Technical Approach

The QRA project team can select the appropriate technical approach once you specify the study objectives, and together you can define the scope. A variety of modeling techniques and general data sources (discussed in Section 3.2) can be used to produce the desired results. Many computer programs are now available to aid in calculating risk estimates, and many automatically give more answers than you will need. The QRA team must take care to supply appropriate risk characteristics that satisfy your study objectives—and no more.  [c.28]

STAHR Socio-Technical Approach to assessing Human Reliability Phillips et al.. 1983  [c.173]

This approach to synthesis is one of making a series of best local decisions. Equipment is added only if it can be justified economically on the basis of the information available, albeit an incomplete picture. This keeps the structure irreducible, and features which are technically or economically redundant are not included.  [c.8]

Introduction and commercial application Safety and the environment have become important elements of all parts of the field life cycle, and involve all of the technical and support functions in an oil company. The Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea in 1988 has resulted in a major change in the approach to management of safety of world-wide oil and gas exploration and production activities. Companies recognise that good safety and environmental management make economic sense and are essential to guaranteeing long term presence in the industry.  [c.65]

In addition these directives had to be decided unanimously by the European Council which made their adoption cumbersome and slow. These directives are now referred to as old approach directives. A radical change was needed so that the Community legislation could respond to the needs of both, the completion of the internal market for the products concerned, and the need to offer to industry a flexible legislative environment which would encourage technical progress.  [c.937]

With the New Approach the number of directives needed to achieve the internal market target significantly decreased. In addition the European Council and the European Parliament were no longer required to deal with detailed technical requirements. Instead they were called upon only to define essential requirements needed to protect the public interest. The main elements of the New Approach can be summarised as follows  [c.938]

For many years, the technical capabilities of standard NDT methods did not allow for this approach. If NDT would have produced quantitative data on defect size from the beginning, it is highly probable that current acceptance criteria for weld defects would have used this information. Acceptance criteria would have been completely different from what they are  [c.947]

A new approach of partnership between client and inspection service organisations has been established primarily for the North Sea but increasingly finding application elsewhere Benefits accrue to all parties and the technical and commercial lessons learnt in the process have relevance to a wide range of other industries.  [c.1013]

Technically, the chemist could avoid the complex glassware apparatus of this procedure for a more crude approach [104]. This report shows some dudes de-methylating an amphetamine with concentrated HCI in a pressure cooker. A similar approach with good yields was also employed in ref. 83 and should work as well or better on guaiacol. Hydroiodic acid or hydrobromic acid will work better than hydrochloric acid but, you know, whatever floats the chemist s boat. To do this the chemist can just plain reflux HI or HBr with the guaiacol for a few hours and process as before or she can use HI, HBr or HCI and place the reactants in a pipe bomb for a few hours.  [c.210]

The first empirical and qualitative approach to the electronic structure of thiazole appeared in 1931 in a paper entitled Aspects of the chemistry of the thiazole group (115). In this historical review. Hunter showed the technical importance of the group, especially of the benzothiazole derivatives, and correlated the observed reactivity with the mobility of the electronic system. In 1943, Jensen et al. (116) explained the low value observed for the dipole moment of thiazole (1.64D in benzene) by the small contribution of the polar-limiting structures and thus by an essentially dienic character of the v system of thiazole. The first theoretical calculation of the electronic structure of thiazole. benzothiazole, and their methyl derivatives was performed by Pullman and Metzger using the Huckel method (5, 6, 8).  [c.26]

The five semi-empirical methods in HyperChem differ in many technical details. Treatment of electron-electron interactions is one major distinguishing feature. Another important distinguishing feature is the approach used to parameterize the methods. Based on the methods used for obtaining parameters, the NDO methods fall into two classes  [c.128]

The safe operation of high pressure plant of the type described here necessitates a suitable in-service inspection program to ensure that the equipment remains within acceptable design limits. Nondestmctive testing plays an important role, and dye penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy-current, and ultrasonic techniques have been widely used to detect flaws or fatigue cracks in high pressure components. A reaUstic approach to inspection and maintenance of high pressure equipment in polyethylene plants and the compromise which is often necessary between unreasonably rigorous standards and those dictated only by plant production requirements have been discussed (183). The need for adequate records and the extent to which in-service programs have complemented and taken account of more fundamental investigative work have been stressed (183). The concept of a stmctural integrity program introduced by Du Pont, as a result of its experience with high pressure operations has been discussed (184). This program is aimed at improving the general awareness of those designing and maintaining plants with unusual hazards and standards, as well as providing specific technical control in areas such as failure analysis and inspection.  [c.105]

