Approach Used in Guidelines


Approach Used in Guidelines 3  [c.3]

Approach Used in Guidelines  [c.3]

Approach Used in Guidelines  [c.5]

Approach Used in Guidelines  [c.5]

Approach Used in Guidelines  [c.5]

The key steps to integrate PSM and ESH activities using a Quality Management system are summarized below through a very simplified case study. The approach used in the case study is to indicate the input, activity and output of each stage of the integration effort. (Each chapter in these guidelines represents one stage of the integration effort.) For each stage, the input represents the data available and the starting point the activity describes the main efforts and the output means the findings or results.  [c.149]

Note that the development of AH in terms of the cohesive energy density is an optional extension of the Flory-Huggins theory in which x can be either positive or negative. As a matter of fact, the principles outlined in this section were first developed and have been extensively tested for solutions of low molecular weight compounds. As might be expected, a number of variations on these basic ideas have been examined the interested reader will find additional details in references on the theory of solutions. As far as polymers are concerned, the greatest value of this approach is that it offers useful predictive guidelines for pairing solvents and polymers to give athermal mixing. This extends to such considerations as the compatibility of plasticizers with bulk polymers and the swelling of cross-linked polymers in contact with solvents, as well as the formation of polymer solutions.  [c.527]

Gases can be treated individually or as mixtures by the methods just outlined for most applications including evaluation of vendor proposals. More sophisticated equations of state can be used for real gas applications when large deviations from the perfect gas law are anticipated. For mixtures, more sophisticated mixing rules can be paired with the equation of state when required. For hydrocarbons, the most widely used equation of state is the Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation [2]. For a gas mixture, the pseudocritical constants used in the BWR equation may be developed using Kay s mixing rule. If the application is outside Kay s Rule guidelines, a more complex rule such as Leland-Mueller may be substituted [3], An alternate approach is the Starling BWR implementation [4], Starling  [c.26]

These guidelines present a process through which your organization could develop an integrated Process Safety, Environmental, Safety, and Health management system. This process is based on Quality Management approaches. Quality Management approaches are now widespread and most organizations have adopted a standard system, such as Total Quality Management or ISO 9000. The approach described in these guidelines uses the existing Quality Management and PSM and ESH expertise within your organization to develop an integrated system. This approach will provide a management system that is consistent with your company s culture and management style.  [c.3]

This manual is not intended to be a handbook filled with equations and various data with no explanation of application. Rather, it is a guide for the engineer in applying chemical processes to the properly detailed hardware (equipment), because without properly sized and internally detailed hardware, the process very likely will not accomplish its unique objective. This book does not develop or derive theoretical equations instead, it provides direct application of sound theory to applied equations useful in the immediate design effort. Most of the recommended equations have been used in actual plant equipment design and are considered to be some of the most reasonable available (excluding proprietary data and design methods), which can be handled by both the inexperienced as well as the experienced engineer. A conscious effort has been made to offer guidelines of judgment, decisions, and selections, and some of this will also be found in the illustrative problems. My experience has shown that this approach at presentation of design information serves well for troubleshooting plant operation problems and equipment/systems performance analysis. This book also can serve as a classroom text for senior and graduate level chemical plant design courses at the university level.  [c.701]

Fluorine is used by a number of manufacturers to produce polyolefin containers that are resistant to permeation by organic Hquids. In one apphcation, the air which is normally used to blow-mold containers is replaced by a low concentration of fluorine in a mixture with nitrogen. In another approach, the containers are placed in a large enclosure subsequently flooded with very dilute fluorine—nitrogen or fluorine—air mixtures. Containers may vary in size from small bottles to automotive fuel tanks and show an outstanding resistance to nonpolar solvents and fuels. However, fuels containing polar additives, eg, alcohols, have been more difficult to contain and tank manufacturers are modifying the polyolefin and the fluorination process in an effort to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated fuel loss guidelines.  [c.131]

Codes, Standards, and Guidelines Industry practice is to conform to the applicable regulations, codes, and recommended practices. In many cases, these will provide different guidelines. A suggested approach would be to review all apphcable codes, standards, and recommended practices prior to choosing a design basis. In addition to currently available material, the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), formed by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, is continually developing guidelines and conducting research to further the general knowledge in emergency relief system design. The Design Institute for Emergency Rehef Systems (DIERS) was estabhshed by AIChE to address sizing aspects of rehef systems for two-phase, vapor-liquid flashing flow regimes. The DIERS Project Manual (Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology—1992) is the generally accepted industiy standard for two-phase relief venting.  [c.2288]

Remember that the CCPS definitions may not fit all companies or situations however, they provide a useful set of guidelines for considering how a management system like PSM can work within your company. Some companies have adopted these guidelines very literally and use a highly documented, checklist approach. Others follow them conceptually, in a less structured manner.  [c.64]

