The conversion of primary alcohols and aldehydes into carboxylic acids is generally possible with all strong oxidants. Silver(II) oxide in THF/water is particularly useful as a neutral oxidant (E.J. Corey, 1968 A). The direct conversion of primary alcohols into carboxylic esters is achieved with MnOj in the presence of hydrogen cyanide and alcohols (E.J. Corey, 1968 A,D). The remarkably smooth oxidation of ethers to esters by ruthenium tetroxide has been employed quite often (D.G. Lee, 1973). Dibutyl ether affords butyl butanoate, and tetra-hydrofuran yields butyrolactone almost quantitatively. More complex educts also give acceptable yields (M.E. Wolff, 1963).  [c.134]

These trivial names are permitted -y-butyrolactone, -y-valerolactone, and 5-valerolactone. Names based on heterocycles may be used for all lactones. Thus, -y-butyrolactone is also tetrahydro-2-furanone or dihydro-2(3/f)-furanone.  [c.35]

Butyrolactone Diethyl maleate 1.434 1.438 1.051 1.064  [c.1096]

PORONCOMPOUNDS - BORIC ACID ESTERS] (Vol 4) a,g,g-Trimethyl-g-butyrolactone [2610-96-0]  [c.1020]

Vinyl-4-methyl-g-butyrolactone [1073-11-6]  [c.1055]

Because of its relatively high, price, there have been continuing efforts to replace acetylene in its major appHcations with cheaper raw materials. Such efforts have been successful, particularly in the United States, where ethylene has displaced acetylene as raw material for acetaldehyde, acetic acid, vinyl acetate, and chlorinated solvents. Only a few percent of U.S. vinyl chloride production is still based on acetylene. Propjiene has replaced acetylene as feed for acrylates and acrylonitrile. Even some recent production of traditional Reppe acetylene chemicals, such as butanediol and butyrolactone, is based on new raw materials.  [c.102]

With various catalysts, butanediol adds carbon monoxide to form adipic acid. Heating with acidic catalysts dehydrates butanediol to tetrahydrofuran [109-99-9] C HgO (see Euran derivatives). With dehydrogenation catalysts, such as copper chromite, butanediol forms butyrolactone (133). With certain cobalt catalysts both dehydration and dehydrogenation occur, giving 2,3-dihydrofuran (134).  [c.108]

Uses. The largest uses of butanediol are internal consumption in manufacture of tetrahydrofuran and butyrolactone (145). The largest merchant uses are for poly(butylene terephthalate) resins (see Polyesters,thermoplastic) and in polyurethanes, both as a chain extender and as an ingredient in a hydroxyl-terminated polyester used as a macroglycol. Butanediol is also used as a solvent, as a monomer for vadous condensation polymers, and as an intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals.  [c.109]

Table 4. Physical Properties of Butyrolactone Table 4. Physical Properties of Butyrolactone
Butyrolactone is completely miscible with water and most organic solvents. It is only slightly soluble in aUphatic hydrocarbons. It is a good solvent for many gases, for most organic compounds, and for a wide variety of polymers.  [c.110]

Rea.ctlons, Butyrolactone undergoes the reactions typical of y-lactones. Particularly characteristic are ring openings and reactions in which ring oxygen is replaced by another heteroatom. There is also marked reactivity of the hydrogen atoms alpha to the carbonyl group.  [c.110]

With acid catalysts, butyrolactone reacts with alcohols rapidly even at room temperature, giving equiUbtium mixtures consisting of esters of 4-hydroxybutyric acid [591-81-1] with unchanged butyrolactone as the main component. Attempts to distill such mixtures ordinarily result in complete reversal to butyrolactone and alcohol. The esters can be separated by a quick flash distillation at high vacuum (149).  [c.110]

Butyrolactone and hydrogen sulfide heated over an alumina catalyst result in replacement of ring oxygen by sulfur (151).  [c.110]

C. Manufactured from butyrolactone and ammonia. Easily hydrolysed to 4-amino-butanoic acid, its most important use is for the formation of N-vinylpyrrolidone by reaction with elhyne.  [c.335]

The procedure (with ethylene dibromide replacing trimethyleiie dibromide) described for cycZobutanecarboxylic acid (previous Section) does not give satisfactory results when applied to the cyclopropane analogue the yield of the cyclopropane-1 1 dicarboxylic acid is considerably lower and, furthermore, the decarboxylation of the latter gives a considerable proportion (about 30 per cent.) of butyrolactone  [c.859]

Supplement (combined with Volumes XVIII and XIX) XVII, 2nd 1934 2359-3031 Hydroxy compounds Furfuryl alcohol, 112. Carbonyl compounds Butyrolactone, 234. Furfural, 272. 2-Aoetyl-thio-phene, 287. Xanfhone, 366. Succinic anhydride, 404. Phthalio anhydride, 469.  [c.1123]

The 4-hydroxy-1-alkene (homoallylic alcohol) 81 is oxidized to the hetni-acetal 82 of the aldehyde by the participation of the OH group when there is a substituent at C3. In the absence of the substituent, a ketone is obtained. The hemiacetal is converted into butyrolactone 83[117], When Pd nitro complex is used as a catalyst in /-BuOH under oxygen, acetals are obtained from homoallylic alcohols even in the absence of a substituent at C-3[l 18], /-Allylamine is oxidized to the acetal 84 of the aldehyde selectively by participation of the amino group[l 19],  [c.33]

The a-bromo-7-lactone 901 undergoes smooth coupling with the acetonyltin reagent 902 to afford the o-acetonyl-7-butyrolactone 903[763j. The o-chloro ether 904, which has no possibility of //-elimination after oxidative addition, reacts with vinylstannane to give the allyl ether 905, The o -bromo ether 906 is also used for the intramolecular alkyne insertion and transmetallation with allylstannane to give 907[764],  [c.261]

Indoles can also be alkylated by lactones[l4]. Base-catalysed reactions have been reported for (3-propiolactone[15], y-butyrolactone[10] and 5-valerolac-tone[10]. These reactions probably reflect the thermodynamic instability of the N -acylindole intermediate which would be formed by attack at the carbonyl group relative to reclosure to the lactone. The reversibility of the JV-acylation would permit the thermodynamically favourable N-alkylation to occur.  [c.91]

Butyrolactone. y-Butyrolactone [96-48-0] dihydro-2(3H)-furanone, was fkst synthesized in 1884 via internal esterification of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (146). In 1991 the principal commercial source of this material is dehydrogenation of butanediol. Manufacture by hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (147) was discontinued in the early 1980s and resumed in the late 1980s. Physical properties are Hsted in Table 4.  [c.109]

When butyrolactone and alcohols are heated for long times and at high temperatures in the presence of acidic catalysts, 4-alkoxybutytic esters are formed. With sodium alkoxides, sodium 4-alkoxybutyrates are formed (150).  [c.110]

See pages that mention the term Butyrolactone : [c.73]    [c.375]    [c.251]    [c.100]    [c.143]    [c.187]    [c.260]    [c.505]    [c.179]    [c.815]    [c.467]    [c.542]    [c.586]    [c.675]    [c.1096]    [c.145]    [c.145]    [c.145]    [c.446]    [c.496]    [c.532]    [c.532]    [c.628]    [c.684]    [c.713]    [c.832]    [c.832]    [c.103]   
Textbook on organic chemistry (1974) -- [ c.859 ]

Enamines - synthesis, structure, and reactions (1969) -- [ c.348 , c.350 ]