Extreme crack shapes in a shallow shell

The choice of fuel for a cogeneration system is determined by the primary heat-engine cycle. Closed-cycle power systems which are extern ly fired—the steam turbine, the indirectly fired open-cycle gas turbine, and closed-cycle gas turbine systems—can use virtually any fuel that can be burned in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner coal, municipal sohd waste, biomass, and industrial wastes are burnable with closed power systems. Internal combustion engines, on the other hand, including open-cycle gas turbines, are restricted to fuels that have combustion charac teristics compatible with the engine type and that yield combustion products clean enough to pass through the engine without damaging it. In addition to natural gas, butane, and the conventional petroleum-derived liquid fuels, refined liquid and gaseous fuels derived from shale, coal, or biomass are in this categoiy. Direct-coal-fired internal combustion engines have been an experimental reality for decades but are not yet a practical reahty technologically or economically.  [c.2405]

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Analysis of cracks in solids  -> Extreme crack shapes in a shallow shell