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines a standard as the result of the standardization process "the process of formulating and applying rules for an orderly approach to a specific activity for the benefit and with the cooperation of all concerned and in particular for the promotion of optimum overall economy taking due account of functional conditions and safety requirements" (1). Standardization involves concepts of units of measurement, terminology and symboHc representation, and attributes of the physical artifact, ie, quaUty, variety, and interchangeabiUty. A specification, however, is defined as "a document intended primarily for use in procurement which clearly and accurately describes the essential technical requirements for items, materials, or services including the procedures by which it will be deterrnined that the requirements have been met" (2). The ISO defines a specification as "a concise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a product, a material or a process indicating, whenever appropriate, the procedure by means of which it may be deterrnined whether the requirements given are satisfied. Notes—(/) A specification may be a standard, a part of a standard, or independent of a standard. (2) As far as practicable, it is desired that the requirements are expressed numerically in terms of appropriate units, together with their limits." A specification may also be viewed as the technical aspects of the legal contract between the purchaser of the material, product, or service and the vendor of the same and defines what each may expect of the other.  [c.17]

Many re-refining processes are described ia the Uterature (23—28). The primary technology iastaUed ia developed countries iavolves some variation on multistage vacuum distiUation foUowed by catalytic hydrotreating, as shown schematicaUy ia Figure 1 (2). Although other technologies have been proposed and even patented, the principal concern with many of these newer re-refining approaches is the lack of technical data and long-term experience estabhshing the quaUty of the re-refined base oU product. This subject is discussed in great detaU in several pubUcations (4,17,18,23—26,28). However, some economic assessments underscore the viabUity of the distiUation—hydrotreat approach (27,29).  [c.3]

Maximizing Human Capital. Technology leaders must understand, inspire, and guide the scientists and the engineers in recognizing a set of common values, including independence of thought and approach, unwavering commitment to scientific and technical excellence, and a desire for  [c.129]

Disciplined Approach to Problem Definition Specific technical objectives Quality function deployment or similar process Acquisition of background, literature, etc Networked to many technology resources Scientific Method  [c.134]

Technically Specified Grades. The introduction of the Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) scheme in 1965 marked a turning point in the whole approach of production and marketing of natural mbber. The scheme was so successful that it led to the adoption of an international scheme for Technically Specified Rubber (TSR). These schemes led to fewer grades, all with guaranteed specifications relating to quaUty, packed in small, polyethylene-wrapped 33.3-kg bales for easy transport, storage, and factory handling. Faster drying processes for cmmb mbber improved the efficiency of producing factories, and the technical specifications gave consumers a guarantee of quaUty that had not been previously available for the conventional grades.  [c.266]

Because of the complexity of designs and performance characteristics, it is difficult to select the optimum atomizer for a given appHcation. The best approach is to consult and work with atomizer manufacturers. Their technical staffs are familiar with diverse appHcations and can provide valuable assistance. However, they will usually require the foUowing information properties of the Hquid to be atomized, eg, density, viscosity, and surface tension operating conditions, such as flow rate, pressure, and temperature range required mean droplet size and size distribution desired spray pattern spray angle requirement ambient environment flow field velocity requirements dimensional restrictions flow rate tolerance material to be used for atomizer constmction cost and safety considerations.  [c.334]

Much of this article previously appeared in References 1 and 2. Reference 3 proposes a systematic approach to planning a designed experiment. References 4—7 illustrate many of the considerations discussed here and introduce a few others. References 8 and 9 provide two other surveys dealing with the design of experiments, including more detailed discussions than given here of specific designs and their analysis. Reference 10 provides a relatively technical overview of experimental design concepts and plans. In addition, the books Hsted and described in the General References provide information concerning the technical aspects of experimental design.  [c.519]

All types of PHAs benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. This ensures appropriate technical expertise is available to evaluate each deviation discussed during the sessions. While it is not essential that all team members have had formal training in the PHA method selected, it is important that the team leader has experience. The participation techniques can be learned when a new participant is included as a part of a team in which some members have already gained PHA experience.  [c.90]

