another type of gravity separator used for small amounts of oily water, the oil interceptor, is widely used both offshore and onshore. These devices work by encouraging oil particles to coalesce on the surface of plates. Once bigger oil droplets are formed they tend to float to the surface of the water faster and can be skimmed off. A corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) is shown below and demonstrates the principle involved. However there are many varieties available. Plate interceptors can typically reduce oil content to 50-150 ppm.  [c.248]

The choice of contract type will depend upon the type of work, and the level of control which the oil company wishes to maintain. There is a current trend for the oil company to consider the contractor as a partner in the project (partnering arrangements), and to work closely with the contractor at all stages of the project development. The objective of this closer involvement of the contractor is to provide a common incentive for the contractor and the oil company to improve quality, efficiency, safety, and most importantly to reduce cost. This type of contract usually contains a significant element of sharing risk and reward of the project.  [c.301]

The commercial process for castor oil recovery from the seed consists of preheating the seed in stack cookers prior to cmshing in a hydrauHc press or a continuous mechanical screw-type press commonly known as an expeUer. The presscake discharged from this mechanical processing contains 10—20 wt % oil and is then processed in solvent extraction units to recover the residual oil. Cold-pressing of castor seed that has not been preheated is still carried out to a limited degree in castor growing countries such as Bra2il and India. A light colored, high quaUty medicinal type oil is recovered. Castor oil recovered from hydrauhc or continuous mechanical screw presses requires refining to remove toxic proteins, gums, and foreign matter while improving the color and reducing the free fatty acid content.  [c.152]

Beating Frame. Frames shall he equipped with axial radiating fins extending the length of the frame to aid in heat dissipation. Frame shall he provided with ductile iron outboard hearing housing. Both ends of the frame shall he provided with lip-type oil seals and lahyrinth-type deflectors of metallic reinforced synthetic rubber to prevent the entrance of contaminants.  [c.918]

A, heated at reflux with equimolar amount of tnfluoroacetaldehyde ethyl hemiacetal, B, heated in a sealed tube (oil bath, 150-155 °C) with equimolar amount of tnfluoroacetaldehyde ethyl hemiacetal  [c.617]

A. S. Berensand J. H. Born, The Effect of Surface Microstructure on the Performance of Rotary Shaft Lip Type Oil Seals. Fourth Rubber and Plastics Conference, July 4-7 (1974).  [c.463]

Bearing Thermometer(i) Diol Type. Oil Pressure Oauge(s) Total  [c.357]

It is mainly in cold behavior that the specifications differ between bome-heating oil and diesel fuel. In winter diesel fuel must have cloud points of -5 to -8°C, CFPPs from -15 to -18°C and pour points from -18 to 21°C according to whether the type of product is conventional or for severe cold. For home-heating oil the specifications are the same for all seasons. The required values are -l-2°C, -4°C and -9°C, which do not present particular problems in refining.  [c.233]

Organic sulfur compounds such as sulfurized spermaceti oil, terpene sulfides, and aromatic disulfides have been used. Encumbered phenols such as di-tertiary-butylphenols and amines of the phenyl-alphanaphthylamine type are effective stopping the kinetic oxidation chain by creating stable radicals.  [c.358]

Estimated cost casing drilling operation well equipment TOTAL Estimated rig time 000 200 2000 400 2600 28 days Type of well Deviated, oil, development Drilling rig Jolly Roger-1 Datum Level DFE 88ft above MSL Sea Bed 250ft Total Depth 3700ft Conductor No No.8  [c.31]

Tender Assisted Drilling. In some cases oil and gas fields are developed from a number of platforms. Some platforms will accommodate production and processing facilities as well as living quarters. Alternatively these functions may be performed on separate platforms, typically in shallow and calm water. On all offshore structures however, the installation of additional weight or spaoe is costly. Drilling is only carried out during short periods of time if eompared to the overall field life span and it is desirable to have a rig installed only when needed. This is the concept of tender assisted drilling operations. A derrick is assembled from a number of segments transported to the platform by a barge. All the supporting functions such as storage, mud tanks and living quarters are located on the tender, which is a specially built spacious barge anchored alongside. It is thus possible to service a whole field or even several fields using only one or two tender assisted derrick sets. In rough weather, barge type tenders quickly become inoperable  [c.34]

See pages that mention the term Types of OELs : [c.330]    [c.118]    [c.119]    [c.176]    [c.368]    [c.375]    [c.332]    [c.61]    [c.226]    [c.89]    [c.111]   
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Industrial ventilation design guidebook  -> Types of OELs