Also described in this section are the labeled common storage bloc)cs associated with the thermodynamic subroutines.  [c.289]

Also see common-block storage descriptions.)  [c.309]

Common Block (Decimal Words) System Type Key N=2 N=3 N=4 N=6  [c.353]

Bulk catalytic materials, in which the gross composition does not  [c.47]

Catalytic gas-phase reactions play an important role in many bulk chemical processes, such as in the production of methanol, ammonia, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid. In most processes, the effective area of the catalyst is critically important. Since these reactions take place at surfaces through processes of adsorption and desorption, any alteration of surface area naturally causes a change in the rate of reaction. Industrial catalysts are usually supported on porous materials, since this results in a much larger active area per unit of reactor volume.  [c.47]

In the first class, azeotropic distillation, the extraneous mass-separating agent is relatively volatile and is known as an entrainer. This entrainer forms either a low-boiling binary azeotrope with one of the keys or, more often, a ternary azeotrope containing both keys. The latter kind of operation is feasible only if condensation of the overhead vapor results in two liquid phases, one of which contains the bulk of one of the key components and the other contains the bulk of the entrainer. A t3q)ical scheme is shown in Fig. 3.10. The mixture (A -I- B) is fed to the column, and relatively pure A is taken from the column bottoms. A ternary azeotrope distilled overhead is condensed and separated into two liquid layers in the decanter. One layer contains a mixture of A -I- entrainer which is returned as reflux. The other layer contains relatively pure B. If the B layer contains a significant amount of entrainer, then this layer may need to be fed to an additional column to separate and recycle the entrainer and produce pure B.  [c.81]

Many processes are based on an oxidation step for which air would be the first obvious source of oxygen. A partial list would include acetic acid, acetylene, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, carbon black, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, nitric acid, phenol, phthalic anhydride, sulfuric acid, titanium dioxide, vinyl acetate, and vinyl chloride. Clearly, because the nitrogen in the air is not required by the reaction, it must be separated at some point. Because gaseous separations are difiicult, the nitrogen is normally separated using a purge, or alternatively, the reactor is forced to as high a conversion as possible to avoid recycling. If a purge is used, the nitrogen will carry with it process materials, both feeds and products, and will probably require treatment before final discharge. If the air for the oxidation is substituted by pure oxygen, then, at worst, the purge will be very much smaller. At best, it can be eliminated altogether. Of course, this requires an air separation plant upstream of the process to provide the pure oxygen. However, despite this disadvantage, very significant benefits can be obtained, as the following example shows.  [c.283]

It should be emphasized that capital cost estimates using installation factors are at best crude and at worst highly misleading. When preparing such an estimate, the designer spends most of the time on the equipment costs, which represent typically 20 to 40 percent of the total installed cost. The bulk costs (civil engineering, labor, etc.) are factored costs which lack definition. At best, this type of estimate can be expected to be accurate to 30 percent.  [c.417]

Cd(OH) j. The hydroxide is precipitated from aqueous solution by OH", it does not dissolve in excess OH". Ignition of Cd(OH)2 or CdCO, gives CdO which varies in colour from red-brown to black because of lattice defects.  [c.74]

Guffey and Wehe (1972) used excess Gibbs energy equations proposed by Renon (1968a, 1968b) and Blac)c (1959) to calculate multicomponent LLE. They concluded that prediction of ternary data from binary data is not reliable, but that quarternary LLE can be predicted from accurate ternary representations. Here, we carry these results a step further we outline a systematic procedure for determining binary parameters which are suitable for multicomponent LLE.  [c.73]

Blauc s rule Ail dicarboxyiic acids, with the exception of oxalic and malonic acids, up to  [c.61]

Chlorine dioxide, ClOj. M.p. —6°C, b.p. 10°C, paramagnetic yellow, explosive gas (NaClOa plus H2SO4). Strong oxidizing agent, gives HCIO2 and HCIO3 with water. Used as a bleach for wood-pulp.  [c.93]

Chromium dioxide. Cr02 (HjO plus O2 on Cr03 at high temperature). Black solid with the rutile structure forming chromates(IV) in solid stale reactions. Used in magnetic lap>es.  [c.99]

Copper(II) oxide, CuO. Black solid formed by heating Cu(OH)2, Cu(N03)2, etc. Dissolves in acid to Cu(II) salts, decomposes to CU2O at 800 C. Forms cuprates in solid state reactions. A cuprate(III), KCUO2, is also known.  [c.112]

Copper Il) sulphide, CuS. Black solid, Cu plus excess S or copper(II) salt plus H2S. Decomposes to copper(l) sulphide, CU2S, on heating.  [c.112]

See pages that mention the term BULK : [c.79]    [c.47]    [c.9]    [c.12]    [c.14]    [c.15]    [c.16]    [c.38]    [c.39]    [c.43]    [c.52]    [c.52]    [c.58]    [c.61]    [c.61]    [c.61]    [c.61]    [c.61]    [c.61]    [c.63]    [c.66]    [c.69]    [c.73]    [c.80]    [c.81]    [c.95]    [c.98]    [c.104]    [c.111]    [c.112]    [c.117]    [c.118]    [c.133]    [c.145]    [c.148]    [c.150]   
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Encyclopedia of chemical technology volume 15  -> BULK