Company management now recognizes that simply reacting to accidents and then determining where additional safety precautions are needed is no longer acceptable — the potential effects of accidents are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Moreover, today s technical and social environment dictates that decision makers take a more proactive approach to safety-related decision making and that more thorough methods and strategies be used to gain an increased understanding of the significance of risks from their companies operations.  [c.88]

The issues outlined above are clearly major challenges for the next generation of shock-wave physicists and engineers. The cross-cutting technical nature of the phenomena produced by shock compression will likely require a multidisciplinary approach for solution. However, the technical problems that remain to be solved delve into the very basic physical and chemical processes that are at the heart of modern-day physics and chemistry research. These problems result in an exciting environment with promising opportunities for the researcher who is willing to tackle difficult basic research problems and the engineer who is exploring new ways of solving practical problems.  [c.360]

HDR Outside the United States. The extraction of geothermal energy from HDR is being evaluated at a number of locations around the world (42). AH work is based on the same general technical approach as that employed in the United States. In Japan, reservoirs have been created in rock at about 200°C at two locations. The most advanced work has been done in an area that had been previously explored for hydrothermal resources. Water losses to natural faults initially proved to be a significant problem, but in a flow test in 1990 more that 80% of the injected water was recovered. An extensive HDR effort was also begun in England in 1978. An HDR system was created 2 km below the surface, but because of the low thermal gradient, the rock temperature was less than 100°C. Extensive flow testing and rock mechanics studies were carried out for more than a decade. HDR weUs have been dtiUed in both France and Germany, but no circulation systems have yet been estabHshed. Exploratory HDR work has also been carried out in Sweden, Swit2edand, and Russia.  [c.273]

Phillips, L. D., P. Humphreys, and D, E. Embrey, 1983, A Socio-Technical Approach to A Human Reliability (STAHR), TR 83-4, July,  [c.487]

From 1985 three major changes have been introduced to do away with the disadvantages encountered with the old approach . In 1985 the European Council adopted a New Approach to technical harmonisation and standards , in 1989 it adopted the Global Approach to conformity assessment which was amended in 1993 and in 1987 the legal basis for  [c.937]

On a more technical level, a further common feature of all the schemes proposed here is that they require the computation of the product of an analytic function of a symmetric matrix with a vector. Integration schemes employing matrix functions apparently have not hitherto been used in practice, except in a few special cases where direct diagonalization is possible. However, since the mid-eighties, starting with a paper by Park and Light [21] on quantum propagators, Lanczos method has been put to good use in approximating matrix-function vector products. More recently, the excellent convergence properties of this approach have been clarified in [7, 12). This motivated the development of the general-purpose ODE integrator exp4 in [15]. Employing matrix functions in an integrator enables us to obtain favorable properties, such as exact integration of linear differential systems with constant coefficients. This is very advantageous for problems where the fastest oscillations are nearly harmonic. Matrix functions add a welcome element to the construction of integration schemes. The freedom thus gained can be used for designing new integrators tailored to specific applications, as we try to demonstrate with the methods in this paper. A theoretical error analysis of these schemes is given in [13, 14]. We hope that the proposed integrators, or closely related ones, will be found useful in molecular dynamics.  [c.421]

Even if new methods are developed for denser integrated ckcuits with smaller features, there are other areas of computing that present formidable challenges. For example, future computers would need data storage and handling capabiHties in the hundreds of gigabits to terabit range (15,81). Existing compact disc- or magnetic drive-based storage devices cannot hold such vast amounts of information, nor can they deHver them to the ultra-high speed processors at a commensurate rate. One new approach to address these technical barriers is optical recording using holography (81). Holographic data storage uses lasers to write and read large blocks of data in a photosensitive material (eg, inorganic crystals such as lithium niobate, barium titanate, strontium barium niobate, and organic macromolecules such as bacteriorhodopsin) (81,92). By this method, storage densities of up to 1 terabit of data per cc of crystal are possible.  [c.203]

One successful method for using alcohols was fumigation. In this technique alcohol is atomi2ed in the engine s intake air either by carburetion or injection. Diesel is directiy injected into the cylinder and the combined air-alcohol and diesel mixture is autoignited. Diesel consumption is reduced by the energy of the alcohol in the intake air. This approach, although technically feasible, also requires separate fuel systems for the diesel and alcohol fuels. Additionally, the amount of alcohol used is limited by the amount that can be vapori2ed into the intake air. This approach is more appropriate as a engine retrofit where total energy substitution is not the primary objective (44).  [c.428]

