Type of Hazard


The accuracy of absolute risk results depends on (1) whether all the significant contributors to risk have been analyzed, (2) the realism of the mathematical models used to predict failure characteristics and accident phenomena, and (3) the statistical uncertainty associated with the various input data. The achievable accuracy of absolute risk results is very dependent on the type of hazard being analyzed. In studies where the dominant risk contributors can be calibrated with ample historical data (e.g., the risk of an engine failure causing an airplane crash), the uncertainty can be reduced to a few percent. However, many authors of published studies and other expert practitioners have recognized that uncertainties can be greater than 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in studies whose major contributors are rare, catastrophic events.  [c.47]

If the probability of worker injury or death because of participation in a given work-related activity can be shown to be much less than the risk of injury or death associated with presently accepted activities under very similar circumstances (e.g., the same type of hazard), then you may feel more comfortable about accepting the status quo. Table 14 illustrates the types of public mortality data available for such comparisons. In the previous example, where the worker risk was calculated as 2 X 10 fatalities  [c.53]

The range of ehemieals and ehemieal mixtures in eommon use in industry is wide it is obviously impossible to list them all in a eoneise handbook, or to refer to all their proprietary names. The approaeh here has been to avoid random listing and to arrange by type of hazard, dealing witli the most widely used substanees and those properties and eharaeteristies of behaviour that are direetly relevant to eommon use and to eomplianee with safety legislation. Numerous sourees not restrieted to those in the Bibliography were searehed for information and although not listed, to aehieve eoneiseness, these are aeknowledged. The multiplieity of data sourees also means that minor variations oeeur due to differenees in the proeedures and methods for their determination however they provide general guidanee. Whilst the data quoted in this text has been earefully eollated, its aeeuraey eannot be waiTanted. For this reason, and to avoid overlooking eonsideration of other ehemieal-speeifie hazards or loeation-dependent legislation, it is advisable to refer to a Chemieal Safety Data Sheet before using any ehemieal. These are readily available from suppliers (e.g. in the UK under S.6 of the Health Safety at Work ete. Aet 1974). For exhaustive treatment of physieal, toxieologieal, flammable/explosive and reaetive properties, and the baekground to - and limitations of - their determination or predietion, the reader is referred to standard textbooks (see Bibliography) sueh as  [c.618]

The represents a reference to notes. These notes should be sufficiently complete to highlight the type of hazard and the degree (extent, severity) of the hazard.  [c.64]

Appropriate spacing of unit operations within a process and appropriate spacing of a process from other processes, from employees nonessential to day-to-day process operation, and from the public is inherently safer. A definition of appropriate spacing would assist in evaluating the process location alternatives. This definition may take the form of a table of distances as a function of the type of hazard, inventory quantity and other factors.  [c.131]

After the hazard assessment has been conducted and the data has been collected, it should be organized in a logical outline that will estimate the potential for employee injury The organized data will help to decide the type of hazard(s) involved, the level of risk, and the seriousness of potential injury The appropriate levels of PPE are then selected based on the hazard determination and the availability of PPE. The user should be properly fitted for the specified PPE, and the employer should make sure that it is comfortable to wear. Hazard reassessments should be conducted as necessary based on the introduction of new or revised processes, equipment, and accident experience, to ensure the continued suitability of selection of the proper PPE.  [c.126]

Type of Hazard Toxicity, Explosion, and/or Fire  [c.296]

Column 7 lists the type of hazard that is being considered. If the chemical i s toxic then the release and dispersion to the workers and public is the hazard.  [c.297]

The practising engineer has an excellent opportunity to influence the safety of operations by applying techniques such as hazard and operability studies (HAZOP) to the design of plant layout and equipment. This technique involves determining the potential hazard of an operation under normal and abnormal operating conditions, and considering the probability and consequences of an accident. This type of study is now commonly applied to new platform design and to the evaluation of refurbishment on existing platforms. Some examples of innovations in platform design which has resulted from this type of study are  [c.66]

The assessment of the contribution of a product to the fire severity and the resulting hazard to people and property combines appropriate product flammabihty data, descriptions of the building and occupants, and computer software that includes the dynamics and chemistry of fires. This type of assessment offers benefits not available from stand-alone test methods quantitative appraisal of the incremental impact on fire safety of changes in a product appraisal of the use of a given material in a number of products and appraisal of the differing impacts of a product in different buildings and occupancies. One method, HAZARD I (11), has been used to determine that several commonly used fire-retardant—polymer systems reduced the overall fire hazard compared to similar nonfire retarded formulations (12).  [c.451]

