The ability to select a random peptide having specific affinity to any ligand such as 1 ia 10 ia a relatively short time makes this an extremely powerful technology. This method, stiU ia its iafancy, has attracted the attention of several biotechnology companies, because of the potential to provide much iaformation for rational dmg design and vacciae development (see Pharmaceuticals Vaccine technology). This method can also be used for the development of crop protection chemicals (see FERTILIZERS Fungicides, agricultural Insectcontholtechnology).  [c.248]

See Enzyme applications Vaccine technology.  [c.480]

Biotechnology and Dosage Forms. In dmg development, biotechnology (qv) generally is recognized as a term that identifies those technologies that utilize living organisms in the production and/or alteration of chemical entities that have potential therapeutic activity (32). Besides the production of pharmacologically or biochemically active moieties, these technologies also have been used to produce food ingredients, vaccines, diagnostic testing reagents, and agricultural products (see Ferl ntation Medical diagnostic reagents Vaccine technology).  [c.235]

Rotors are made of titanium or aluminum and may be cylindrical or bowl-shaped (see Fig. 12). Larger bowls reach 100,000 G smaller units reach 250,000 G. The tubular rotors permit feed rates up to 60 L/h at 150,000 G or 120 L/h in a larger unit at 90,000 G. Such centrifuges may be used to separate relatively large quantities of vkal material from larger quantities of cellular and subceUular matter, as, for example, in the production of vaccines (see Vaccine technology).  [c.408]

Immunology is the basis of vaccine technology. Only through the better understanding of the function of the human immune system can better antigens as vaccine candidates be designed. Eor example, the discovery of the functions of T- and B-lymphocytes led to the development of capsular saccharide—protein conjugate vaccines. Discovery of the different Th 1 and Th 2 immune responses also generated great interest in designing a vaccine that can stimulate a specific immune response, which may be critical for some viral vaccines. CeU-mediated immunity (CMI) has also been demonstrated to be critical for a successful vaccine. Several vaccine candidates, especiaUy for viral vaccines, have been based on this approach. The mucosal and secretory immune system has also been studied extensively. This area wiU lead to the better design of vaccines for oral deUvery or intranasal deUvery of vaccine, which may be more efficacious for diseases originating in the mucosal system.  [c.360]

To take advantage of the advance in immunology and adjuvants, future vaccines will be formulated to target a specific part of the immune system. The desire of combining several antigens to reduce the number of injections will require a detailed study of the vaccine formulation. Oral and intranasal deHvery may also become common practice. AH of these wiH need different technology for the preparation of the final vaccine dosage form and wiH present new challenges in vaccine technology.  [c.361]

Another important aspect of vaccine technology is the cost—benefit relationship between prevention vaccination and disease treatment. Generally the cost savings are high. For the early period of poHo immunization (1955—1961), the net savings as a result of immunization were calculated to be 327 X 10 . If loss of income were added the savings would amount to 1 biUion. Measles vaccination was estimated to have saved 100 x 10 in medical and lost work costs from 1963—1967 (145). Studies of the cost effectiveness of immunization of children against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis disease have yielded a benefit-to-cost ratio of 6.2 1 for direct costs and 20.1 1 when indirect costs are included (146,147). Projected savings from a rotavims immunization program (vaccine not yet Hcensed) have also been calculated. A partially protective vaccine would yield an average savings of 78 x 10 per year in the United States in health care costs, and 466 x 10 when overall costs to society were considered (67). Direct and indirect savings for commonly used childhood vaccines as studied by the GDC are given in Table 3.  [c.362]

Because T-lymphocytes are capable of recognizing and destroying pathologically altered self-tissues, it may be possible to utilize T-lymphocytes for treatment of malignancy (2) or chronic and debiUtating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, and neuromuscular diseases (5). Clinical studies for the use of T-ceU lines for vaccination and treatment of autoimmune diseases, contemplated since the early 1980s, were initiated in 1990 at the Brigham and Women s Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) (see Vaccine technology).  [c.32]

Vaccine Technology" in ECT3rd ed., VoL 23, pp. 628—643, V. A. Jegede and co-workers, Ledede Laboratories, American Cynamid Co.  [c.362]

Human and veterinary practitioners have been manipulating the immune system for many years with bacterins and vims vaccines, in order to induce a response in the immune system. The animal forms antibodies which destroy the antigen. When the same or similar antigen is encountered again, as during exposure to the disease organism, the immune system is activated more quickly through an anamnestic response, thereby preventing the disease. Vaccines and bacterins are widely used in veterinary medicine for most domestic and exotic species (8) (see Immunotherapeutic agents Vaccine technology).  [c.406]

See pages that mention the term VACCINE TECHNOLOGY : [c.60]    [c.79]    [c.178]    [c.206]    [c.208]    [c.228]    [c.366]    [c.393]    [c.439]    [c.480]    [c.512]    [c.599]    [c.603]    [c.651]    [c.661]    [c.661]    [c.704]    [c.725]    [c.734]    [c.740]    [c.773]    [c.774]    [c.806]    [c.894]    [c.1005]    [c.1005]    [c.1033]    [c.1036]    [c.1044]    [c.303]    [c.356]    [c.356]    [c.357]    [c.358]    [c.359]    [c.360]    [c.361]    [c.362]    [c.363]    [c.364]   
See chapters in:

Encyclopedia of chemical technology volume 24  -> VACCINE TECHNOLOGY