Auckland Regional Authority converted two M.A.N. buses to use a cetane improver and methanol and South Africa investigated the use of methanol with a proprietary cetane improver. Eour Renault buses were converted in Tours, Erance to operate on ethanol and a cetane improver, Avocet, manufactured by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). The results of these demonstrations were also technically successfiil slightly better fuel economy was obtained on an energy basis and durabiUty issues were much less than the earlier tests using dedicated engines.  [c.433]

The success of these tests indicate that cetane-improved alcohol is technically feasible. Engines can be designed to provide equal diesel power and torque characteristics having lower NO and particulate emissions than diesel. However, if it is not necessary to achieve lowest possible emissions, only changes in fuel rate are requked, rather than engine changes, and the commercial appHcation of this approach depends mostly on the cost of the cetane improvers. The price of Avocet is about 4/L in small quantities and a dding 3.0% in methanol nearly doubles the cost of methanol from 0.13 to 0.22/L. If Avocet were produced in larger quantities its price would drop considerably.  [c.433]

Compaction—Alternative Approach for Granular Eertili yers, lEDC Technical Bulletin T-25, International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Ala., 1983.  [c.247]

Two diverse technical approaches to fusion power, magnetic confinement fusion, also known as magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial confinement fusion, also known as inertial fusion energy (lEE) are being pursued worldwide. These form the basis of a large number of fusion research programs. Magnetic confinement techniques, studied since the 1950s, ate based on the principle that charged particles such as electrons and ions, ie, deuterons and tritons, tend to be bound to magnetic lines of force. Thus the essence of the magnetic confinement approach is to trap a hot plasma in a suitably chosen magnetic field configuration for a long enough time to achieve a net energy release, which typically requires an energy confinement time of about one second. In the alternative lEE approach, fusion conditions ate achieved by heating and compressing small amounts of fuel ions, contained in capsules, to the ignition condition by means of tightly focused energetic beams of charged particles or photons. In this case the confinement time can be much shorter, typically less than a millionth of a second.  [c.151]

Business-Related Searches. Many searches of business-related questions can be answered by searches of patent information. For example, an organization may wish to study the patent assets of competitors in a technical area or to evaluate similarities and differences in approach and strategy between its own and other organizations. Statistical analyses based on citations and other data maybe desired. Searches may also be desired to identify candidates for joint ventures or for acquisitions or divestitures, or to clarify the relationships of corporate segments. Knowledge of the technology behind new product or process announcements by competitors, or the technology being offered for Hcense or purchase by an individual or small organization, may likewise be needed. Searches of patent databases are invaluable in answering all of these types of questions.  [c.59]

Thin Film. In the thin-film approach, raw material usage is generally more than two orders of magnitude less and patterning is more direct. In some thin-film approaches, certain individual layers may be only 50 atoms thick, which means that large-area uniformity of coating is the key to success. These coatings must be both optically and electrically uniform over areas the si2e of about a square meter. The technical decisions ate complex and may be ordered as follows (/) What substrate is to be coated The principal choices are glass, steel, ceramic, or plastic. (2) What materials are to be deposited The principal semiconductor options are amorphous and polysilicon, cadmium teUuride, copper indium diselenide, and alloys of these basic options. The most significant conductor options are silver, nickel, aluminum, tin oxide, 2inc oxide, indium oxide, and some alloys of these choices. (3) What deposition process is to be utilhed The options are vacuum evaporation, sputtering, glow discharge, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electroplating, spraying, and screen printing. (4) How are the layers to be patterned These options include screen printing, laser scribing, mechanical scribing, and photoUthographicaHy defined wet etching.  [c.471]

The ECPI approach has been adopted by the European Commission in their "Technical Guidance Document on the Risk Assessment of Notified New Substances" as the model for assessment of environmental exposure from additives in plastics. It is important to note, however, that due to the effect of ultraviolet degradation and microbial attack, a significant proportion of the emissions from flexible PVC consists of plasticizer degradation products. In these instances, therefore, the level of plasticizers appearing in the environment will be significantly less than indicated by the plasticizer loss data.  [c.131]