There are a large number of standard methods suitable for each stage in the hazard analysis and risk assessment procedure. The selection of the proper method depends on several factors. Some of these are the type of process, the stage in the lifetime of the process, the experience and capabiUties of the participants, and the step in the procedure that is being examined. Information regarding the selection of the proper procedure is available in an excellent and comprehensive reference (1).  [c.470]

Each type of metallic coating process has some sort of hazard, whether it is thermal energy, the reactivity of molten salt or metal baths, particulates in the air from spray processes, poisonous gases from pack cementation and diffusion, or electrical hazards associated with arc spray or ion implantation.  [c.138]

Risk-Based Inspection. Inspection programs developed using risk analysis methods are becoming increasingly popular (15,16) (see Hazard ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT). In this approach, the frequency and type of in-service inspection (IS I) is determined by the probabiUstic risk assessment (PRA) of the inspection results. Here, the results might be a false acceptance of a part that will fail as well as the false rejection of a part that will not fail. Whether a plant or a consumer product, false acceptance of a defective part could lead to catastrophic failure and considerable cost. Also, the false rejection of parts may lead to unjustified, and sometimes exorbitant, costs of operation (2). Risk is defined as follows  [c.123]

Experimental analysis involves the use of thermal hazard analysis tests to verify the results of screening as well as to identify reaction rates and kinetics. The goal of this level of testing is to provide additional information by which the materials and processes may be characterized. The decision on the type of experimental analysis that should be undertaken is dependent on a number of factors, including perceived hazard, planned pilot plant scale, sample availability, regulations, equipment availability, etc.  [c.25]

Follow-up or Periodic To establish the current status of operations, at a frequency implied by the hazard level or quality sensitivity for a specific process or general type of processing and otherwise agreed to by both parties.  [c.112]

The effort and time that is required for a process hazard analysis for these examples should not be an issue. A thorough management of change system will call for the change coordinator to make a decision as to what type of review is appropriate for the change.  [c.131]

Is a decommissioning phase hazard evaluation needed The AIChE/CCPS text. Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition, offers direction for addressing this type of evaluation.  [c.137]

These have a conductivity less than 10° pS/m or a resistivity greater than 10 ° 2-m as determined using the type of test described in 3-5.6.1. They do not give rise to spark discharges, but are more likely to produce other types of discharge (corona, brush, bulking brush and propagating bmsh) than powders in the other two groups. Owing to their high resistivity, these powders lose their charge at a slow rate and tend to accumulate charge even in properly grounded equipment such as powder silos. The degree of hazard due to charge accumulation rises significantly at resistivities above 10" O-m. The least conductive powders, such as thermoplastic resins, have resistivities up to about 10 ° O-m.  [c.182]

The compressor or blower installation in a typical refinery or chemical process unit is not out-of-doors completely. Some form of shelter often is provided, ranging from only a roof to a completely closed building. When process equipment such as a centrifugal gas compressor, which is not hazardous in normal operation, is present in the shelter, the hazard classification depends on the extent to that which the shelter restricts ventilation. The extent of the shelter provided determines the area classification and the type of motor enclosure that should be applied.  [c.275]

It is generally agreed that a shelter with a roof having ridge ventilation and with curtain walls not extending lower than 8 feet above the operating platform would be freely ventilated. Because a gas compressor would not be a source of hazard, except under abnormal conditions such as an equipment failure, this type of compressor shelter is usually classified as a Division 2 area.  [c.275]

The amount and type of hazards will determine the performance standard specified in site-specific control plans. This includes the content, detail, and formality of review. The approval of the plans is based on risk and hazard potential. Using the hazard-based approach, levels of risk or methods to rank risk (degree) are standardized.  [c.38]

Organizing and analyzing the data and seleeting PPE based on the type of hazards, the level of risk, and the seriousness of potential harm from eaeh identified hazard  [c.108]

When primary fume capture is performed by the enclosure, furnace off-gas combustion efficiency is lower than experienced by furnace direct evacuation control. The off-gas, rich in carbon monoxide (CO), rises from furnace roof openings and partially burns and cools with enclosure air. Significant levels of CO have resulted in the enclosures and exhaust ducting from this type of combination. These levels are not explosive but present a potential hazard to personnel working in the enclosure or in downstream fume cleaning equipment.  [c.899]

This is a situation where a plant appears to be operating successfully, without a major human error problem. However, management are interested in assessing the systems in the plant from the point of view of minimizing the error potential. This type of exercise is particularly relevant for plants dealing with substances or processes with high hazard potential, for example, in terms of  [c.347]