The primary purpose of this book is to provide the engineer and risk analyst with failure rate data needed to perform a CPQRA. Consequently, the book contains easily accessible data in the CCPS Generic Failure Rate Data Base, information on several available generic data resources, and procedures to develop failure rate data using information from the plant and process being studied. Another purpose is to present an approach that coordinates the collection of raw plant data, their conversion into plant-specific failure data, and their storage using a CPI-oriented taxonomy. This approach will allow future data generated by chemical process facilities to be added to the CCPS Generic Failure Rate Data Base. The book provides specifications for the transfer of data. It is hoped this approach and standardization will stimulate the chemical processing industry to generate and transfer failure rate data to CCPS for industry use. It is also expected that this book and the CCPS Taxonomy will be revised and updated when sufficient new data become available. Finally, this Guidelines is written to help engineers and analysts develop an understanding of the derivation, usefulness, and limitation of failure rate data so they can form better judgments about the use of data.  [c.2]

With respect to impurities, it is acknowledged that, where the substance is predominantly one enantiomer, the opposite isomer is excluded from the qualification and identification thresholds given in the ICH guideline on impurities (Section 13.5.3) because of practical difficulties in quantification at the recommended levels. Otherwise, it is expected that the principles of that guidance apply. The guideline allows that appropriate testing of a starting material or intermediate, with suitable justification from studies conducted during development, could give assurance of control. This approach may necessary, for example, when there are multiple chiral centers present in the drug molecule. Control of the other enantiomer in the finished product is needed unless racemization during manufacture of the dosage form or on storage is insignificant. The procedure used may be the same as the assay, or it may be separate.  [c.335]

Also known as the "don t reinvent the wheel" approach, using model pro-gramscan offer significant efficiencies in PSM system design. Model programs take many forms you can find them in other companies, in your own company, or in reference materials that document industry practices. The CCPS Plant Guidelines book, for example, provides useful information about how numerous companies have addressed various elements of PSM. Other sources include your counterparts at other companies, who may be willing to share their experience, either in the form of detailed processor program descriptions or as useful anecdotal Information. And, of course, you should not overlook experience within your own company, which your PSM assessment may have identified as applicable across divisional or other organizational boundaries. For example, you might have found that one plant s approach to accident investigation could, with minor adaptation, serve as a model for installation throughout its sister divisions. (See Figure 6-4.)  [c.134]

This manual is not intended to be a handbook filled with equations and various data with no explanation of application. Rather, it is a guide for the engineer in applying chemical processes to the properly detailed hardware (equipment), because without properly sized and internally detailed hardware, the process very likely will not accomplish its unique objeedve. This book does not develop or derive theoretical equations instead, it pro ides direct application of sound theory to applied equations useful in the immediate design effort. Most of the recommended equations have been used in actual plant equipment design and are considered to be some of the most reasonable available (excluding proprietary data and design methods) that can be handled by both the inexperienced as well as the experienced engineer. A conscious effort has been made to offer guidelines of Judgment, decisions, and selections, and some of this will also be found in the illustrative problems. My experience has showTi that this approach at presentation of design information serves well for troubleshooting plant operation problems and equipment/systems performance analysis. This book also can serve as a classroom text for senior and graduate level chemical plant design courses at the uni-versit) level.  [c.644]

An effective programme for product quality must, therefore, include a means of assuring supplier quality and reliability (Nelson, 1996). This means that the customer must get much closer to the supplier s operations. Many companies have failed to develop a supplier strategy and traditionally have used an almost gladiatorial and hostile approach to their suppliers, for example to drive them to impossibly low prices regardless of quality, or to terminate trading with those who fail to perform. Most buyers are only interested in price and delivery and not the quality of the supplier s goods and services. The more enlightened companies have now established a procurement strategy that controls the quality of a supplier, but does not take from a supplier the responsibility for their quality. The company collaborates with the supplier through the project ensuring standards are maintained. To effectively manage suppliers, a number of guidelines are proposed  [c.271]

The next component of the systems approach is the process of learning lessons from operational experience. In Chapter 6, and the case studies in Chapter 7, several techniques are described which can be used to increase the effectiveness of the feedback process. Incident and near-miss reporting systems are designed to extract information on the underlying causes of errors from large numbers of incidents. Chapter 6 provides guidelines for designing such systems. The main requirement is to achieve an acceptable compromise between collecting sufficient information to establish the xmderlying causes of errors without requiring an excessive expenditure of time and effort.  [c.21]


See chapters in:

Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems  -> Approach Used in Guidelines

Intergration process safety managment, environment, safety, health, and quality  -> Approach Used in Guidelines