The general focus of technical service in the chemical industry was, at the outset, largely tied to a firm s dkect sales and marketing efforts. As appHcations became more complex, however, and customer requkements became more and more specific, a need evolved in many areas of the chemical industry to provide in-depth technical support having dkect ties to the research and manufacturing arms, thus allowing rapid responses to increasingly demanding needs of customers. Some firms took the approach of placing the technical service function into the research and development organisation. This could be viewed as placing the three critical aspects of what is genetically looked upon as the research function, ie, research, development, and technical service, into a single function. An example of this was the Development and Technical Service function within Dow. Other firms created stand-alone technical service organisations. The stated mission of these organisations was originally restricted to dkect customer support. Some firms trained thek field sales personnel to act also as technical service professionals, a practice used by many companies into the mid-1990s. Time and experience have demonstrated that regardless of what the technical service function calls its home organisa tion, the integrated organisa tion generally surpasses the performance of one that is held as a physically separate function (7).  [c.377]

The question "what uses are there for this product " became chronic as the diversity of products available from the chemical industry began to increase in the mid-1900s. In order to properly address this question, a customer needed to know the possible uses and the value a new material might bring to thek business. Again, such questions were typically answered by research personnel prior to the advent of specifically defined technical service organizations. A negative aspect of this approach was that the lack of specific training for research personnel in the processes utilized by customers sometimes led to fragmentary or incorrectiy formulated answers. In similar fashion, sales representatives did not generally possess the training requked to allow them to address technical issues raised by thek customers.  [c.377]

The fundamental requirements for a usehil tire cord fiber are high strength and modulus coupled with good dimensional stabiUty (ie, resistance to deformation under temperature and load), and durabiUty (fatigue and chemical stabiUty) at favorable economics (21—23). The search for new fibers is driven by a wide array of potential nontire appHcations such as protective textiles (eg, against fire), baUistic protection, apparel, ropes, netting, geotextiles (qv), boat sails, and composite reinforcement. For load-bearing appHcations, the goal is to devise or uti1i2e molecular stmctures that take hiU advantage of the inherently high strength of the C—C bond (24). One approach includes the area of molecular architecture, ie, polymer chemistry, to control features such as molecular weight, chain alignment, and chain—chain interactions. The aspects of processing (25) must also be considered when forming a fiber with suitable properties that will take hiU advantage of the polymer s potential and maintain viable economics. Although a wide array of reinforcement options appear to be available based on technical feasibiHty, the underlying features of cost vs value and the ease of integration into a manufacturer s process will dictate what is used in mass-produced tires. Thus, the market for organic tire cord remains divided between nylon and polyester fibers and will likely remain so for the medium-term future.  [c.83]

Barley. Barley is the predominant raw material of beer ia most countries, except where other cereals are cultivated, eg, rice ia China and kafir ia Africa. Barley has technical advantages that make it superior for malting and brewiag (8). It differs from the other common cereals ia that the husk adheres to the kernel after threshing, making malting and subsequent extraction of the wort much easier than with wheat or other grains. Barley grows well ia countries where vines, rice, or palm caimot be cultivated. Because it contains starch proteias and other valuable constituents (Table 3), it is the logical source material for brewiag (9).  [c.14]

Because the technical barriers previously outhned increase uncertainty in the data, plant-performance analysts must approach the data analysis with an unprejudiced eye. Significant technical judgment is required to evaluate each measurement and its uncertainty with respec t to the intended purpose, the model development, and the conclusions. If there is any bias on the analysts part, it is likely that this bias will be built into the subsequent model and parameter estimates. Since engineers rely upon the model to extrapolate from current operation, the bias can be amplified and lead to decisions that are inaccurate, unwarranted, and potentially dangerous.  [c.2550]

This study is particularly noteworthy in the evolution of QM-MM studies of enzyme reactions in that a number of technical features have enhanced the accuracy of the technique. First, the authors explicitly optimized the semiempirical parameters for this specific reaction based on extensive studies of model reactions. This approach had also been used with considerable success in QM-MM simultation of the proton transfer between methanol and imidazole in solution.  [c.230]

See pages that mention the term Technical Approach : [c.26]    [c.28]    [c.484]    [c.444]    [c.128]    [c.294]    [c.400]    [c.2270]    [c.2372]   
See chapters in:

Evaluating process safety in the chemical industry  -> Technical Approach