Fire or explosion hazards require special motor enclosures. Hazards include combustible gases and vapors such as gasoline dust such as coal, flour, or metals that can explode when suspended in air and fibers such as textile lint. The land of motor enclosure used depends on the type of hazard, the type and size of motor, and the probability of a hazardous condition occurring. Some available enclosures are explosionproof motors, which can withstand an internal explosion force-ventilated motors cooled with air from a safe location and totallv enclosed motors cooled bv air-to-water heat exchangers and pressurized with safe air, instrument air, or inert gas,  [c.2488]

The type of hazard - determines the method and rate of applieation, e.g. by fixed pouters,  [c.194]

In order to properly select and install electrical equipment in a location which contains, or may contain, flammable gases or vapors, combustible dust, or easily ignitible fibers, the location must first be classified. The classification process is threefold first, one must designate the type of hazard or class that may be present—gas, dust, or fiber second, one must designate the specific group of the hazardous substance third, one must determine the probability that the hazardous substance will be present. Figure 17-3 is a diagram showing the various classes and groups that are used in the U.S. and Canada. In oil and gas production facility design almost all classifications will be Class 1, Group D.  [c.500]

The hazard posed can be limited by maintaining a zone free of people and property around a storage area of explosive material. The minimum radius of the zone depends on the type and quantity of explosive, the extent and type of barrica ding, and the magnitude of loss that would be encountered if an explosive incident occurred. The maximum distance to which hazardous explosive effects propagate depends on the blast overpressure created, which as a first approximation is a function of the cube root of the explosive weight, W. This is termed the quantity distance and is defined as  [c.6]

Mineral spirits, a type of petroleum distillate popular for use in solvent-based house paints, consist mainly of aUphatic hydrocarbons with a trace of aromatics. This type of solvent finds use in oil- and alkyd-based house paints because of its good solvency with typical house paint binders and its relatively slow evaporation rate which imparts good bmshabiUty, open-time, and leveling. Other properties include lower odor, relatively lower cost, as well as safety and health hazard characteristics comparable to most other organic solvents.  [c.541]

Electrostatic spray atomizers are constmcted from metal or nonconductive materials. A metal atomizer has sufficient electrical capacitance that when it is approached rapidly by a grounded object, eg, workpiece, an electrical arc may occur that can have sufficient energy to ignite certain solvent-ak mixtures. A metal atomizer offers maximum mggedness and efficiency but may present a fire hazard if not electronically protected. Thus this type of system often employs an electronic feedback system to reduce voltage and prevent arcing under these conditions. Most nonconductive atomizers are of a nonincendiary design the rate of energy discharge has been specifically limited in such a way not to cause ignition. However, this type of atomizer is generally not as mgged as a metal atomizer, and in operation, the working voltages decrease, resulting in somewhat lower transfer efficiency.  [c.331]

Although ethylene is a colorless gas with a mild odor that is not irritating to the eyes or respiratory system, it is a hydrocarbon and therefore a flammable gas. AH vessels must be designed for handling the Hquids and gases during operation at the temperatures and pressures that exist, and safety and depressuring valves must be provided to reheve excessive pressure. Releasing of hydrocarbons into the air in large amounts must be avoided because of health and fire ha2ards. If hydrocarbons must be released into the air, it is done under a blanket of steam. To protect the plant and personnel in case of fire, a complete fire fighting system is provided with tanks grouped to minimise fire and provided with foam makers and deluge systems. Reviews at various stages of a project assure safety is given constant attention in the plant design (see Hazard analysis and risk assessment). An ethylene plant produces Hquid, gaseous, and soHd wastes that must be disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. Liquid wastes generated within the complex consist of wastewater streams of relatively low organic content, and process wastes of high organic content. Wastewater from various units and operations are segregated according to the wastewater characteristics, such as type of contaminants, concentration, special treatment, or pretreatment requirements. A segregated sewer system allows for the most efficient treatment of the wastewaters.  [c.445]

Example The combustion process in large vapor clouds is not known completely and studies are in progress to improve understanding of this important subject. Special study is usually needed to assess the hazard of a large vapor release or to investigate a UVCE. The TNT equivalent method is used in this example other methods have been proposed. Whatever the method used for dispersion and pressure development, a check should be made to determine if any govern-mentaf unit requires a specific type of analysis.  [c.2320]

In the previous section we discussed a more conventional type of painting process. A rather new (early 1960s) and more advanced technology is found in the electrostatic process of a powder coating system. This uses no liquids and no primer coat and can save on paint consumption by up to 50% compared to the conventional liquid paint method, due to an almost closed-loop painting process, incorporating a paint recovery and recycle system. It allows no paint fumes to the atmosphere, and causes no environmental pollution or fire hazard at the workplace. The technique is thus judged to be highly economical, besides being environment-friendly. It also ensures an absolutely uniform and perfect painted surface due to a  [c.409]

An appreeiation of the eomposition and morphology of the dust is important in the assessment of hazard. Thus, among siliea-eontaining eompounds, erystalline silieates and amorphous silieas (silieon dioxide) are generally not eonsidered fibrogenie, whereas free erystalline siliea and eertain fibrous silieates sueh as asbestos and tales ean eause disabling lung diseases. Table 5.8 indieates the approximate free siliea eontent of various materials Table 5.9 lists a range of siliea-eontaining materials aeeording to type.  [c.77]

An understanding of chemical reaction kinetics and the design of chemical reactors is very important to the chemist and the chemical engineer. Engineers share interests in fluid mechanics and transport phenomena, while the chemist deals with the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions. The chemical engineer combines the knowledge of these subjects for the better understanding, design, and control of the reactor. The recent accidents that have occurred in the chemical process industries with inherent fatalities and environmental pollution have imposed greater demands on chemical engineers. Consequently, cheiTucal reactor design methodologies must incorporate both control and hazard analysis. However, the design of chemical reactors is still essential for its proper sizing, and is included in various types of process simulators. In an industrial problem, it is essential to select the best type of reactor for any particular chemical reaction. Additionally, it is necessary to estimate its size and determine the best operating conditions. The chemical engineer confronted with the design of various reactor types often depends on the scale of operation and the kinetics.  [c.1115]

Exactly what type of lessons are learned cannot be foreseen. The size and diversity of site activities give rise to a wide variety of health and safety hazards. Individual sites need to document and disseminate information that could enhance their hazard recognition and mitigation. Effective documentation is an important concept that everyone needs to buy in to if the safety program is going to be effective. Wliy workers fail to document potential problems has been the subject of much debate.  [c.40]

Keep in mind that you should be familiar with the type of work that you will be doing before you do it. However, try as you might, the unexpeeted ean and often does oeeur. Therefore, as soon as the unex-peeted oeeurs, you must reaet. The reaetion should inelude a hazard assessment of the unexpeeted work aetivity. One effeetive way to do this is through a job hazard analysis. Note JHAs were diseussed in detail in Chapter 4.  [c.73]

This type of protection would require some additional protection that a basic Level D does not provide. For example, if you are working at a truck stop where there is a high level of traffic, you may need a traffic vest. In another example you might be working over water. In that situation you may need a floatation vest certified by the Coast Guard. Other items considered modified level D include safety harnesses, lifelines, vibration cushioning gloves, and electrical lineman s gloves. This list could be expanded based on the task and hazard control chosen.  [c.119]

Since 1970 the field of healtli risk assessment Itas received widespread attention within both the scientific and regulatory communities. It has also attracted the attention of the public. Properly conducted risk assessments Itave received fairly broad acceptance, in part because tliey put into perspective the terms toxic, Itazard, and risk. Toxicity is an inlierent property of all substances. It states tliat all chemictil tmd physical agents can produce adverse healtli effects at some dose or under specific exposure conditions. In contrast, exposure to a chemical tliat lias tlie capacity to produce a particular type of adverse effect, represents a healtli hazard. Risk, however, is tlie probability or likelihood tliat an adverse outcome will occur in a person or a group tliat is exposed to a particular concentration or dose of the hazardous agent. Tlierefore, risk is generally a function of exposure and dose. Consequently, healtli risk assessment can be defined as the process or procedure used to estimate tlie likelihood tliat hmnans or ecological systems will be adversely affected by a chemical or physical agent under a specific set of conditions.  [c.285]

Since 1970 tlie field of healtli risk assessment Itas received widespread attention witliin both tlie scientific and regulatoiy committees. It has also attracted tlie attention of the public. Properly conducted risk assessments have received fairly broad acceptance, in part because they put into perspective the terms to. ic, Itazard, and risk. Toxicity is an inlierent property of all substances. It states tliat all chemical and physical agents can produce adverse healtli effects at some dose or under specific exposure conditions. In contrast, exposure to a chemical tliat lias tlie capacity to produce a particular type of adverse effect, represents a health hazard. Risk, however, is tlie probability or likelihood tliat an adverse outcome will occur in a person or a group tliat is exposed to a particular concentration or dose of the hazardous agent. Tlierefore, risk can be generally a function of exposure and dose. Consequently, healtli risk assessment is defined as tlie process or procedure used to estimate tlie likelihood that  [c.287]

See pages that mention the term Type of Hazard : [c.57]    [c.112]    [c.66]    [c.602]    [c.2209]    [c.146]    [c.49]    [c.296]    [c.231]   
See chapters in:

Evaluating process safety in the chemical industry  -> Type of Hazard